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1.
Food Chem ; 343: 128393, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406568

RESUMO

The denaturation temperature of collagen has been determined using several methods, such as circular dichroism, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, etc. Such methods need specific equipment or mass samples (more than 75 mg samples), which means higher inspection costs. In this study, Sirius red was employed to determine the Tds of collagen from calf tendon, silver carp skin, frog and salmon skins (38.2 °C, 32.6 °C, 33.8 °C, and 15.6 °C, respectively) to explore a new method that does not require special equipment and only needs 2-3 mg sample for one measurement. This method was suitable for the determination of the denaturation temperature of collagen from terrestrial, aquatic and amphibian animals. Analysis of variance and t-test revealed that no significant difference was found between Sirius Red and viscosity methods. However, the Sirius Red method needs simpler equipment and less sample than viscosity and other methods. So it could be used as a convenient approach to determine the denaturation temperature of collagen instead of the viscosity method.


Assuntos
Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dicroísmo Circular , Colágeno/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Animais , Compostos Azo/química , Carpas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus/metabolismo , Desnaturação Proteica , Ranidae/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Temperatura de Transição , Viscosidade
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 1689-1696, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845466

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the combined effects of temperatures fluencies and mercury (Hg) on glutathione-dependent antioxidant system in fish, by measuring the oxidative stress indicator (LPO, lipid peroxidation) and the parameters involved in the glutathione-related antioxidant defense system (GPx, glutathione peroxidase; GR, glutathione reductase; GST, glutathione S-transferase; GSH, reduced glutathione), as well as the expression of related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish (45.37 ± 3.58 g) were exposed to 10 test groups, e.g., 15 °C with/without Hg, 20 °C with/without Hg, 25 °C with/without Hg, 30 °C with/without Hg, 35 °C with/without Hg for 4 weeks. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the correlation between the measured parameters and experimental conditions (water temperature, Hg exposure, exposure time, and their interactions.). Our results show that there is no interaction between mercury and low temperature, but the combined effect at high temperature has been confirmed, which indicated the glutathione-dependent enzyme system in grass carp has a complex regulatory mechanism with temperature fluctuations. In the actual field monitoring, it is necessary to consider the impact of extreme temperature on the toxicity of pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Carpas , Mercúrio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Carpas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111473, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068983

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) occurs naturally and concentrations in water bodies can reach high levels, leading to accumulation in vital organs like the spleen. Being an important organ in immune response and blood development processes, toxic effects of As on the spleen could compromise immunity and cause associated disorders in affected individuals. Splenic detoxification is key to improving the chances of survival but relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved. Essential trace elements like zinc have shown immune-modulatory effects humans and livestock. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in As-induced splenic toxicity in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and the protective effects of zinc (Zn). Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to As caused severe histological injuries and Ca2+ accumulation in the spleen of common carp. Additionally, transcriptional and translational profiles of endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and autophagy-related genes of the spleen showed upward trends under As toxicity. Treatment with Zn appears to offer protection against As-induced splenic injury in common carp and the pathologic changes above were alleviated. Our results provide additional insight into the mechanism of As toxicity in common carp while elucidating the role of Zn, a natural immune-modulator, as a potential antidote against As poisoning.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Carpas/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143831, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248772

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aquatic environment, and high concentration of ambient H2O2 may directly or indirectly affect aquatic animal health. However, the response mechanism of fish to ambient H2O2 has not been well studied yet. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the immune, inflammatory, autophagic and DNA damage responses to long-term H2O2 exposure in different tissues of common carp. The results showed that H2O2 exposure induced a significant immune response, with alterations in the levels of immune parameters including AKP, ACP, LZM, C3, HSP90 and HSP70 in different tissues. The inflammatory response evoked by H2O2 exposure was associated with the activations of TLRs and NF-κB (P65) in the majority of tested tissues. The autophagy process was significantly affected by H2O2 exposure, evidenced by the upregulations of the autophagy-related genes in liver, gills, muscle, intestines, heart and spleen and the downregulations in kidney. Meanwhile, the mRNA level of atm, a primary transducer of DNA damage response, was upregulated in liver, gills, intestines and spleen, and the DNA damage was evidenced by increased 8-OHdG level in intestines after H2O2 exposure. Moreover, cell cycle regulation-related genes, including cyclin A1, B and/or E1, highly expressed in all tested tissues except heart after H2O2 exposure. Interestingly, IBR analysis exhibited that immune, inflammatory, autophagic and DNA damage responses to H2O2 exposure were in a dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. These data may contribute to understanding H2O2 toxicity for fish and assessing potential risk of H2O2 in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Autofagia , Carpas/genética , Dano ao DNA , Brânquias/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116129, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261961

