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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127683, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771900

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal amino acid deamination and decarboxylation activities of spoilage microbiota in chill-stored grass carp fillets. Results showed that microbial deamination activities of umami/sweet-taste amino acids were higher than that of bitter-taste amino acids. The total deamination activity of tested amino acids decreased during the late period of storage, which inhibited the increase of ammonia in fish flesh. Microbial decarboxylation activity of ornithine was much higher than lysine and histidine, which was consistent with the rapid increase of putrescine in fish fillets. Meanwhile, putrescine could be produced in large quantities through arginine deiminase pathway of spoilage bacteria. Glucose utilization by spoilage microbiota was active during the late period of storage, which was consistent with the rapid consumption of lactate and total sugar in fish flesh. Overall, results of this study could be beneficial for revealing fish spoilage mechanisms and providing theoretical guidance for developing fish preservation technologies.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Desaminação , Descarboxilação , Paladar
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105644, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053460

RESUMO

Nowadays, depletion of oxygen or hypoxia has become a real concerning problem worldwide in freshwater, marine, and estuarine ecosystems and very often co-occurs with xenobiotics. Even though the acute and severe hypoxia is heavily studied in environment and laboratory studies, the in situ combined effects of these stressors on freshwater lake organisms are poorly understood. The current study sought to understand how the combined effects of moderate hypoxia, pesticides and PCBs affect the biochemistry, physiology and organ morphology of Carassius carassius, residing in the Lake Seferani, Dumrea region (Elbasan, Albania), a natural karst freshwater system declared as Nature Monument situated in central Albania. Crucian carp is used as a model organism, because of its residency and ecological relevance to the Lake, as well as for its amenability for the environmental toxicology studies. For this purpose, blood, liver and kidney samples of fish were processed for hematological, biochemical and histopathological analysis. We found a significant increase of blood glucose (GLU), cortisol levels, hematocrit (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) which clearly indicate the presence of stress in fish. Based on the histopathological evaluation and organ index results, liver and kidney organs displayed moderate-to-heavy histological-architecture changes. Our results provide a strong evidence that both, hypoxia and the presence of pesticides and PCB congeners found in Seferani Lake, put a heavy load on C. carassius energy metabolism and endocrine system, leading to an elevation of the biochemical and physiological parameters (hemoglobin level, hematocrit, glucose and cortisol), as well as the histopathological alterations. Additionally, in the presence of moderate hypoxia, the toxic effects of pesticides and PCBs on C. carassius are exacerbated. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effects of pesticide and PCBs toxicity in human health, since crucian carp has an economic value for the population of the zone and it is used often as food sustenance. Elucidation of these kinds of responses can better improve our understanding of response of highly tolerant species, like Carassius carassius, to multiple stressors interactions, helping us to better predict and manage the consequences of the exposure of the freshwater biota to complex stressors in an environment that changes rapidly.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Hipóxia/patologia , Lagos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Albânia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Geografia , Hematócrito , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111043, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888597

RESUMO

Intraspecific difference in toxicity brings uncertainty to ecological risk assessment (ERA) and water quality criteria (WQC) of chemicals. Here, we compared intraspecies sensitivity to toxicants for Mesocyclops leuckarti of which toxicity data was obtained from published literatures, and zebrafish Danio rerio of which toxicity data was done in this study). Due to the internal concentration of chemicals not measured, simplified toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) models were used, and we investigated whether TK-TD parameters estimated by Bayesian method might represent the differences in sensitivity between life-stages of 2 species. The results demonstrated that the difference in TK-TD parameters (background mortality m0, no effect concentration NEC, the killing rate ks, and the dominant rate kd) could represent the toxicity difference between life-stages of individual species. The TK-TD model could predict toxicity in individual species (Cyprinus carpio L., Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hyalella Azteca) exposed to different chemical concentrations and successfully extrapolate toxicity between different life stages of Mesocyclops leuckarti and Danio rerio by scaling several TK-TD parameters. The modified TK-TD model on the extrapolation toxicity of chemicals between life stages for species could be useful for the ERA and for deriving and revising WQC for chemicals.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Copépodes/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bioacumulação , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxicocinética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 546-552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870331

