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1.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3124-3133, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860235

RESUMO

In a commercial oyster mushroom farm, from 300 g of the total harvest, only the cap and stem of the fruiting body parts are harvested (200 g) while the unused lower section called fruiting-body-base (FBB) is discarded (50 g). A new antioxidative FBB flour (FBBF) conversion to mixed-ratio chicken patty was recently developed which converts 16.67% of FBB into an edible flour. At the initial stage, pretreatments of FBBF were optimized at particle size (106 µm) and citric acid concentration (0.5 g/100 mL) to improve flour antioxidant responses. Such pretreatments boosted total phenolic content (2.31 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g) and DPPH (51.53 ± 1.51%) of pretreated FBBF. Mixed-ratio chicken patty containing FBBF (10%, 20%, 30%) significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the patties. However, only the hardness and chewiness increased proportionally with the increase FBBF in concentration. Notably, 60 panellists considered that 10% FBBF-chicken patty sensory attributes, including lightness, redness, and yellowness, is acceptable to consumers. This information could be used to market any type of commercial mushroom farm waste as alternative food products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that unused harvested mushroom waste from a local farm can be used to make an antioxidative chicken patty that is acceptable to consumer panellists. The converted mushroom waste into flour suggests that smaller particles and citric acid pretreatment can increase its nutritional value. This information can be used for waste conversion into new product development from any type of mushroom farm.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carpóforos/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pleurotus/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 331: 127287, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563801

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus is a traditional edible mushroom. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and other mammals. To develop a Se biofortification strategy for H. erinaceus, the effects of selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine (SeMet) on Se uptake and mushroom growth were investigated. Selenium bioaccessibility and the major Se species present in Se-enriched H. erinaceus were tested in vitro . The H. erinaceus growth was efficiently affected by SeMet than by selenite and selenate. Selenium concentrations in fruiting bodies increased with substrate Se concentration and disturbed accumulation of other microelements. Substrate Se was absorbed and transformed into organic forms. The major Se species in Se-enriched fruiting bodies was SeMet (>63.9%). During in vitro gastrointestinal digestion tests, 51% of total Se was released, and selenocystine (SeCys2 ) (90%) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) (76%) were more easily digested than SeMet (51%). H. erinaceus is suggested as a novel dietary source of supplemental bioavailable Se.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Biofortificação/métodos , Selênio/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cistina/análogos & derivados , Cistina/farmacocinética , Digestão , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacocinética , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Ácido Selenioso/farmacologia , Selênio/análise , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Selenocisteína/farmacocinética , Selenometionina/farmacologia
3.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(2): 115-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479000

RESUMO

The edible medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes (enokitake) has many applications as food and medicine, but its application in dentistry is unknown. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect of fruiting body extracts from F. velutipes on the growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of human caries, in vitro. Of the four extracts (named TG01 from water, TG02 from 95% ethanol, TG03 from 50% ethanol, and TG04 from ethyl acetate), TG03 had significant antibacterial activity (MIC = 10 mg/mL; MBC = 20 mg/mL). Planktonic growth and biofilm formation in S. mutans was repressed by TG03 at 5 mg/mL and above. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity analysis showed that TG03 was not toxic to human oral keratinocyte cells. HPLC-QQQ-MS analysis showed that the TG03 extract contained a large amount of arabitol, a sucrose substitute that reduces the development of caries. Thus, F. velutipes extracts can effectively inhibit the growth of the oral pathogen S. mutans without cytotoxicity against human oral keratinocytes. Therefore, F. velutipes is a good candidate for the development of oral hygiene agents to control dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Flammulina/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcoois Açúcares/farmacologia , Agaricales , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Álcoois Açúcares/isolamento & purificação
4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(2): 125-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479001

RESUMO

The chemical analysis of the methanol extract of Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr.) Fiasson & Niemela afforded the isolation of five compounds (1-5). The first two are phenolic derivatives: methyl (E)-3-(4-methoxycar-bonylphenoxy)-acrylate (1) is a new natural product, while methyl 3-(4-methoxycarbonylphenoxy)-propionate (2) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The triterpene steroids ergone (3), 3ß-hydroxyergosta-7,22-diene (4), and ergosterol (5) have not been previously identified in this species. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The isolated fungal metabolites 1-5 were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 proved to possess considerable antioxidant effect in the ORAC assay with 2.21 ± 0.34, 1.58 ± 0.18, and 5.02 ± 0.47 mmol TE/g, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Basidiomycota/química , Carpóforos/química , Fenóis/química , Esteroides/química , Triterpenos/química , Agaricales , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Colestenonas/química , Colestenonas/isolamento & purificação , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(2): 133-144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479002