RESUMO

Diazinon is a common organophosphate pesticide widely used to control parasitic infections in agriculture. Excessive use of diazinon can have adverse effects on the environment and aquatic animal health. In the present study, the toxic effects of diazinon on the histology, antioxidant, innate immune and intestinal microbiota community composition of crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were investigated. The results showed that diazinon at the tested concentration (300 µg/L) induced gill and liver histopathological damages. Hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by 32.47%, 65.33% and 37.34%, respectively. However, the liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 138.83%. The 300 µg/L diazinon significantly (P < 0.05) downregulated the gene expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-kB p100 and IL-8 but had no significant effect TNF-α (P = 0.8239). In addition, the results demonstrated that diazinon exposure could affect the intestinal microbiota composition and diversity. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that diazinon exposure can cause damage to crucian carp, induce histopathological damage in gill and liver tissues, oxidative stress in the liver, and innate immune disorders and alter intestinal microbiota composition and diversity.


Assuntos
Carpas , Diazinon , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Diazinon/metabolismo , Diazinon/toxicidade , Disbiose , Carpa Dourada , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116186, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302084

RESUMO

Residues of glyphosate (GLY) are widely detected in aquatic systems, raising potential environmental threats and public health concerns, but the mechanism underlying GLY-induced hepatotoxicity in fish has not been fully elucidated yet. This study was designed to explore the hepatotoxic mechanism using juvenile common carp exposed to GLY for 45 d, and plasma and liver samples were collected at 15 d, 30 d, and 45 d to analyze the assays. First, GLY-induced hepatic damage was confirmed by serum liver damage biomarker and hepatic histopathological analysis. Next, changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, gene expression levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid metabolism-related parameters in collected samples were analyzed to clarify their roles in GLY-induced hepatic damage. Data showed that oxidative stress was an early event during GLY exposure, followed by hepatic inflammatory response. Lipid metabolism disorder was a late event during GLY exposure, as evidenced by overproduced hepatic free fatty acids, enhanced lipogenesis-related gene expression levels, reduced lipolysis-related gene expression levels, and resultant hepatic lipid accumulation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that GLY induces hepatotoxicity in fish through involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and lipid metabolism disorder, which are intimately interrelated with each other during GLY exposure.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 326-335, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812152

RESUMO

Although the debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish species has been studied, environmental factors, such as chemical contamination and habitat temperature, have not been well understood. This study compared debromination of BDE209 by hepatic microsomes of wild and cultured fish. PBDE concentrations in muscle tissue were lower in cultured fish than in wild fish. Debromination activity was high in wild common carp, followed by cultured common carp, moderate in cultured ayu sweetfish, and low in two cultured fish (rainbow trout and cherry salmon) and wild Japanese sea bass. Although common carps have been known as the species which have higher debromination ability, there were differences between wild and cultured common carps. First, wild common carp debrominated much more BDE209 than cultured common carp. Second was debromination of BDE209 lasted 96 h in wild carp but only 24 h in cultured carp. Wild carp were collected from warm wastewater effluent with consistently high concentrations of micropollutants. Cultured carp were collected from colder clean waters. Therefore, environmental factors in debromination include contamination or ambient temperature. To investigate the effects of habitat environment on debromination of PBDEs, we collected wild carp in summer and winter at two different locations with similar PBDE contamination levels. Carp collected from the natural river in winter had the highest BDE99 debromination activity. Although the results indicated seasonal difference of debromination of BDE209, we could not confirm whether habitat temperature or physiological cycle of carp affected to debromination ability. Thus, further investigation such as in vivo experiment is required.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Água Doce , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 890-897, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822009

