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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618833

RESUMO

Bigheaded Carp have spread throughout the Mississippi River basin since the 1970s. Little has stopped the spread as carp have the ability to pass through locks and dams, and they are currently approaching the Great Lakes. However, the location of the leading edge in the Illinois River has stalled for over a decade, even though there is no barrier preventing further advancement towards the Great Lakes. Defining why carp are not moving towards the Great Lakes is important for predicting why they might advance in the future. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that anthropogenic contaminants in the Illinois River may be playing a role in preventing further upstream movement of Bigheaded Carp. Ninety three livers were collected from carp at several locations between May and October of 2018. Liver samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a targeted metabolite profiling approach. Livers from carp at the leading edge had differences in energy use and metabolism, and suppression of protective mechanisms relative to downstream fish; differences were consistent across time. This body of work provides evidence that water quality is linked to carp movement in the Illinois River. As water quality in this region continues to improve, consideration of this impact on carp spread is essential to protect the Great Lakes.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Metabolômica , Animais , Carpas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Illinois , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos , Mississippi , Rios , Alimentos Marinhos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9706-9715, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342990

RESUMO

To provide an insight into the oxidation behavior of cysteines in myofibrillar proteins (MPs) during microwave heating (MW), a quantitative redox proteomic analysis based on the isobaric iodoacetyl tandem mass tag technology was applied in this study. MPs from silver carp muscles were subjected to MW and water bath heating (WB) with the same time-temperature profiles to eliminate the thermal differences caused by an uneven energy input. Altogether, 422 proteins were found to be differentially expressed after thermal treatments as compared to that with no heat treatment. However, MW triggered a larger number of proteins and cysteine sites for oxidation. Myosin heavy chain, myosin-binding protein C, nebulin, α-actinin-3-like, and titin were found to be highly susceptible to oxidation under microwave irradiation. Notably, MW caused such modifications at cysteine site 9 in the head of myosin, revealing the enhancement mechanism of MP gelation by excess cysteine cross-linking during microwave processing. Furthermore, Gene Ontology and functional enrichment analyses suggested that the two thermal treatments resulted in some differences in ion binding, muscle cell development, and protein-containing complex assembly. Overall, this study is the first to report the redox proteomic changes caused by MW and WB treatments, thus providing a further understanding of the microwave-induced oxidative modifications of MPs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Oxirredução , Proteômica
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 620, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most widely cultivated fishes in China. High stocking density can reportedly affect fish growth and immunity. Herein we performed PacBio long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and Illumina RNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of high stocking density on grass carp transcriptome. RESULTS: SMRT sequencing led to the identification of 33,773 genes (14,946 known and 18,827 new genes). From the structure analysis, 8,009 genes were detected with alternative splicing events, 10,219 genes showed alternative polyadenylation sites and 15,521 long noncoding RNAs. Further, 1,235, 962, and 213 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the intestine, muscle, and brain tissues, respectively. We performed functional enrichment analyses of DEGs, and they were identified to be significantly enriched in nutrient metabolism and immune function. The expression levels of several genes encoding apolipoproteins and activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate enzymolysis were found to be upregulated in the high stocking density group, indicating that lipid metabolism and carbohydrate decomposition were accelerated. Besides, four isoforms of grass carp major histocompatibility complex class II antigen alpha and beta chains in the aforementioned three tissue was showed at least a 4-fold decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggesting that fish farmed at high stocking densities face issues associated with the metabolism and immune system. To conclude, our results emphasize the importance of maintaining reasonable density in grass carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Transcriptoma
4.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1313-1327, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241763

RESUMO

Selenium (Se), an essential component of deiodinases (DIOs), regulates the contents of thyroid hormones and thus improves animal growth. To explore the influences of selenium supplementation on fish growth metabolism, a total of 270 healthy grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were divided into three groups and feed three graded dietary selenium (0.141, 0.562, and 1.044 mg Se/kg) levels. The results showed that after 60-day feeding, dietary selenium improved the final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of grass carp. The hepatic DIO activities in selenium-supplemented groups were higher than those in control group. A significant increase in triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels was accompanied by a decrease in the contents of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) in selenium-supplemented groups. The histopathological observation of thyroid suggested that selenium deficiency resulted in hypertrophy of follicular epithelial cells. Moreover, the gene relative expression levels of dio1, dio2, and dio3 showed an increasing trend with the rising concentration of dietary selenium. The transcription levels of HPT axis-related genes (crh, tsh-ß, ttr, tr-s, tpo, nis) and GH/IGF1-related genes (gh, ghr, igf1, igf1r) were significantly upregulated in selenium-supplemented groups. No significant differences in the above indicators were observed between 0.562 and 1.044 mg Se/kg diet group except T3 content and dio1 relative expression ratio. These results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation improves the hepatic DIO activities and thyroid hormone metabolism and regulates the transcription levels of HPT and GH/IGF axis-related genes, which may be responsible for the growth promotion in grass carp.