RESUMO

Total phenolics, flavonoids, and polysaccharides, and individual ganoderic acid (GA) contents, antioxidant capacity, and transcription levels of key enzyme genes involved in GA biosynthesis in pileus and stipes of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body at different growth stages were investigated in this study. Results showed that the highest total phenolics and total flavonoids contents were determined in stipes at spore maturity stage, resulting in high antioxidant activity, while the highest total polysaccharide content was found in pileus at the same stage. The pileus contained more GA than the stipes, and higher contents of ganoderic acid A and D were found at fruiting body mature stage while that of ganoderic acid B, C2, and G were found at bud elongation stage. Results from quantitative real-time PCR indicated that higher gene transcription levels of hydroxyl methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (hmgr), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (fps), squalene synthase (sqs), and oxidosqualene cyclase (osc) were found in pileus at bud elongation stage. Our findings will be helpful for understanding the biosynthesis of bioactive components and determining the harvest time for the desired G. lucidum fruiting bodies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carpóforos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Carpóforos/enzimologia , Carpóforos/genética , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geraniltranstransferase/genética , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reishi/enzimologia , Reishi/genética , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triterpenos/análise
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(2): 145-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479003

RESUMO

One of the major causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is oxidative stress, which accelerates ß-amyloid peptide (AP) plaque and neurofibrillary tangle accumulation in the brain. Pleurotus eryngii is known to be rich in antioxidants, including ergothioneine, adenosine, and polyphenol, which can reduce oxidative stress-related aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the proximate and functional composition of P. eryngii, and evaluate the cognitive effects of low (LPE), medium (MPE), and high (HPE) P. eryngii dosages in an Aß-induced Alzheimer's disease C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice fed P. eryngii for six weeks showed no adverse effects on body weight gain, food intake efficiency, serum biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney histopathological features. The relative brain weight was significantly lower in Aß-injected mice (p < 0.05). Further, P. eryngii was shown to delay brain atrophy. Reference memory behavioral tasks showed that LPE, MPE, and HPE significantly decreased escape latency (49-85%) and distance (53-69%, p < 0.05). Probe and T-maze tasks showed that P. eryngii potently ameliorated memory deficit in mice. An AD pathology index analysis showed that P. eryngii significantly decreased levels of brain phosphorylated τ-protein, Aß plaque deposition, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (p < 0.05). P. eryngii may therefore promote memory and learning capacity in an Aß-induced AD mouse model.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Pleurotus/química , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/efeitos adversos , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/patologia , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós/química , Pós/farmacologia
7.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(5): 436-442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378541

RESUMO

Six new sesquiterpenes, tsukiyols A-C, neoilludin C, and 4-O-methylneoilludins A and B, were isolated from the fruiting body of Omphalotus japonicus (Kawam.) Kirchm. & O. K. Mill. Additionally, six known compounds, illudin S, neoilludins A-B, 5-hydroxydichomitol, ergosterolperoxide, and 3ß,5α,9α-trihydroxyergosta-7,22-diene-6-one, were also obtained. Their chemical structures were determined with MS, IR, and NMR spectra and the absolute configurations of neoilludins A-C, 4-O-methylneoilludins A, and B were determined with electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Illudin S and 3ß,5α,9α-trihydroxyergosta-7,22-diene-6-one showed cytotoxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. Illudin S, 4-O-methylneoilludin A, B, and tsukiyol C showed growth-restoring activity against mutant yeast via Ca2+-signal transduction.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Mutação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6434, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296130