RESUMO

The heavy metals were studied in water, sediments, algae, and various tissues of Glyptosternon reticulatum and Cyprinus carpio from River Swat, Pakistan, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were higher in water at sewage site compared to upstream and downstream sites. In sediments, the Ni and Cd were not detected whereas Cu, Pb and Zn were higher at downstream followed by sewage and upstream sites. The Ni and Zn in algae were higher at upstream and sewage sites compared to downstream site whereas Pb and Cd were higher at upstream site compared to sewage and downstream sites and Cu was found same at all the three sites. The heavy metals (Zn > Cu > Pb and Ni) in tissues (liver > gills > skin > muscles) of G. reticulatum was higher than in C. carpio. This study recommends the proper monitoring of River Swat in order to save its water and inhabitant aquatic life.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Rios/química , Spirogyra/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105624, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947072

RESUMO

The study was designed to evaluate the possible protective roles of dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil (OVEO) against cypermethrin (CP)-induced serum biochemical changes and oxidative stress of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Moreover, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage in the gills and hepatic tissues were also assessed. Briefly, fish were allotted into six groups with three triplicates whereas a group fed on basal diet and did not exposed to CP and served as control (CTR), two groups were fed on diets supplemented with two levels of OVEO (0.5 % and 1.0 %), a group exposed to sub-lethal concentration of CP (1/10 of 96 h-LC50 = 0.4134 µg/L), and two other groups exposed to the same concentration of CP and fed on diets supplemented with both levels of OVEO (CP + 0.5 % OVEO, and CP + 1.0 % OVEO), respectively, for 30 days. CP induced significant elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, and creatinine levels indicating hepato-renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Besides, there was a significant decrease in serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, CP induced significant histopathologic alterations in gills, anterior kidneys, and hepatic tissues with activation of apoptosis (Caspase-3) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comet assay demonstrated significant DNA damage in gills and liver tissues of the CP-exposed group. Interestingly, a significant attenuation of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, CAT, and SOD levels (P < 0.05) was noticed in CP-exposed fish and concurrently fed diets supplemented with either 0.5 % or 1.0 % OVEO. Moreover, histopathologic alterations and apoptosis were significantly reduced along with a concomitant significant decrease in DNA damage (P < 0.05) which indicated the mitigation of DNA damage. Conclusively, the study showed that OVEO is an effective counteractive treatment against CP-induced damage in exposed common carp and is recommended during the formulation of fish rations.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/genética , Dieta , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976524

RESUMO

Grass carp is an important commercial fish widely cultivated in China. A wide range of temperatures, particularly extremely low temperatures, have dramatic effects on the aquaculture of this teleost. However, relatively few studies have characterized the molecular responses of grass carp exposed to acute cooling in natural environment. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of the grass carp brain in response to cooling. Through regulation pattern analyses, we identified 2,513 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that responded to moderate cold stress (12°C), while 99 DEGs were induced by severe low temperature (4°C).The pathway analyses revealed that the DEGs sensitive to moderate cold were largely enriched in steroid biosynthesis, spliceosome, translation, protein metabolism, phagosome, gap junction and estrogen signaling pathways. Additionally, we discerned genes most likely involved in low temperature tolerance, of which the MAPK signaling pathway was dominantly enriched. Further examination and characterization of the candidate genes may help to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning extreme plasticity to severe cold stress in grass carp.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carpas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111106, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818877

