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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109675, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536913

RESUMO

Due to the two-dimensional effect of selenium (Se) to health, which form of Se is most effective for increasing the bioaccessible Se content in P. ostreatus and whether these products have potential health risks are worth considering. Three Se supplements were applied at different application rates into substrates for cultivating P. ostreatus. The total content and speciation of Se in P. ostreatus fruit bodies were analyzed, and the bioaccessibility of Se was determined via an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Results showed that P. ostreatus had the highest utilization efficiency with selenite, followed by Se yeast and selenate. Organic Se (46%-90%) was the major Se speciation in P. ostreatus regardless applied Se species. Although the Se bioaccessibility of the gastrointestinal digestion of P. ostreatus was high (70%-92%), the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient values are all within the safe ranges. Se-enriched P. ostreatus can be safely used as a dietary source of Se for increasing Se intake.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Pleurotus/química , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Bioacumulação , Digestão , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Humanos , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109623, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518823

RESUMO

This study provides information on mercury (Hg) localization, speciation and ligand environment in edible mushrooms: Boletus edulis, B. aereus and Scutiger pes-caprae collected at non-polluted and Hg polluted sites, by LA-ICP-MS, SR-µ-XRF and Hg L3-edge XANES and EXAFS. Mushrooms (especially young ones) collected at Hg polluted sites can contain more than 100 µg Hg g-1 of dry mass. Imaging of the element distribution shows that Hg accumulates mainly in the spore-forming part (hymenium) of the cap. Removal of hymenium before consumption can eliminate more than 50% of accumulated Hg. Mercury is mainly coordinated to di-thiols (43-82%), followed by di-selenols (13-35%) and tetra-thiols (12-20%). Mercury bioavailability, as determined by feeding the mushrooms to Spanish slugs (known metal bioindicators owing to accumulation of metals in their digestive gland), ranged from 4% (S. pes-caprae) to 30% (B. aereus), and decreased with increasing selenium (Se) levels in the mushrooms. Elevated Hg levels in mushrooms fed to the slugs induced toxic effects, but these effects were counteracted with increasing Se concentrations in the mushrooms, pointing to a protective role of Se against Hg toxicity through HgSe complexation. Nevertheless, consumption of the studied mushroom species from Hg polluted sites should be avoided.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
3.
Phytochemistry ; 168: 112109, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494344

RESUMO

Eight undescribed ergostane-type steroids, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α-diol- 6,5-olide, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5ß,6ß-triol, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxy ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5α,14ß-triol, (22E,24R)-9α,15α-dihydroxyergosta-4,6,8 (14),22-tetraen-3-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22- dien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, and (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß, 5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, and twenty-one known analogues were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma resinaceum Boud. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystal diffraction, as well as empirical pyridine-induced deshielding effects. Furthermore, selected compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation using an inhibition of nitric oxide production assay. Finally, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22- trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-tri hydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, (22E,24R)-ergosta-6,9,22-trien-3ß,5α,8α-triol,ergost-6,22-dien-3ß,5α,8α-triol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8,22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)- ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß, 7ß-diol, and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α,6α-epoxyergosta-8(14),22-dien-3ß-ol showed inhibitory effects on NO production with IC50 values ranging from 3.24 ±â€¯0.02 to 35.19 ±â€¯0.41 µM compared with L-NMMA (IC50 49.86 ±â€¯2.13 µM), indicating that they have potential anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Esteroides/química
4.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104342, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479703

RESUMO

Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link (C. militaris) has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases in China and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests that aqueous extracts of C. militaris have hypoglycemic activity. So the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize compounds with aiti-PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) activity from C. militaris. As a result, cordycerebroside B (1) together with other three known cerebrosides (2-4) and a disaccharide (5) were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy (MS) and chemical method. Among of which, cordycerebroside B was a new compound and isolated from C. militaris for the first time. The results of the activity assays demonstrated that all these four cerebrosides (compounds 1-4) showed marked inhibition activity against PTP1B with IC50 values of 4.68 ±â€¯0.18, 16.93 ±â€¯1.08, 10.43 ±â€¯0.64 and 18.92 ±â€¯1.65 µM. All the compounds had no discernible cytotoxicity for Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells). These findings suggested that C. militaris or its cerebrosides may be considered as potential useful therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Cerebrosídeos/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Cerebrosídeos/isolamento & purificação , China , Carpóforos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Células PC12 , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8476-8484, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298527