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate pesticide that is frequently and widely used to control both agricultural and domestic pests worldwide. In this study, the protective effect of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oil (FEO) was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to CPF. The fish were divided into six groups that one control group (no treatment) and five experimental groups (FEO (3ml/100g diet) group, CPF1 (0.023 mg/l) group CPF2 (0.046 mg/l) group, CPF1 (0.023 mg/l) plus FEO (3ml/100g diet) group, CPF2 (0.046 mg/l) plus FEO (3ml/100g diet) group). Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill, and brain) samples were taken from the fish at the end of 14 days of application. Hemoglobin (Hb) level, nitoblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, and total immunoglobulin (TI) level were measured in blood samples of fish. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in brain tissue while malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in liver, kidney, and gill tissues. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in Hb level, NBT activity, and TI levels in CPF-treated fish compared to the control group. In addition, increased in MDA levels and significant decreases in GSH level, AChE, CAT, and GPx activities were observed in CPF-treated groups. However, FEO-treated was showed a significant improvement in all parameters except AChE activity compared to CPF groups. These study findings showed that FEO could improve CPF-induced toxicity in C. carpio, except inhibition of AChE activity.


Assuntos
Carpas , Clorpirifos , Foeniculum , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antioxidantes , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 880-889, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827116

RESUMO

The aquaponic system is an alternative strategy to treat aquaculture waste and achieve food independence. Bacteria play vital roles in the aquaponic system as they can transform ammonia or ammonium into nitrite and then into nitrate, which is more favorable for bacteria, fish, and plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea Winogradsky and Nitrobacter winogradskyi Winslow) on the aquaponic system in terms of water quality, nutrient availability, and productivity of carp (Cyprinus carpio), lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa), and vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.). The experiment consisted of four treatments: aquaculture of carp as a control for fish (A), hydroponic of lettuce and vetiver grass without nutrient addition as a control for plants (B), aquaponic (carp, lettuce, vetiver grass) (C), and aquaponic with nitrifying bacteria addition (D). The results showed nitrifying bacteria addition had a significant effect on daily growth rate (DGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) of lettuce within a treatment; on the other hand, the nitrifying bacteria did not give a significant effect to RGR of vetiver grass. The growth rate, specific growth rate, and survival rate of the carp in aquaculture treatment (A) were lower than in both aquaponic treatments (C and D). Nitrifying bacteria addition in the aquaponics system had a significant effect of increasing the orthophosphate concentration. Water quality was also indicated to be better in the aquaponic system than in the aquaculture system. The integration of aquaculture and hydroponics with the addition of nitrifying bacteria enables the formation of microorganism communities, nitrate, and orthophosphate, which lead to the improvement of water quality, nutrient availability, and plant growth.


Assuntos
Carpas , Vetiveria , Animais , Bactérias , Alface , Nitrobacter
10.
Food Chem ; 343: 128557, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199125

RESUMO

This study explored effects of radio frequency (RF, 27.12 MHz, 3 kW) heating replacing the first stage (electrode gaps of 120, 140 and 160 mm) or/and the second stage (95 mm) of the water bath heating on water distribution and structural characteristics of grass carp myofibrillar proteins gels. Compared with control, RF heating (140) during the first stage significantly reduced the total time to prepare gels from 70 min to 45.3 min and increased springiness and water holding capacity from 62.9% to 68.3%. It may be attributed to the appropriate RF heating contributing to α-helix turning into random coil and cross-linking via hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds, thus forming smooth gels with clear network structures. Structural changes further affected water distribution (immobilized water increasing from 97.8% to 98.7%). Namely, RF (140 mm) heating improved water distribution and structural characteristics of gels, which provided basic information for RF heating surimi gels.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Géis/química , Água/química , Animais , Dissulfetos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ondas de Rádio , Análise Espectral Raman , Temperatura
11.
Gene ; 768: 145315, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220343