RESUMO

The uptake and depuration kinetics of diclofenac and carbamazepine alone at an environmentally relevant nominal concentration of 2 µg/L and in combination at a concentration ratio of 1:1 with total concentration of 4 µg/L were evaluated in Carassius carassius after 7 d uptake and depuration. Also, the biochemical effects of both drugs alone at nominal concentrations of 2 and 10 µg/L as well as in combination with total concentrations of 4 and 20 µg/L were investigated in Carassius carassius after 7 d exposure followed by 10 d recovery. In the single treatments, steady-state BCFs measured after the 7 d exposure were 73.05, 49.71, 38.01 and 24.93 L/kg for diclofenac and 9.25, 8.99, 5.29 and 4.11 L/kg for carbamazepine in the liver, brain, gill and muscle of Carassius carassius, respectively. Comparatively lower BCFs were measured in the tissues of Carassius carassius for both drugs in the combined treatments. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain was significantly induced by diclofenac while carbamazepine and the mixtures significantly inhibited it during all the exposure days as well as after the 10 d recovery in all treatments. This indicates that Carassius carassius could not recover from the neurotoxic effects caused by carbamazepine unlike the inductive effect caused by diclofenac which was recoverable after 10 days. A significant increase in the activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and glutathione s-transferase for individual and mixed pharmaceuticals suggest that metabolism and detoxification of both drugs took place in the liver of Carassius carassius. Also, a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and malondialdehyde contents in the individual and mixture treatments mean that the antioxidant defence system of Carassius carassius was triggered to fight against oxidative stress but lipid peroxidation still occurred. However, Carassius carassius recovered from all these increases (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and malondialdehyde) after the 10 d recovery, suggesting that oxidative damage is reversible. Our results indicate that both drugs at environmentally relevant concentrations might cause adverse effects in Carassius carassius and other fish species.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110903, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800238

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a type of toxic metal, in most cases, coming from fuel burning and aquatic plants. The cells of organisms can be caused serious damage, including pyroptosis, exposure to low concentrations of Cd in long-term. Pyroptosis is a recently discovered Caspase-1-mediated cell death. In this study, lymphocytes were extracted from the pronephros and spleens in carps, respectively. After treating cells with low concentration of Cd, the mRNA and protein expression levels of pyroptosis-related genes, NLRP3, Caspase-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased obviously. And the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria reactive oxygen species (mtROS) increased significantly, we also found the activities of CAT, GSH-px and T-SOD reduce significantly, and the content of MDA have a clear upward trend. We then added NLRP3 inhibitor, Glyburide, to the Cd-treated group, further confirming that NLRP3 is a key gene in pyroptosis pathways by detecting the mRNA and protein expression levels. Besides, the rupture of the cell membrane was also confirmed by Hoechst/PI double staining, red fluorescence increased obviously in the Cd treatment group. The experiment revealed that Cd exposure induces pyroptosis of lymphocytes in carp pronephros and spleens by activating NLRP3. Inhibition of NLRP3 activity can slow down the degree of lymphocytes pyroptosis. Thus, the above information provides a new avenue toward understanding the partial mechanism of Cd exposure-induced pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pronefro/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiologia , Caspase 1 , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Linfócitos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111089, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810645

RESUMO

Early molecular events after the exposure of heavy metals, such as aberrant DNA methylation, suggest that DNA methylation was important in regulating physiological processes for animals and accordingly could be used as environmental biomarkers. In the present study, we found that copper (Cu) exposure increased lipid content and induced the DNA hypermethylation at the whole genome level. Especially, Cu induced hypermethylation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (pgc1α). CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) could bind to the methylated sequence of grp78, whereas C/EBPß could not bind to the methylated sequence of grp78. These synergistically influenced grp78 expression and increased lipogenesis. In contrast, DNA methylation of PGC1α blocked the specific protein 1 (SP1) binding and interfered mitochondrial function. Moreover, Cu increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and damaged mitochondrial function, and accordingly increased lipid deposition. Notably, we found a new toxicological mechanism for Cu-induced lipid deposition at DNA methylation level. The measurement of DNA methylation facilitated the use of these epigenetic biomarkers for the evaluation of environmental risk.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Metilação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105561, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688145