RESUMO

Cicada flowers, which are edible and medicinal mushrooms, are the fruiting bodies of Isaria cicadae, a fungus that is parasitic on the larvae of cicada pupae. We hypothesize that host factors might possess stimulatory activity on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae. Here, we first compared the microbial community structures of different wild cicada flowers across geographical regions, compartments, and growth stages via high-throughput sequencing. Isaria cicadae TZC-3, an isolate of the most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU6782) in all the fungal communities, was isolated from wild cicada flowers. Furthermore, the effects of cicada pupae on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae TZC-3 were studied in submerged culture. The contents of intercellular polysaccharides, adenosine, N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, free amino acids, and hydrolyzed monosaccharides in the mycelia cultured with cicada pupa powder (4%) were significantly increased as compared with the contents in the control group. This indicates that a cicada pupa can act as an elicitor for metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Pupa/microbiologia , Adenosina/análise , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Cordyceps/química , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Hemípteros/química , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiota , Micélio/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Pupa/química , Pupa/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1836-1841, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342710

RESUMO

The chemical constituents from the fruiting bodies of Tremella sanguinea were separated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and RP-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of T. sanguinea,which were identified as( 22 E)-5α,8α-epidioxy-24-methyl-cholesta-6,9( 11),22-trien-3ß-ol( 1),( 22 E)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3ß-ol( 2),cerevisterol( 3),ergosta-7-ene-3ß,5α,6ß-triol( 4),( 22 E)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3ß,5α-diol( 5),ergosta-7-en-3ß-ol( 6),4-hydroxy-methylincisterol( 7),2-pyrrolidone( 8),nicotinamide( 9),1-( 3-indolyl)-3-dihydroxypropan-1-one( 10),yangambin( 11),linoleic acid( 12),( 9 Z,12 Z,15 Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-trienoate( 13),( 9 Z,12 Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl-octadeca-dienoate( 14),crypticin B( 15)and 3-phenyllactic acid( 16). All compounds were isolated from T. sanguinea for the first time. Except for compounds 6,9 and 12,the remained compounds were isolated from the genus Tremella for the first time.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Carpóforos/química , Estrutura Molecular
7.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1212-1220, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336431

RESUMO

The study of metabolomics in natural products using the diverse analytical instruments including GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR is useful for the exploration of physiological and biological effects and the investigation of drug discovery and health functional foods. Cordyceps militaris has been very attractive to natural medicine as a traditional Chinese medicine, due to its various bioactive properties including anti-cancer and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we analyzed the metabolite profile in 50% ethanol extracts of C. militaris fruit bodies from three development periods (growth period, matured period, and aging period) using 1H-NMR, and identified 44 metabolites, which are classified as 16 amino acids, 10 organic acids, 5 carbohydrates, 3 nucleotide derivatives, and 10 other compounds. Among the three development periods of the C. militaris fruit body, the aging period showed significantly higher levels of metabolites including cordycepin, mannitol (cordycepic acid), and ß-glucan. Interestingly, these bioactive metabolites are positively correlated with antitumor growth effect; the extract of the aging period showed significant inhibition of HepG2 hepatic cancer cell proliferation. These results showed that the aging period during the development of C. militaris fruit bodies was more highly enriched with bioactive metabolites that are associated with cancer cell growth inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Cordyceps/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiadenosinas/análise , Descoberta de Drogas , Carpóforos/química , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Manitol/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , beta-Glucanas/análise
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 114996, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320070

RESUMO

H6PC20, a water-soluble ß-D-glucan, with a molecular mass of 2390 kDa (HPSEC-MALLS-RI), was obtained by extracting the fresh fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus at mature stage with hot water, freeze-thawing, precipitating and further rinsing with 20% (v/v) of ethanol. The primary structure of H6PC20 was proposed as a ß-(1→3)-linked-D-glucan with a (1→6)-ß-linked-D- glucopyranosyl side-branching unit on every third residue by using methylation analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC. The ρ value (Rg/Rh) and the exponent (α) of [η] = k Mwα of H6PC20 were calculated as 1.86 and 0.54, respectively, indicating flexible random coil conformation of H6PC20 in aqueous solution. H6PC20 could induce the proliferation of lymphocytes and enhance the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß secreted by THP-1 macrophages. The present study indicated that the macromolecular ß-glucan H6PC20 possessed potent immune-enhancing bioactivities and could be a potential ingredient for healthy food or medicine development.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Sequência de Carboidratos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peso Molecular , Células THP-1 , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
9.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357717