RESUMO

Fungi play a key role in the functioning of soil in terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular in the remediation of degraded soils. The contribution of fungi to carbon and nutrient cycles, along with their capability to mobilise soil trace elements, is well-known. However, the importance of life history strategy for these functions has not yet been thoroughly studied. This study explored the soil-fungi relationship of two wild edible fungi, the ectomycorrhizal Laccaria laccata and the saprotroph Volvopluteus gloiocephalus. Fruiting bodies and surrounding soils in a mine-spill contaminated area were analysed. Isotope analyses revealed Laccaria laccata fruiting bodies were 15N-enriched when compared to Volvopluteus gloiocephalus, likely due to the transfer of 15N-depleted compounds to their host plant. Moreover, Laccaria laccata fruiting bodies δ13C values were closer to host plant values than surrounding soil, while Volvopluteus gloiocephalus matched the δ13C composition to that of the soil. Fungal species presented high bioaccumulation and concentrations of Cd and Cu in their fruiting bodies. Human consumption of these fruiting bodies may represent a toxicological risk due to their elevated Cd concentrations.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mineração , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/prevenção & controle , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
9.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(3): 324-333, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192356

RESUMO

Evaluated has been radioactive contamination with 137Cs in parallel to occurrence of 40K and total K in 31 species of medicinal mushrooms from Yunnan, China. We chose species that were not previously studied. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in the medicinal fungi in this study were low. The maximum values were 54 ± 4 Bq kg-1 dry biomass (db) in caps and 48 ± 5 Bq kg-1 db in stipes of saprotrophic fungus Gerronema xanthophyllum from the family of Tricholomataceae. Mushrooms with relatively higher activity concentrations of 40K were among the non-polypore species but certain species from the genus Ganoderma such as G. applanatum, G. capense, G. philippii and G. sinense showed 40K in the higher range of 900 ± 240 to 1400 ± 340 Bq kg-1 db. The concentrations of total K in the fungal materials in this study were in the range from 2.9 ± 6.5 g kg-1 db in Fomes rufolaccatus to 110 ± 6 g kg-1 db in G. xanthophyllum. The species studied, which represented both some popular wood-decaying polypore fungi but also terrestrial forms from the herbal medicine of China, can be considered as little contaminated with 137Cs and potentially good source of leachable K in extract and decoction or as a powdered form in capsules.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Carpóforos/química , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Radioatividade
10.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079328

RESUMO

Pleurotus eryngii (DC:Fr.) Quel. is a cultivated mushroom of high culinary value and medicinal properties. Mycelium of P. eryngii is characterized by the ability of effective bio-elements absorption from growth media so it could be biofortified with trace elements with a functional activity in the human body. In this study, the ability of P. eryngii mycelia from in vitro cultures as well as fruiting bodies were investigated in terms of their effectiveness in zinc and selenium accumulation. The effect of Se and Zn biofortification on productivity, chemical compounds, and bio-elements content of P. eryngii was determined as well. To enhance Se and Zn content in P. eryngii fruiting bodies and mycelia, substrates were supplemented with sodium selenite, at a concentration of 50 mg L-1, zinc sulfate, and zinc hydro-aspartate at a concentration of 87.2 and 100.0 mg L-1, respectively. Mentioned Zn concentrations contained the same amount of zinc(II) ions, namely 20 mg L-1. The content of organic compounds include phenolic compounds and lovastatin, which were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection. The ability of P. eryngii to accumulate zinc and selenium from the culture medium was demonstrated. The degree of accumulation of zinc turned out to be different depending on the type of salt used. The present study also showed that conducting mycelium of P. eryngii in in vitro culture, with a higher content of zinc ions, can result in obtaining the materials with better antioxidant ability. The results of this study can be used to develop the composition of growing media, which ensures the production of biomass with the desired composition of elements.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Pleurotus/química , Selênio/análise , Zinco/análise , Biomassa , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
Protein Expr Purif ; 170: 105592, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032770

RESUMO

Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase synthase gene (AACT) cDNA, DNA and promoter were cloned from Sanghuangporus baumii. The gene ORF (1260 bp) encoded 419 amino acids. The AACT DNA includes five exons (1-84 bp, 140-513 bp, 570-1027 bp, 1090-1282 bp, 1344-1494 bp) and four introns (85-139 bp, 514-569 bp, 1028-1089 bp, 1283-1343 bp). The molecular weight of AACT protein is 43.40 kDa, it is hydrophilic with a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.96. Furthermore, The region of the transcription start site is 1997-2047 bp of AACT promoter, and it contained promoter elements (TATA Boxs, CAAT Boxs, CAAT-box, ABRE, G-Boxs, Sp1, MSA-like, LTR). AACT recombinant protein (43.40 KDa + Tag protein 22.68 KDa) was subjected in SDS-PAGE. AACT the transcription levels of in different development stages were investigated. The expression of AACT in primordia (2.4-fold) and 15 d mycelia (2.3- fold) were significantly higher than 9 d mycelia (contral). The expression level of the AACT downstream genes and triterpenoids content were determined at different developmental stages. Triterpenoid content reached its peak on day 15(7.21 mg/g).