Assuntos
Carpas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hipotálamo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hipófise , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 98-106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252543

RESUMO

Medicinal herbs are used for growth promotion, disease control and other health benefits in aquaculture industry. Here, we examined the effect of dietary laurel-leaf cistus (Cistus laurifolius) ethanolic extract on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, haematological profile and nonspecific immune responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition, resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was examined. Common carp was fed diets containing 0 (Control), 0.1 (CL0.1), 0.5 (CL0.5) and 1 (CL1) g kg-1 laurel-leaf cistus extract for 45 days. After 30 days, superoxide anion production (SAP) increased in CL0.1 and CL0.5 fish groups and at the end of the study all experimental fish groups had higher SAP compared to that of the control (P ˂ 0.05). Lysozyme activity (LA) was elevated in CL0.5 and CL1 treated groups on 30th day (P < 0.05), and this increase was only observed in C0.1 fish group at the end of study compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups at the end of study. IL-1ßgene expression was significantly increased in treated fish in a dose-depended manner. Similar results were observed for transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-ß were highly up-regulated in the intestine and head kidney of CL treated fish groups compared to control (P < 0.05). At the end of experiment, significantly higher final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were obtained in CL0.1 treated fish group compared to control. However, growth was negatively affected in CL1 fish group (P < 0.05). CL1 fish group had also a significantly higher FCR. Amylase activity was significantly increased in all experimental fish groups compared to control (P ˂ 0.05). Trypsin activity was decreased in CL0.1 and CL1 fish groups (P ˂ 0.05). WBC and RBC were significantly increased (P ˂ 0.05) in CL0.5 and CL1 fish groups, whereas haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell, mean cell haemoglobin contents were no significantly changed among control and treatment groups. Result of challenge test with A. hydrophila exhibited that survival rate in all treatment groups was significantly higher than that of control. These findings demonstrated that laurel-leaf cistus at 0.1 g kg-1 can be a suitable candidate for growth promotion, immune system induction and infection control in fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cistus , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Etanol/química , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/citologia , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , Superóxidos/imunologia , Tripsina/metabolismo
6.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117789, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274646

RESUMO

The occurrence and distribution of cyclic and linear siloxanes were investigated in South Korean river water and sediment, with a special focus on crucian carp tissues, to evaluate the residual status and potential bioaccumulation of siloxanes. The total siloxanes median concentrations observed in this study were 1495 ng/L in river water, 39.2 ng/g-dry weight [dw] in sediment, and 41.7 ng/g-wet weight [ww] in crucian carp muscle. Cyclic siloxanes (D3-D6) were predominant in all matrices, and D5 (mean: > 81%) was more abundant in biota tissues than in river water (30%) and sediment (26%) samples. Specifically, positive correlations between D5 concentrations and crucian carp sizes (p < 0.01, Spearman) as well as the relatively high estimated biota-sediment accumulation factor value of D5 (D5: 2.31), suggest the high bioaccumulative property of D5 in biota. However, no bioaccumulation potentials were observed for D3, D4, D6, and L3-L17 in this field-scale study. The distributions of major linear siloxanes (L7-L14) in crucian carp gills (17%) and gonads (21%) were higher than in other tissues (brain, 9.6%; liver, 2.6%; muscle, 1.5%). Moreover, relatively high tissue/plasma ratios were observed for linear siloxanes (L7-L10: 1.79-2.12) compared to cyclic siloxanes (D4-D6: 0.829-1.18) (p < 0.01, Mann Whitney U test), which indicated the higher transportability of linear siloxanes to fish tissues than cyclic siloxanes.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Carpas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , República da Coreia , Siloxanas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220849