RESUMO

Oyster mushrooms are an interesting source of biologically active glucans and other polysaccharides. This work is devoted to the isolation and structural characterization of polysaccharides from basidiocarps of the cultivated oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Five polysaccharidic fractions were obtained by subsequent extraction with cold water, hot water and two subsequent extractions with 1 m sodium hydroxide. Branched partially methoxylated mannogalactan and slightly branched (1→6)-ß-d-glucan predominated in cold- and hot-water-soluble fractions, respectively. Alternatively, these polysaccharides were obtained by only hot water extraction and subsequent two-stage chromatographic separation. The alkali-soluble parts originating from the first alkali extraction were then fractionated by dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The polysaccharide insoluble in DMSO was identified as linear (1→3)-α-d-glucan, while branched (1→3)(1→6)-ß-d-glucans were found to be soluble in DMSO. The second alkaline extract contained the mentioned branched ß-d-glucan together with some proteins. Finally, the alkali insoluble part was a cell wall complex of chitin and ß-d-glucans.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Pleurotus/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia , Glucanos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral
10.
Food Chem ; 295: 206-213, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174751

RESUMO

Auricularia auricular could be useful as a candidate for human selenium supplementation. This study examined the effects of exogenous Se on the growth, yield, nutritive value, and mineral accumulation of A. auricular. Selenate or selenite (0.5-40.0 µg g-1) had no effect on mycelium morphology or the yield of fruiting bodies. In some cases, they affected the accumulation of inter-elements and significantly decreased the concentrations of copper, iron, and chromium in the Se-enriched fruiting bodies compared to that with control treatments. The polysaccharide (116.5-131.6 µg g-1) and protein (105.2-113.4 µg g-1) content in Se-enriched fruiting bodies were not significantly different from those observed in the controls (polysaccharide, 114.1 µg g-1; protein, 105.6 µg g-1). Thus, A. auricular can absorb inorganic Se from the substrate and convert it to organic Se compounds (selenocystine (≥4.1%), selenomethionine (≥91.9%), and Se-methylselenocysteine (≥2.3%)).


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacocinética , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofortificação , Cromo/análise , Cromo/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Cistina/análogos & derivados , Cistina/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Ácido Selenioso/farmacologia , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Selenocisteína/metabolismo , Selenometionina/metabolismo
11.
Chemistry ; 25(44): 10333-10341, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187904

RESUMO

(5S,6S)-Aminotenuazonic acid, a new 3-acyltetramic acid, related to the well-known mycotoxin tenuazonic acid has been isolated from fruiting bodies of Laccaria bicolor. Its structure was mostly established by analysis of its 2D NMR and HR-(+)-ESI-MS spectra. A total synthesis starting from N-Boc-l-isoleucine gave (5S,6S)-aminotenuazonic acid in 8 % yield over nine steps (67 % de). The key steps of the total synthesis are a light-initiated Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag radical chain reaction and a Dieckmann cyclisation. The relative and absolute configurations of the natural product were determined by comparison of its NMR and CD spectra with those of the corresponding enantiopure synthetic compounds. Metabolic profiling of crude extracts of different mushrooms showed that aminotenuazonic acid is present in all four of the investigated Laccaria species. Aminotenuazonic acid shows phytotoxic activities against the root and shoot growth of Lepidium sativum, Pinus sylvestris and Arabidopsis thaliana comparable to those of tenuazonic acid.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Laccaria/química , Ácido Tenuazônico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Tenuazônico/isolamento & purificação , Arabidopsis , Catálise , Ciclização , Herbicidas/síntese química , Lepidium sativum , Oxirredução , Pinus sylvestris , Raízes de Plantas , Brotos de Planta , Ácido Tenuazônico/síntese química
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 751-760, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254577

RESUMO

Polysaccharides from fungi are good free radical scavengers. However, there are no enzymes digesting these polysaccharides in the human body, which limits the use of fungal polysaccharides. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the preparation methods of fungal polysaccharides to improve the utilization rate of fungal polysaccharides. In this paper, the acidic polysaccharide of Tremella fuciformis was extracted by boiling and precipitated by ethanol. The total sugar content obtained by freeze-drying after ion exchange chromatography purification was 93.6%. It is mainly composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, xylose and fucose. According to the peak area, the mass ratio of the substance is about 6.8:1:1.5:0.6, which indicates that TFP is a polysaccharide with mannose as its main chain and glucuronic acid, fucose and xylose as well as a small amount of glucose as the branch chain. Molecular weight is 1.86 × 106 Da. The existence of glucuronic acid endows polysaccharides with negative charge in aqueous solution and can be assembled into nanostructures with chitosan. By measuring the swelling property in aqueous, it shows the TFP separated from Tremella fuciformis fruits is suitable for drug controlled release.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Adsorção , Diterpenos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Metais Pesados/química , Peso Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Fenantrenos/química
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 8-19, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247233