RESUMO

In the aquatic environment, metals are present as mixtures, therefore studies on mixture toxicity are crucial to thoroughly understand their toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to assess the effects of short-term Cu(II) and Cd(II) mixtures, using a fixed concentration of one of the metals, representing 25 % of its individual 96h-LC50 (concentration lethal for 50 % of the population) combined with a variable concentration of the other metal corresponding to 10, 25 or 50 % of its 96h-LC50, and vice versa. Our results showed a fast Cu and Cd bioaccumulation, with the percentage of increase in the order gill > liver > carcass. An inhibitory effect of Cu on Cd uptake was observed; higher Cu concentrations at fixed Cd levels resulted in a decreased accumulation of Cd. The presence of the two metal ions resulted in losses of total Na, K and Ca. Fish tried to compensate for the Na loss through the induction of the genes coding for Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase. Additionally, a counterintuitive induction of the gene encoding the high affinity copper transporter (CTR1) occurred, while a downregulation was expected to prevent further metal ion uptake. An induction of defensive mechanisms, both metal ion binding protein and anti-oxidant defences, was observed. Despite the metal accumulation and electrolyte loss, the low mortality suggest that common carp is able to cope with these metal levels, at least during a one-week exposure.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carpas/genética , Cobre/metabolismo , Transportador de Cobre 1/genética , Transportador de Cobre 1/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Dose Letal Mediana , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634160

RESUMO

Low egg quality and embryonic survival are critical challenges in aquaculture, where assisted reproduction procedures and other factors may impact egg quality. This includes European eel (Anguilla anguilla), where pituitary extract from carp (CPE) or salmon (SPE) is applied to override a dopaminergic inhibition of the neuroendocrine system, preventing gonadotropin secretion and gonadal development. The present study used either CPE or SPE to induce vitellogenesis in female European eel and compared impacts on egg quality and offspring developmental competence with emphasis on the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Females treated with SPE produced significantly higher proportions of floating eggs with fewer cleavage abnormalities and higher embryonic survival. These findings related successful embryogenesis to higher abundance of mRNA transcripts of genes involved in cell adhesion, activation of MZT, and immune response (dcbld1, epcam, oct4, igm) throughout embryonic development. The abundance of mRNA transcripts of cldnd, foxr1, cea, ccna1, ccnb1, ccnb2, zar1, oct4, and npm2 was relatively stable during the first eight hours, followed by a drop during MZT and low levels thereafter, indicating transfer and subsequent clearance of maternal mRNA. mRNA abundance of zar1, epcam, and dicer1 was associated with cleavage abnormalities, while mRNA abundance of zar1, sox2, foxr1, cldnd, phb2, neurod4, and neurog1 (before MZT) was associated with subsequent embryonic survival. In a second pattern, low initial mRNA abundance with an increase during MZT and higher levels persisting thereafter indicating the activation of zygotic transcription. mRNA abundance of ccna1, npm2, oct4, neurod4, and neurog1 during later embryonic development was associated with hatch success. A deviating pattern was observed for dcbld1, which mRNA levels followed the maternal-effect gene pattern but only for embryos from SPE treated females. Together, the differences in offspring production and performance reported in this study show that PE composition impacts egg quality and embryogenesis and in particular, the transition from initial maternal transcripts to zygotic transcription.


Assuntos
Anguilla/fisiologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Oogênese , Hipófise/metabolismo , Salmão/metabolismo , Anguilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ciclina A1/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/química , Hormônios Hipofisários/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zigoto/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111003, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678765

RESUMO

Consumption of fish is one of the predominant sources of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling and frying) on the levels of PFASs in fish muscle and the intake of PFASs was explored by using grass carp collected from Tangxun Lake, Wuhan, China. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFASs in raw fish fillets, with the concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 136 ng/g ww, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (7.73-51.9 ng/g ww). The concentrations of long-chain PFASs in fish increased after cooking, while those of short-chain PFASs decreased. The amounts of PFASs in the cooked fish fillets decreased except PFOS. Short-chain PFASs, including PFBS and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), were dominant in cooking juice. The highest amounts of PFBS in the juices were observed after boiling and frying, even higher than those in cooked fish fillets, suggesting that the release of short-chain PFASs to the cooking juices could not be neglected. Based on these results, the intake of short-chain PFASs amount through cooked fish fillets slightly decreased, but the intake of PFOS amount increased. However, consumption of cooking juice (fish soup) could increase the exposure risk of PFBS. Comprehensively considering the increase of PFOS and decrease of total PFASs, boiling may be the relatively better method to cook fish. As PFASs are ubiquitous and inevitable in aquatic food, it is thus important to choose appropriate cooking processes and dietary habits for reducing the intake of different PFASs from fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Lagos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127341, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563067