RESUMO

As an intermediate substance of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a precursor substance of glutamic acid synthesis, the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on growth and protein synthesis has been extensively studied. However, its prevention and treatment of pathogenic bacteria and its mechanism have not yet been noticed. To evaluate the effects of alpha-ketoglutarate on intestinal antioxidant capacity and immune response of Songpu mirror carp, a total of 360 fish with an average initial weight of 6.54 ± 0.08 g were fed diets containing alpha-ketoglutarate with 1% for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 2 weeks. The results indicated that alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation significantly increased the survival rate of carp after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila (P < 0.05), and the contents of immune digestion enzymes including lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and the concentration of complement C4 were markedly enhanced after alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation (P < 0.05). Also, appropriate alpha-ketoglutarate increased the activities of total antioxidant capacity and catalase and prevented the up-regulation in the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) were strikingly increased after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila (P < 0.05), while the TLR4 was strikingly decreased with alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of tight junctions including claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-7, claudin-11 and myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) were upregulated after alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation (P < 0.05). In summary, the appropriate alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation could increase survival rate, strengthen the intestinal enzyme immunosuppressive activities, antioxidant capacities and alleviate the intestinal inflammation, thereby promoting the intestinal immune responses and barrier functions of Songpu mirror carp via activating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and MLCK signaling pathways after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carpas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/imunologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/imunologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 237: 105875, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098373

RESUMO

The aquatic environment receives a wide variety of contaminants that interact with each other, influencing their mutual toxicity. Therefore, studies of mixtures are needed to fully understand their deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. In the present experiment, we aimed to assess the effects of Cd and Zn mixtures in common carp during a one-week exposure. The used nominal waterborne metal levels were 0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 µM for Cd and 3, 7.5 and 15 µM for Zn. Our results showed on the one hand a fast Cd increase and on the other hand a delayed Zn accumulation. In the mixture scenario an inhibition of Cd accumulation due to Zn was marked in the liver but temporary in the gills. For Zn, the delayed accumulation gives an indication of the efficient homeostasis of this essential metal. Between the different mixtures, a stimulation of Zn accumulation by Cd rather than an inhibition was seen in the highest metal mixtures. However, when compared to an earlier single Zn exposure, a reduced Zn accumulation was observed. Metallothionein gene expression was quickly activated in the analysed tissues suggesting that the organism promptly responded to the stressful situation. Finally, the metal mixture did not alter tissue electrolyte levels.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Homeostase , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade
9.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117554, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174664

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can be discharged into water environment through industrial activities, threatening the health of aquatic organisms and humans. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in the process of autophagy. The purpose of this experiment was to study the mechanism of Cd-induced autophagy in common carp hepatopancreas. We established a Cd poisoning model of common carp and explored ultrastructure, two oxidation indicators, three antioxidant indicators, miR-25-3p, two heat shock proteins (Hsps), and nine autophagy-related genes. The results confirmed that deleterious effect of Cd caused the injury of hepatopancreas and the appearance of hepatopancreas autophagic cells in common carp. At the same time, Cd exposure increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), meaning that Cd caused oxidative stress via the imbalance between peroxide level and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, exposure to Cd increased mRNA expression of microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3 beta (LC3-II), Dynein, Beclin 1, autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5), and autophagy-related gene 12 (Atg12); and decreased mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR), indicating that excess Cd caused autophagy, and AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway took part in autophagy induced by Cd in common carp hepatopancreas. Furthermore, Cd down-regulated miR-25-3p and up-regulated its three target genes (AMPK, ULK1 as well as PTEN), suggesting that miR-25-3p mediated autophagy induced by Cd. In addition, we found that Hsps were activated via the up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90. Moreover, oxidative stress mediated autophagy via Hsps in Cd-treated common carp hepatopancreas and Cd-induced autophagy was time dependent. In summary, miR-25-3p, oxidative stress, and Hsps participated in autophagy caused by Cd in common carp hepatopancreas. This study provided a new idea for the mechanism of Cd-induced autophagy in hepatopancreas.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Ambientais , MicroRNAs , Animais , Autofagia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 238-252, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989765

RESUMO

The effect of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABPs) supplemented diet on growth rate, antioxidant capacity, innate-adaptive immune response, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory genes expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. In both normal and challenged groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets resulted in a significant weight gain and feed intake. The survival was 100% in normal fish fed without or with any ABPs diet; the challenged fish fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet had 98.6% survival. The RBC and WBC counts, Hb, and Hct levels were significant in both normal and challenged groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets. A significant increase in total protein and albumin level was observed in both groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets. Significant increase in GPx, ROS, GR, GSH, PC, and MnSOD activity was observed in HK of both groups fed with 1.0 and 1.5 mg kg-1 ABPs diets; similarly both groups when fed with the same ABPs diets showed significant Lz, C3, and C4 activity. However, both groups fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet showed significant ß-defensin, LEAP-2A, IL-6, and NF-κB P65 mRNA expression. Similarly, IFN-γ2, IL-10, and TNFα mRNA expressions were significant in both groups fed with 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet. The results indicate that both normal and challenged C. idella fed with a 1.0 mg kg-1 ABPs diet had better growth, antioxidant status, immune response, and pro-anti-inflammatory gene modulation against A. hydrophila.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Ração Animal/análise , Carpas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112318, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993091