RESUMO

Langerhans cells (LCs) play an essential role in the initiation of immune response and maintenance of immune tolerance. However, the function and the molecular markers of grass carp LCs remains unclear. The grass carp LCs were firstly identified by immunofluorescence (IF) using a commercial anti-human Langerin/CD207 polyclonal antibody (pAb) and transmissionelectronmicroscope (TEM) technology in this study. After that, a cDNA sequence that homology with human and mouse CD207 gene was obtained by the bBLASTn program in NCBI. The open reading frame (ORF) of the grass carp CD207 gene contains 903 bp encoding 300 amino acids which consisted of a transmembrane domain, a coiled-coil domain and a CLECT domain. Furthermore, the result of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that this gene was expressed in all tested tissues, and mainly expressed in immune organs such as the gill, trunk kidney, head kidney, spleen and skin. To explore the role of CD207 gene in the immune responses induced by bacteria, an immersed infection model of grass carp with Flavobacterium columnare was constructed, and the optimal infection dose was determined to be 1.0 × 108 CFU/mL. Moreover, the qRT-PCR results indicated that the expression levels of CD207 gene were significantly upregulated at 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d in the spleen, and significantly downregulated at 5 d in the head kidney, at 12 h and 5 d in the gill, and at all time points in the skin after F. columnare infection. This result suggested that the grass carp CD207 gene may play an important role in antigen processing and presentation. Our results in this study suggested that CD207 gene is also existed in teleosts, and this study provided a molecular basis to analyzed the biological function of grass carp CD207 gene and the critical roles of LCs in the immune responses induced by bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/patogenicidade , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos CD/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas , Clonagem Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Flavobacterium/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Humanos , Células de Langerhans/microbiologia , Camundongos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Baço/imunologia , Distribuição Tecidual
12.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127805, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750593

RESUMO

The present study assessed the individual and combined toxicity effects of Ag- and TiO2- nanoparticles (NPs) on Ag bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, and gill histopathology in common carp as an aquatic animal model. The 96-h acute toxicity tests showed that TiO2NPs enhanced the toxicity of AgNPs deducted from the decreased LC50 in co-exposure to these NPs. Chronic toxicity tests included a 10-day exposure and a 10-day recovery period. In most cases, histological damages were more severe in co-exposure to Ag- and TiO2- NPs compared with the individual AgNPs however, they were reduced in some cases and also after the recovery period. In co-exposure to Ag- and TiO2- NPs, the Ag bioaccumulation was decreased in the gills but increased in the liver and intestine compared with the singular exposure. After the recovery period, Ag bioaccumulation decreased especially in the liver. Decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes were observed in the AgNPs exposed groups, which were partially alleviated by TiO2NPs. The reduction of condition factor (CF) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) and a severe decrease of weight gain (WG) were observed in co-exposure to Ag- and TiO2- NPs. After the recovery period, the CF and HSI increased but the WG decreased less compared with the exposure period. The present results emphasize the importance of considering the co-existence and interaction of NPs in realizing their bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brânquias , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Prata/toxicidade
13.
Food Chem ; 336: 127683, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771900

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal amino acid deamination and decarboxylation activities of spoilage microbiota in chill-stored grass carp fillets. Results showed that microbial deamination activities of umami/sweet-taste amino acids were higher than that of bitter-taste amino acids. The total deamination activity of tested amino acids decreased during the late period of storage, which inhibited the increase of ammonia in fish flesh. Microbial decarboxylation activity of ornithine was much higher than lysine and histidine, which was consistent with the rapid increase of putrescine in fish fillets. Meanwhile, putrescine could be produced in large quantities through arginine deiminase pathway of spoilage bacteria. Glucose utilization by spoilage microbiota was active during the late period of storage, which was consistent with the rapid consumption of lactate and total sugar in fish flesh. Overall, results of this study could be beneficial for revealing fish spoilage mechanisms and providing theoretical guidance for developing fish preservation technologies.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Desaminação , Descarboxilação , Paladar
14.
Food Chem ; 335: 127564, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738541