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a primary environmental pollutant which causes the immune dysfunction of aquatic animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in programmed necrosis and apoptosis of immune organs. Selenium (Se), known as an important element, can antagonize Cd toxicity in birds, but the impact of Se on common carps (Cyprinus carpio) has not been reported. To investigate the Cd-induced immunotoxicity mechanism mediated by miR-216a in splenic lymphocytes of common carp and antagonized by Se, we extracted lymphocytes from the spleen and divided them into control group, Se group (10-6 mol/L of Na2SeO3), Se + Cd group and Cd group (4 × 10-5 mol/L of CdCl2). After 6 h of incubation, AO/EB staining, Flow cytometry, qPCR and Western blot were performed. The results showed that Cd exposure caused the apoptosis (BAX, Bcl-2, Caspase 3, Caspase 9) and programmed necrosis (RIP, RIP3, MLKL) in lymphocytes, increased the expression of CYP enzymes, glycometabolism-related enzymes and production of ROS, while irritated the oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH-PX), upregulated the expression of miR-216a which attenuated the levels of PI3K. However, those variations were apparently mitigated in the Se + Cd group. In short, we have proven that Cd activates oxidative stress and miR-216a-PI3K/AKT axis disorder, thus promoting apoptosis and necrosis in lymphocytes. Moreover, Se can antagonize Cd-triggered apoptosis and necrosis in lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Baço/citologia
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105493, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408004

RESUMO

Currently, the contamination of water with different insecticides like profenofos (PFF) is a critical concern in the aquatic ecosystem. There are limited studies available on the negative impacts of PFF on common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). Therefore, the existing study was designed to investigate the effect of PFF exposure (1/10 of the 96 h-LC50) on the neurobehavior, growth performance, chemical composition, oxidative status, DNA damage, apoptotic status and histological indices of the brain and gill tissues. In addition, this study seeks to detect the ability of geranium essential oil (GEO) dietary supplementation to mitigate the negative impacts of PFF. Accordingly, a total of 120 healthy fish were divided into four groups: the control group, fed on basal diet only; the other groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 400 mg kg-1 GEO, basal diet and PFF in water (PFF group), and supplemented diet with GEO and PFF in water (GEO + PFF), respectively, for 60 days. The results showed that PFF significantly reduced fish growth performance, crude protein, and lipid contents. It caused several behavioral alterations including spiral movement, decreased activeness, and changes in feeding behavior. Moreover, PFF increased the DNA tail length, tail moment, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Histologically, PFF induced a wide array of circulatory, inflammatory, regressive and progressive alterations in the brain and gill tissues. PFF significantly downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated caspase-3 immuno-expression in both organs. Further, it considerably depleted the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. The GEO supplementation did not reach the respective control values but markedly improved most of the behavioral, physical, biochemical, oxidative, apoptotic, and inflammatory markers, altered by PFF exposure. It also protected the gill and brain tissues from the branchial and encephalopathic effects of PFF. These findings suggest that GEO dietary supplements could be advantageous for mitigating PFF negative impacts and presenting a promising feed additive for common carp in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Geranium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ecossistema , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Food Chem ; 327: 126777, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446027

RESUMO

The micro-flowing water system can improve the flesh quality of freshwater fish using the traditional pond farming method. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not yet been explored. This study intends to examine the changes of metabolites in freshwater fish after treatment with the micro-flowing purification system (MFPS). The UPLC-QTOF/MS based metabolomics method was utilized to screen the metabolites and predict the major possible metabolic pathways after MFPS treatment. There were 377 types of metabolites identified in the fish muscle, of which 54-71 represented significant different metabolites identified during different stages of MFPS treatments. The main mechanism of MFPS treatment in improving the quality of grass carp fish muscle was investigated, and the MFPS treatment was shown to improve the flesh quality and the flavor of grass carp fish muscle. This study could provide the theoretical basis for improving the quality of aquatic products.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Água Doce , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Purificação da Água
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0220485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271754