RESUMO

A new polysaccharide (MIPW50-1) with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa was isolated from Morchella importuna fruiting bodies. Structural analysis indicated that MIPW50-1 was composed of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, glucose, and mannose with molar ratios of 1.00:14.95:1.53:10.51, and its structure was characterized as a repeating unit consisting of →2,3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →2)-α-D-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →4)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, α-D-Galp-(1→, α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→ and ß-D-Glcp-(1→. The immunoregulatory effect of MIPW50-1 was also evaluated. MIPW50-1 was capable of stimulating macrophage function, rising phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells as well as promoting secretion of NO, TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, the immunoblot and ELISA assays demonstrated that MIPW50-1 exerted immune-potentiating effect through the TLR4/JNK and Akt/NF-κB signalling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. This is the first polysaccharide containing N-acetylglucosamine isolated from Morchella mushrooms, and MIPW50-1 might be used as one of potential immunoenhancing components in functional foods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sequência de Carboidratos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 887-897, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132438

RESUMO

Radiation is known to be associated with pathology of various human diseases. This study has focused on the effect of radiation on glucose homeostasis with regard to metabolic function of liver and pancreas and the effect of polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Auricularia auricular (SNAAP) on glucose metabolism. The 60Co-γ-radiated mice displayed destroyed redox equilibrium, accompanied by increased blood glucose accumulation, decreased insulin and hepatic glycogen contents, impaired blood glucose tolerance ability, abnormal changes in activities of glucose metabolism-related enzymes and damaged hepatic and pancreatic function, while SNAAP can restore the disordered glucose metabolism to some extent. Increased phosphorylation of JNK and FoxO1, reduced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ß and increased expression of PEPCK, G6Pase and GYS2 in the liver as well as the decreased expression of PDX1, GLUT2 and IRS1 in the pancreas of radiated mice were recovered after treated with SNAAP, leading to an improved gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis. These findings clearly indicate that SNAAP has significant potency in radiation-induced glucose metabolism disorder through modulating the JNK pathway in the liver as well as the PDX1/GLUT2 in the pancreas.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos da radiação , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos da radiação , Jejum/sangue , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
15.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(3): 317-324, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037972

RESUMO

Amanita muscaria collected from a forested area in northern Poland in 2015 were analysed for activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K. Total K concentration values were calculated from 40K data. Mushrooms were grouped in six fruiting bodies size classes regarding to their developmental stage. The 137Cs activity concentrations declined in A. muscaria as the fruiting bodies maturated. The contents of 40K/K activity remained constant in caps at different developmental stage, while for stipes an increase was around twofold (40K from 925 ± 55 Bq kg-1 dry biomass in the baby individuals and 1600 ± 63-1700 ± 53 Bq kg-1 dry biomass in two oldest classes). A. muscaria is a weak accumulator of 137Cs, while a steep drop in activity concentrations of this nuclide in the fruiting bodies as they maturate has not been reported earlier for mushrooms. Clearly, a fate of 137Cs in A. muscaria is highly different from that of 40K/K that is an essential element to fungi. In parallel, an observed increase in the content of 40K/K in stipes of fruiting bodies with developmental state can be related to its 'hardening' and more fibrous nature with age and basic function to support the cap, but this has not been studied.


Assuntos
Amanita/química , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Carpóforos/química , Poluentes Radioativos/análise , Florestas , Polônia , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação
16.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(9): e4574, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062384

RESUMO

To develop an efficient method for large preparation of javanicin from Fusarium solani, a rapid and simple method by high-speed countercurrent chromatography was established based on average polarity (P' values) and partition coefficients (K values) of crude samples. A suitable solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography was selected from many possible biphasic solvent systems. HSCCC was successfully applied to separate and purify javanicin, the main bioactive component of solid cultures of the fungus F. solani isolated from the fruiting body of Trametes trogii, with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:3:2:1, v/v) as solvent system. A total amount of 40.6 mg of javanicin was obtained from 100 mg crude sample. The purity of javanicin was 92.2% with a recovery of 95.1%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatrography. The molecular structure was identified primarily by NMR and MS methods. The results indicated that high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be a powerful technology for separating naphthoquinones from the solid cultures of the fungus F. solani. It is also of significance that the separation of javanicin from natural source was carried out for the first time utilizing high-speed countercurrent chromatography.