RESUMO

To fully understand the properties of piscine stefins (family I cystatins), the 294-bp stefinA gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Ci) was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). After purification by Ni2+-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, the CiStefin A protein was tested to have a molecular weight of 11.48 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.7. The typical motif of the cystatins superfamily was characterized from CiStefin A (QVVQG). CiStefin A specifically inhibited the activity of papain and cathepsin B/L. The Ki value of CiStefin A against papain was 6.5 × 10-11 M. CiStefin A showed excellent heat and acid-base tolerance. StefinA gene transcription occurred in all tested tissues of grass carp, with the highest level in the hepatopancreas. Immunolocalization staining with an anti-CiStefinA antibody revealed the CiStefinA protein distribution in all tested tissues at various levels. Overall, these results clarified the physical and biochemical properties of grass carp stefin A.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Cistatina A/genética , Cistatina A/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Transporte Proteico
15.
Food Chem ; 338: 127792, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827902

RESUMO

A novel protein-based gel named "Yu dong" prepared with fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) scale aqueous extract and enhanced by polysaccharides is described in this study. The effects of pectin, alginate, and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC-Na) on FS gel formation, stability, textural characteristics, microstructure, and water distribution were evaluated. The results indicated the viscosity of the FS gels decreased and changed slowly as the addition of pectin. While, the addition of alginate enhanced the formation of FS gels. As pectin addition in FS gels, the transition temperature decreased. When alginate and CMC-Na was added to the FS gels, the transition temperature increased. The addition of pectin, alginate, and CMC-Na to the FS gels significantly increased Gr from 44.5% to 71.99%, 61.86%, and 71.35%, respectively. Gel strength increased significantly as the addition of pectin, alginate, and CMC-Na. LF-NMR results showed that a moderate amount (0.2%) of polysaccharides bonded the protein and water more tightly, which was consistent with the SEM results showing gel structure with more uniform pores. This study provides a direct application of FS protein in preparing of gel food, which showing a better way to utilize the abandoned fish resource.


Assuntos
Carpas/anatomia & histologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Pele/química , Água/química , Animais , Géis/química , Viscosidade
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 74-81, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279055

RESUMO

Dietary uptake is the major way that inorganic arsenic (iAs) enters into benthic fish; however, the metabolic process of dietborne iAs in fish muscle following chronic exposure remains unclear. This was a 40-day study on chronic dietborne iAs [arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV)] exposure in the benthic freshwater food fish, the crucian carp (Carassius auratus), which determined the temporal profiles of iAs metabolism and toxicokinetics during exposure. We found that an adaptive response occurred in the fish body after iAs dietary exposure, which was associated with decreased As accumulation and increased As transformation into a non-toxic As form (arsenobetaine). The bioavailability of dietary AsIII was lower than that of AsV, probably because AsIII has a lower ability to pass through fish tissues. Dietary AsV exhibited a high potential for transformation into AsIII species, which then accumulated in fish muscle. The largely produced AsIII considered more toxic at the earlier stage of AsV exposure should attract sufficient attention to human exposure assessment. Therefore, the pristine As species and exposure duration had significant effects on As bioaccumulation and biotransformation in fish. The behavior determined for dietborne arsenic in food fish is crucial for not only arsenic ecotoxicology but also food safety.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Carpas , Animais , Arsênico/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Biotransformação , Alimentos , Água Doce , Humanos , Músculos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115896, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187850

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the emerging contaminants associated with deleterious health effects on both public and wildlife and is extensively incorporated into different industrial products. Therefore, the current trial was conducted to determine the oxidative stress, status of different antioxidant enzymes and genotoxic potential of bisphenol A in fresh water fish at low concentrations. For this purpose, a total of 80 fresh water bighead carp (Aristicthys nobilis) received from commercial fish center were randomly divided and kept in four groups (A-D). Fish in groups (B-D) were exposed to different levels of BPA for a period of 60 days while fish of group A served as control group. Treated fish exhibited different physical and behavioral ailments in a time and treatment manners. Results showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased quantity of different oxidative stress biomarkers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gills, liver, kidneys and brain of exposed fish. Concentration of different antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and total proteins was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in gills, liver, kidneys and brain of exposed fish. Results showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased frequency of morphological alterations, nuclear changes in red blood cells and increased DNA damage potential of bisphenol A in gills, liver, kidneys and brain tissues. The current trial concludes that even at very low concentrations bisphenol A causes toxic effects via turbulences in physiological and biochemical parameters in multiple tissues of fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Água Doce , Brânquias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128137, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297125