RESUMO

Curcumin exhibited numerous key activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory effects in fish. This study evaluated the protective effects of curcumin (CUR) against lead (Pb)-induced toxicities in fish. Healthy Cyprinus carpio L. individuals were segregated into control, Pb only, Pb+CUR, and CUR only groups. Pb groups were exposed to 1 mg L -1 of Pb, and CUR groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 15 g kg-1 of CUR. After eight weeks, growth performance, Pb accumulation in tissues, various haemato-biochemical parameters, immune responses, and cytokine gene expression were measured. Dietary CUR effectively decreased Pb accumulation in tissues and increased the survival of Pb-exposed fish. Co-treatment with Pb and CUR reversed alterations in haemato-biochemical parameters, ameliorated Pb-induced oxidative stress, enhanced immune responses, and restored intestinal enzymatic activities. Dietary CUR reversed changes in intestinal microbiota in Pb-exposed fish. Pb-induced upregulation of NF-κBp65 and HSP70 was inhibited by dietary CUR. CUR supplementation upregulated the mRNA levels of SOD, Nrf2, IL-10, and CYP450 1A and attenuated Pb-induced degradation of I κB-α mRNA levels. Overall, CUR antagonizes Pb-induced negative impacts in fish. Thus, dietary CUR had several beneficial effects on immune responses, decreased Pb accumulation in tissues, and reversed Pb-induced oxidative stress in fish. Therefore, CUR plays a protective role in Pb-induced immune toxicity in fish, and, as such, may be suitable as an aqua feed additive for use in carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carpas/fisiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Carpas/metabolismo , Citocinas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/veterinária
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9926, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976363

RESUMO

Consumer protection against food adulteration and misleading labelling is integrated into EU legislation, but accurate analysis of the meat content of farmed freshwater fish products is not possible because of the lack of established nitrogen factors for farmed common carp. The aim of this study was to determine nitrogen factors for farmed common carp Cyprinus carpio. Seven-hundred samples collected in 2018-2019 in three harvest seasons (March/April, Jun/July, and October/November) at seven locations in the Czech Republic were analysed for nitrogen, dry matter, protein, ash, and fat content according to standard ISO methods. The recommended nitrogen factor for fat-free common carp fillet with skin is 3.04 ± 0.13 and, for fillet without skin, 2.95 ± 0.12. Availability of nitrogen factors for common carp can help ensure that consumers are purchasing correctly labelled products.


Assuntos
Carpas , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Gorduras/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Pesqueiros , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos
13.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1105-1117, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052972

RESUMO

Activation of the cAMP pathway by ß-adrenergic stimulation and cGMP pathway by activation of guanylate cyclase substantially affects red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties in mammals. However, whether similar mechanisms are involved in RBC regulation of lower vertebrates, especially teleosts, is not elucidated yet. In this study, we evaluated the effects of adenylate cyclase activation by epinephrine and forskolin, guanylate cyclase activation by sodium nitroprusside, and the role of Na+/H+-exchanger in the changes of osmotic fragility and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response in crucian carp RBCs. Western blot analysis of protein kinase A and protein kinase G substrate phosphorylation revealed that changes in osmotic fragility were regulated via the protein kinase A, but not protein kinase G signaling pathway. At the same time, the RVD response in crucian carp RBCs was not affected either by activation of adenylate or guanylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A activation significantly decreased RBC osmotic fragility, i.e., increased cell rigidity. Inhibition of Na+/H+-exchanger by amiloride had no effect on the epinephrine-mediated decrease of RBC osmotic fragility. NO donor SNP did not activate guanylate cyclase, however affected RBCs osmotic fragility by protein kinase G-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and NO are involved in the regulation of crucian carp RBC osmotic fragility, but not in RVD response. The authors confirm that the study has no clinical trial.