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/química , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/química , Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Carpóforos/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Micélio/enzimologia , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/genética , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/química , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Éxons , Carpóforos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Íntrons , Ponto Isoelétrico , Modelos Moleculares , Peso Molecular , Micélio/química , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 148: 722-736, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972201

RESUMO

The natural form of wild edible fungus is the fruiting body. The cultivation of fruiting bodies from sexual reproduction requires strict conditions and long periods. Some literatures have paid attentions on the mycelia prepared with liquid fermentation to alter fruiting bodies. Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is a kind of precious edible fungus. The polysaccharide is an important active ingredient in C. militaris. The manuscript aimed to evaluate the feasibility of alternative of mycelia to fruit bodies with studies of polysaccharides from C. militaris of different developmental stages. The two polysaccharides were separated. The chemical structure and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase of polysaccharides were explored. The results indicated that the structure and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase of polysaccharides with different developmental stages had significant differences. The polysaccharides from fruiting bodies had better inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase. It demonstrated that the mycelia of C. militaris from asexual reproduction with liquid fermentation can't be an effective substitute for fruiting bodies from sexual reproduction, from the perspective of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Polissacarídeos/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Carpóforos/química , Micélio/química , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Viscosidade
13.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2723-2732, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897873

RESUMO

Uptake, distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were determined in the bracket fungus Fomitopsis betulina (previously Piptoporus betulinus), commonly known as the birch polypore, collected from a woodland adjacent to a highly contaminated former mine in the Southwest UK and at an uncontaminated site in Quebec, Canada, with no past or present mining activity. The fruiting body was divided into cap, centre and pores representing the top, middle and underside to identify trends in the distribution and transformation of As. Total As, determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), was approximately tenfold higher in the mushroom from the contaminated compared to the uncontaminated site. Overall, accumulation of As was low relative to values reported for some soil-dwelling species, with maximum levels of 1.6 mg/kg at the contaminated site. Arsenic speciation was performed on aqueous extracts via both anion and cation high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS) and on whole dried samples using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. Seven As species were detected in F. betulina from the contaminated site by HPLC-ICP-MS: arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), dimethylarsinate (DMAV), methylarsonate (MAV), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium ion (Tetra) and trace levels of arsenobetaine (AB). The same As species were observed at the uncontaminated site with the exception of TMAO and Tetra. Arsenic species were localized throughout the fruiting body at the contaminated site, with the cap and pores containing a majority of AsV, only the cap containing TMAO, and the pores containing higher concentrations of DMAV and MAV as well as tetra and a trace of AB. XANES analysis demonstrated that the predominant form of As at the contaminated site was inorganic AsIII coordinated with sulphur or oxygen and AsV coordinated with oxygen. This is the first account of arsenic speciation in F. betulina or any fungi of the family Fomitopsidaceae.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Coriolaceae/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Arseniatos/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Ácido Cacodílico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Carpóforos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mineração , Quebeque , Reino Unido
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 79-88, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A neutral polysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting body of a mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP-A). The tumor suppressive activity of GFP-A on protein expressions of PI3K/AKT, MAPKs, nuclear factor κB and caspase pathways in HT-29 cells were investigated. METHODS: The inhibitory effect and mechanism of GFP-A on the HT-29 cells were investigated. The cell viability was examined by MTT. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and flow cytometry were conducted to examine the apoptosis of cells. The protein expressions of PI3K/AKT, MAPKs, nuclear factor κB and caspase pathways were analyzed using western blot. RESULTS: The results of MTT assay showed that GFP-A of 180 µg/mL could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 cells. Western blotting results showed that GFP-A decreased the protein expression of PI3K and AKT, enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) into the nucleus. In the meanwhile, GFP-A could up-regulate the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, increase the release of cytochrome C to cytoplasm, ultimately lead to the activation of caspase-9. CONCLUSIONS: The above results confirmed that GFP-A promoted the apoptosis of HT-29 cells through PI3K/AKT-MAPKs-NF-κB and caspase signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpóforos/química , Grifola/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
15.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112225, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855780