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is considered to be one of the most toxic and ubiquitously distributed metals in the aquatic system. Meanwhile, the temperature increase of water bodies due to global climatic changes, may affect ecosystems through alterations of the metal properties or by affecting the susceptibility of organisms. To study the physiological stress of mercury chloride on grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella at different temperatures, we investigated the effects of water temperature and/or mercury chloride (HgCl2) on growth performance (SGR-the specific growth rate, HSI-hepato-somatic index, CF-condition factor) and the thyroid hormones levels (T3-triiodothyronine; T4-thyroxine), as well as the expression levels of related genes involved growth and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Fish (45.37 ± 3.58 g) were acclimated to 15, 20, 25, 30 or 35 °C and co-exposed to 0.0 or 0.039 mg/L HgCl2 for 4 weeks in triplicates. Three-way ANOVA revealed that all variables were significantly affected by water temperature, HgCl2 exposure, exposure time and their interactions. It was found that fish reared in Hg-free group at 25 °C showed the optimum growth. Otherwise, T4 concentrations were decreased, while T3 levels remained constant following exposure to HgCl2, which was explained by the up-regulation of the dio2 gene. Our data provide evidences that increased temperatures can potentiate HgCl2 toxicity, but the exact mechanism of the effects of temperature coupled HgCl2 on fish is not full clear, which should be give more attention in future.


Assuntos
Carpas , Mercúrio , Animais , Cloretos , Ecossistema , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Temperatura
19.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128332, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297261

RESUMO

This research comparatively investigates the biotoxicity of landfill leachate effluent from acclimatized and non-acclimatized sludge two-stage activated sludge (AS) systems. Both AS systems were operated with two leachate influent concentrations: moderate (condition 1) and elevated (condition 2). The biotoxicity of AS effluent of variable concentrations (10, 20, and 30% (v/v)) was assessed by the mortality rates of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme activity. The treatment efficiency of the acclimatized sludge AS system for organic and inorganic compounds and nutrients (BOD, COD, TKN, NH4+, PO43-) were 75-96% under condition 1 and 79-93% under condition 2. The non-acclimatized sludge AS system achieved the treatment efficiency of 70-91% under condition 1 and 66-90% under condition 2. The acclimatized sludge AS system also achieved higher biodegradation of trace organic compounds, especially under condition 1. The effluent from acclimatized sludge AS system was less toxic to the common carp, as evidenced by lower mortality rates and higher GST activity. The findings revealed that the acclimatized sludge two-stage AS system could be deployed to effectively treat landfill leachate with moderate concentrations of compounds and trace organic contaminants. The acclimatized sludge AS is an efficient wastewater treatment solution for developing countries with limited technological and financial resources.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes , Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(4): 313-319, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined the fatty acids composition and main nutrients composition in two freshwater fish species in the Czech Republic during one year. METHODS: Samples of common carp and rainbow trout were taken from a market chain during a year. All samples were homogenized and analyzed for lipid, protein, water, and ash contents. Energy value (E), sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA), atherogenic index (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI) were then calculated. RESULTS: The freshwater fish on the Czech market chain have beneficial average value content of unsaturated fatty acids, Σ MUFA+PUFA in carp is 69.46% of all fatty acids, similar average value of Σ MUFA+PUFA - 70.83% is in rainbow trout. The calculated average value of AI in carp is 0.52 (SD = 0.06), AI in rainbow trout is 0.63 (SD = 0.07), the average TI in carp is 0.63 (SD = 0.09), TI in rainbow trout is 0.49 (SD = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Freshwater fish in the Czech market chain have beneficial value of PUFA, so AI and TI indices are low in both species of analysed fish. Regular consumption of fish meat is important in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Carpas , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , República Tcheca , Ácidos Graxos , Água Doce , Humanos
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