Assuntos
Carpas/sangue , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/enzimologia , Humanos , Fragilidade Osmótica
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 907-917, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813689

RESUMO

Type I collagen is proven to make an important contribution to fish muscle quality. Our previous study has shown the Smad4-dependent regulation of type I collagen expression in the muscle of crisp grass carp fed with faba bean. However, the regulatory roles of TGF-ß1 or TGF-ß1/Smad4 on type I collagen remain unclear in ordinary grass carp fed with normal diets or in other fish species. To clarify this point, the effect of TGF-ß1 and Smad4 over-expression and RNAi knockdown on type I collagen (COL1-α1 and COL1-α2) expression were tested in vitro (zebrafish ZF4 cells) and in vivo (grass carp) along with the TGF-ß1/Smad4 co-expression and co-knockdown. The mRNA levels of TGF-ß1, Smad4, and type I collagen were upregulated in the groups with over-expressed TGF-ß1 and Smad4 and downregulated in the groups of TGF-ß1 and Smad4 RNAi in comparison to controls in vitro (P < 0.05). Similarly, in the in vivo experiment, the mRNA abundance of TGF-ß1, Smad4, and type I collagen of over-expression group was higher than the controls at 36 h (P < 0.05). Co-injection of TGF-ß1/Smad4 over-expression and RNAi vectors generally showed the higher efficacy. This study revealed that TGF-ß1 and Smad4 genes regulated type I collagen expression in grass carp muscle and zebrafish. These findings will provide references for the collagen regulation of other freshwater fishes.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Proteína Smad4/genética , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112197, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864840

RESUMO

Declines across global fishery stocks forced aquaculture feed manufacturers to search for new and sustainable components. Therefore, the aim of study was assessing nutritional value and sensory properties of meat of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed for 116 days with two blends. The control feed contained 5% of fishmeal and vegetable oils (rapeseed and soybean) as sole fat sources. While in the experimental diet half of the fishmeal was replaced with a blend of microalgae (Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp.), macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) and vegetable oil was replaced with salmon oil. Proximate composition, energy value, fatty acid profile of meat, nutritional characteristics of fat and protein as well as culinary properties of fillets were assessed. Fillets of carp fed experimental diet had a higher level of protein, lower level of fat and energy value. Intramuscular fat of fish fed with the experimental diet had a better parameters of quality. Protein in the meat of fish from both groups was characterized by a high quality comparing to the protein standard. Our study showed that meat of carp fed with experimental feed enriched with sustainable and natural feed ingredients can be a sensorily attractive source of nutritious ingredients in the human diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carpas/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Humanos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Salmão , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Paladar , Triglicerídeos/análise
16.
Immunology ; 164(2): 211-222, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930181

RESUMO

Aquaculture conditions expose fish to internal and environmental stressors that increase their susceptibility to morbidity and mortality. The brain accumulates stress signals and processes them according to the intensity, frequency duration and type of stress, recruiting several brain functions to activate the autonomic or limbic system. Triggering the autonomic system causes the rapid release of catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, into circulation from chromaffin cells in the head kidney. Catecholamines trigger blood cells to release proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines to cope with acute stress. Activation of the limbic axis stimulates the dorsolateral and dorsomedial pallium to process emotions, memory, behaviour and the activation of preoptic nucleus-pituitary gland-interrenal cells in the head kidney, releasing glucocorticoids, such as cortisol to the bloodstream. Glucocorticoids cause downregulation of various immune system functions depending on the duration, intensity and type of chronic stress. As stress persists, most immune functions, with the exception of cytotoxic functions, overcome these effects and return to homeostasis. The deterioration of cytotoxic functions during chronic stress appears to be responsible for increased morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6171-6183, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843202

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (CMN) is a man-made insecticide, and its abuse has led to potential adverse effects, particularly in sensitive populations such as aquatic organisms. The present study was focused on the toxic phenotype and detoxification mechanism in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after treatment with waterborne CMN (0.651 µg/L) for 6 weeks in vivo or 6.392 µM for 24 h in vitro. In vivo, we describe the toxic phenotype of the liver of grass carp in terms of pathological changes, serum transaminase levels, oxidative stress indexes, and apoptosis rates. RNA-Seq analysis (2 × 3 cDNA libraries) suggested a compromise of proteasome and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways under CMN exposure. Thus, these two pathways were chosen for the in vitro study, which suggested that the CMN intoxication-induced proteasome pathway caused hepatotoxicity in the liver cell line of grass carp (L8824 cells). Moreover, pretreatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, displayed protection against the toxic effects of CMN by enhancing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capability by directly inhibiting the proteasomal degradation of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (Nrf2) and IκB-α, thus turning on the transcription of downstream genes of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest proteasome activity as a reason for CMN-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Piretrinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Gene ; 789: 145668, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882323