Assuntos
Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Carpóforos/química , Fusarium/química , Quassinas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 131-138, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063786

RESUMO

Chitin-glucan complex (CGC), the main component of fungal cell wall, is reported to have wide applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of its physical and physiological activities. In this study, CGC was extracted from the fruiting body of Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim with the treatments of deproteination, demineralization and depigmentation to obtain a yield of 13.46%, and its properties were investigated. The results indicated that CGC from T. albuminosus contained glucan and chitin in a molar ratio of 46:54, with very low contents of proteins and inorganic salts. The chitin in CGC was in the α-form, with crystallinity index of 64.81% and degree of acetylation of 65.40%. The surface morphology of CGC was dense and firm with no nanofibers and nanopores as observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the peak degradation temperature was determined to be 314.88 °C. This study suggested that CGC from T. albuminosus was promising to be an alternative source of crustacean chitinous products in the industry of food, medicine, waste water treatment and so on in the future.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Carpóforos/química , Glucanos/química , Termitomyces/química , Análise Espectral
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 217: 135-143, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079669

RESUMO

The parameters to extract polysaccharide-enriched fractions (PEF) from mushrooms using MAE (microwave-assisted extraction) were adjusted following a full factorial 32 experimental design. The highest yield and total carbohydrate values, using Lentinula edodes as model mushroom, were obtained at 180 °C and 30 min. Several mushroom species were submitted to MAE and their PEF yields ranged between 12.1-44.2%. (1→3)-ß-Glucans determination using a conventional fluorimetric method changed depending on the standard utilized. NMR analyses of PEF indicated that the presence of other polysaccharides in the extracts or their specific folding, might impair the proper determination of (1→3) linkages by the fluorophore. Mushrooms from Cantharellales order contained (1→3)-ß-glucans but they were not detected with the fluorimetric method. Therefore, although the method (after adjustments) was sensitive enough to detect their presence in many mushroom extracts, it cannot be used for all species and it is also not recommended for quantitative determinations.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação , Benzenossulfonatos/química , Fluorometria/métodos , Carpóforos/química , Micro-Ondas , beta-Glucanas/química
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2): 491-498, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081757

RESUMO

Engleromyces sinensis, as rare macro-ascomycetes and traditional ethnomedicine in the southeast part of China, have been applied in anti-infection, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor for a long time. In this study, the antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate crude extract (EACE), acetone crude extract (ACE), 95% ethanol crude extract (ECE), methanol crude extract (MCE) and water crude extract (WCE) from E. sinensis fruiting body were investigated using conventional antioxidant assays in vitro for the first time. As results, it was noteworthy that WCE showed the greatest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals-scavenging activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 3.56 and 19.28mg/mL. MCE and EACE exhibited higher hydroxyl radicals-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating activity significantly, with EC50 values of 2.16 and 0.47mg/mL. The total phenolics and total polysaccharides content results revealed that WCE had the highest phenolics and polysaccharides contents with 1.19 mg GAEs/g extracts and 40.07 mg D-glucose/g extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the WCE, ECE, ACE, EACE was assessed in final and two of them, ACE and EACE showed a strong ability to inhibit the microbial growth. The research work demonstrated that E. sinensis fruiting body can present a promising source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Carpóforos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(3): 275-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002611

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that some mushrooms are highly efficient in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase, the increased activity of which can trigger the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Starting from the fact that free radicals at high concentrations could cause neurodegenerative disorders as well as great interest in new, natural antineurodegenerative drugs, the goal of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidative and neuroprotective potentials of various Pleurotus ostreatus and Laetiporus sulphureus extracts. L. sulphureus was a better antioxidative agent; it showed higher reducing power, was a more efficient scavenger of DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals, and was an Fe3+ reducer. The most efficient acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was hot water extract of P. ostreatus fruiting body, which was slightly weaker than the commercial preparation, galantamine. However, in comparison with α-kojic acid, tested extracts were weaker tyrosinase inhibitors. Considering that tested extracts were rich in phenols and that their amounts were in positive correlation with the extent of radical neutralization and acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition, it is assumed that these compounds are the potential carriers of the neuroprotective activities. Owing to the significant antioxidative and antineurodegenerative capacity of these species, they can be suggested as novel nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Pleurotus/química , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Micélio/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
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