RESUMO

Sixteen previously undescribed lanostane-type triterpenoids (1-16), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from cultivated fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Ganoderma casuarinicola, a recently described species. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. Two of these compounds, 9 and 10, showed antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 9.7 and 9.2 µg/ml, respectively.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Lanosterol/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Lanosterol/química , Lanosterol/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Células Vero , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 424-434, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828269

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, fatty liver and obesity. Our previous study found that mushroom polysaccharides improved insulin resistance in vitro, but the underlying mechanisms were still unknown. Thus, we investigate the hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides from Gomphidiaceae rutilus fruiting bodies and their mechanisms. The total polysaccharides (AGRP) from Gomphidiaceae rutilus fruiting bodies and the neutral polysaccharide (AGRP-N) fraction both enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in an autophagy-dependent manner in high glucose and fatty acid-treated hepatic cells, but not the acidic polysaccharide (AGRP-A) fraction. Further, we elucidate the oral hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides on ob/ob mice. AGRP and AGRP-N lower blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity. They inhibit liver lipid deposition, not only by activating AMPK to increase autophagy but also by increasing the expressions of PPARα and CPT-1a to enhance lipolysis. Our results provide a basis for the development of polysaccharides from Gomphidiaceae rutilus as a hypoglycemic healthy food.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Animais , Glicemia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Lipólise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(16): 2269-2275, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518262

RESUMO

(+)- and (-)-gancochlearols A (1) and B (2), two pairs of dimeric mertoterpenoid enantiomers were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Biological assessments show that the enantiomers of 1 and 2 are cytotoxic against three human cancer cell lines (A549, K562, Huh-7) and could inhibit COX-2 expression with IC50 values less than 10 µM.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Ganoderma/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacocinética , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(8): 1152-1157, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698021

RESUMO

Four new compounds, compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, along with two known compounds 3, 5, were isolated from the methanol extract of the fruiting body of Neoboletus magnificus. The structures of compounds were elucidated by HRMS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Carpóforos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(2): e8573, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484223

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lys-N, also known as lysine-specific metalloendopeptidase, functions as the "sister" enzyme of lysyl endopeptidase (Lys-C) in proteomic research. Its digestion specificity at the N-terminal lysine residue makes it a very useful tool in proteomics analysis, especially in mass spectrometry (MS)-based de novo sequencing of proteins. METHODS: Here we present a complete production process of highly purified Lys-N from dry fruit of Grifola frondosa (maitake mushroom). The purification process includes one step of microfiltration plus one step of UF/DF (ultrafiltration used in tandem with a diafiltration method) recovery and four steps of chromatographic purification. RESULTS: The overall yield of the process was approximately 6.7 mg Lys-N protein/kg dry fruit of G. frondosa. The assay data demonstrated that the purified Lys-N exhibited high enzymatic activity and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The novel production process provides for the first time the extraction of Lys-N from dry fruit of G. frondosa. The process is also stable and scalable, and provides an economic way of producing the enzyme in large quantities for MS-based proteomics and other biological studies.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Grifola/enzimologia , Metaloendopeptidases/química , Metaloendopeptidases/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Digestão , Carpóforos/química , Grifola/química , Proteômica , Serina Endopeptidases/isolamento & purificação
20.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698810

RESUMO

Five new meroterpenoids, clavipols A-B (1-2) with a 12-membered ether ring and clavilactones G-I (3-5) having a 10-membered carbocycle connected to a hydroquinone and an α,ß-epoxy/unsaturated lactone, were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Clitocybe clavipes. Their structures were determined by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by quantum chemical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All the isolated compounds (1-5) were tested for their cytotoxic activity against three human tumor cell lines (Hela, SGC-7901, and SHG-44) in vitro after treatment for 48 h. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against Hela and SGC-7901 tumor cell lines, with IC50 values of 23.5 and 14.5 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Carpóforos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Terpenos/química
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