RESUMO

Group II C-type lectin domain (CTLD) containing receptors belong to a large family of pattern recognition receptors which mainly act on the innate immunity. They are structurally related and consist of a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and a single extracellular CTLD. Although they have been described in teleost fish, their involvement in immune responses is not well understood. In this study, four immune-related lectin-like receptors (termed CiILLR1 and CiILLR5-7), belonging to the group II CTLD receptors, were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). They contain a short cytoplasmic tail and a single CTLD in the extracellular region. The CiILLR1 has a WxHxxxxxY motif similar to the WxHxxxxY motif which is required for the recognition of ß-glucans by some of the group II CTLD containing lectins in mammals. Further, a modified QPD motif (EPD) known to be involved in binding to carbohydrate ligands is present in the CiILLR1, 5 and 6. However, CiILLR7 lacks these motifs. Expression analysis revealed that they were constitutively expressed in the head kidney and spleen. Moreover, CiILLR1, 5 and 6 could be up-regulated in the head kidney and spleen of fish after infection with Flavobacterium columnare and in the primary head kidney leukocytes by LPS and PHA. Expression of CiILLR1, CiILLR5 and CiILLR6 were mainly detected in the enriched lymphocytes whilst CiILLR7 was expressed in the enriched monocytes/macrophages. The results expand existing knowledge on the immune responses of the C-type lectin receptors in teleost fish.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Carboidratos , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Flavobacterium/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Baço/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117079, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845287

RESUMO

Oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu are prevalent in aquatic ecosystems and their pollution are issues of serious concern. The present working hypothesis is that the toxicity of Cu and OTC mixture on physiological activity of fish was different from single OTC and Cu alone. The present study indicated that, compared to single OTC or Cu alone, Cu+OTC mixture reduced growth performance and feed utilization of grass carp, escalated the contents of Cu, OTC and TG, increased lipogenesis, induced oxidative stress, damaged the mitochondrial structure and functions and inhibited the lipolysis in the liver tissues and hepatocytes of grass carp. Cu+OTC co-treatment significantly increased the mRNA abundances and protein expression of Nrf2. Moreover, we found that Cu+OTC mixture-induced oxidative stress promoted Nrf2 recruitment to the SREBP-1 promoter and increased SREBP-1-mediated lipogenesis; Nrf2 sited at the crossroads of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism, and mediated the regulation of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Our findings clearly indicated that OTC and Cu mixture differed in environmental risks from single antibiotic or metal element itself, and thus posed different toxicological responses to aquatic animals. Moreover, our findings suggested that Nrf2 functioned as an important antioxidant regulator linking oxidative stress to lipogenic metabolism, and thus elucidated a novel regulatory mechanism for lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Carpas , Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade
20.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 33(7): 455-465, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858563

RESUMO

Vitellogenesis is essential for oocyte maturation. Vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk precursor protein, plays an important role in oogenesis and vitellogenesis. Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens is an economically important freshwater fish in China whose reproductive and developmental biology are not well understood. In this study, we undertook histological analysis to examine ovary development and oogenesis in O. bidens. The ovaries were divided into Stages II-V and oocytes were divided into perinuclear oocytes, cortical alveoli oocytes, vitellogenic oocytes and mature oocytes. Full-length cDNA sequences were cloned of two vtg genes from the liver of O. bidens, namely Ob-vtgAo1 and Ob-vtgC. Ob-vtgAo1 and Ob-vtgC cDNA are made up of 4136 and 4392 bases respectively and encode proteins containing 1335 and 1250 amino acids respectively. Ob-vtgAo1 contains three yolk protein domains: lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), phosvitin (Pv) and lipovitellin light chain (LvL), whereas Ob-VtgC contains LvH and LvL, which are incomplete Vtgs. Ob-vtgAo1 and Ob-vtgC mRNA expression was significantly higher in the liver of O. bidens than in all other tissues. In oocytes of Stage II-III ovaries, yolk granules are almost absent and ovarian and hepatic Ob-vtgAo1 and Ob-vtgC expression is low. At Stage IV, the oocyte is filled with yolk granules and ovarian and hepatic Ob-vtgAo1 and Ob-vtgC expression is significantly increased. Collectively, these findings help us better understand vitellogenesis in O. bidens.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oogênese , Ovário/metabolismo , Vitelogênese , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oogênese/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Regulação para Cima , Vitelogênese/genética , Vitelogeninas/genética
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