RESUMO

The individual toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc for common carp juveniles was evaluated in a direct comparison in two experimental setups. First, fish were exposed for 10 days to different metal concentrations in order to link metal bioaccumulation to LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50% of the animals) and incipient lethal levels (ILL, concentration where 50% survives indefinitely). Accumulated metals showed a positive dose dependent uptake for cadmium and copper, but not for zinc. Toxicity was in the order cadmium>copper>zinc with 96h LC50 values for cadmium at 0.20±0.16 µM, for copper at 0.77±0.03 µM, and for zinc at 29.89±9.03 µM respectively. For copper, the 96h exposure was sufficient to calculate the incipient lethal level and therefore 96h LC50 and ILL levels were the same, while for cadmium and zinc 5 to 6 days were needed to reach ILL resulting in slightly lower values at 0.16 µM and 28.33 µM respectively. Subsequently, a subacute exposure experiment was conducted, where carp juveniles were exposed to 2 equitoxic concentrations (10% and 50% of LC50 96 h) of the three metals for 1, 3 and 7 days. Again a significant dose-dependent increase in gill cadmium and copper, but not in zinc, was observed during the 7-day exposure. Copper clearly affected sodium levels in gill tissue, while zinc and cadmium did not significantly alter any of the gill electrolytes. The overall histopathological effects (e.g. hyperemia and hypertrophy) of the metal exposures were mild for most of the alterations. Our study showed that copper an cadmium (but not zinc) showed dose dependent metal accumulation, however this bioaccumulation was only correlated with mortality for cadmium. Metal specific alterations were reduced gill sodium levels in copper exposed fish and oedema of the primary epithelium which typically occurred in both levels of zinc exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126481, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209501

RESUMO

Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a widely used chlorinated flame retardant, which has been extensively detected in the environment. Although DP content in the surface water is low, it can pose a continuous exposure risk to aquatic organisms due to its strong bioaccumulation. Considering that the related studies on the toxicity mechanism of DP exposure are limited, the effect of DP on carp embryo development was evaluated. In the present work, carp embryos were exposed to different concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 µg/L) of DP at 3 h post-fertilization (hpf). The expression levels of neural and skeletal development-associated genes, such as sox2, sox19a, Mef2c and BMP4, were detected with quantitative PCR, and the changes in different developmental toxicity endpoints were observed. Our results demonstrated that the expression levels of sox2, sox19a, Mef2c and BMP4 were significantly altered and several developmental abnormalities were found in DP-exposed carp embryos, such as DNA damage, increased mortality rate, delayed hatching time, reduced hatching rate, decreased body length, and increased morphological deformities. In addition, the activities of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were remarkably higher in 60 and 120 µg/L DP exposure groups than in control group. These results suggest that DP can exhibit a unique modes of action, which lead to aberration occurrence in the early development stage of common carps, which may be related to some gene damage and oxidative stress. Besides, the parameters evaluated here can be used as tools to access the environmental risk for biota and humans exposed to DP.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Compostos Policíclicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Halogenação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110353, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146193

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different waterborne sublethal concentrations of Ag-NPs LC50 (96h) on common carp Cyprinus carpio using a multi-biomarker approach. Fish (9.22 ± 0.12 g) were stocked in fiberglass tanks and exposed to concentrations of 0 (control), 12.5%, 25% and 50% of Ag-NPs LC50 (96h) or Ag-NO3 LC50 (96h), as the source of Ag+ ion, for a period of 21 days. At the end of study, tissue Ag contents were significantly (P < 0.05) higher and different in fish exposed to concentrations of 25% and 50% compared to the control. The numbers of RBCs, hematocrit, and MCHC values at these concentrations differed significantly in respect to the control. No significant effects were observed for hemoglobin, MCH, and MCV values. The number of WBCs was significantly higher at concentrations of 12.5% and 25% compared to the control. Meanwhile, the percentage of neutrophils significantly elevated at concentrations of 25% and 50%. Serum total protein at concentration of 50% detected significantly lower than that of 12.5% or the control. The serum albumin and globulin levels significantly declined in Ag-NPs-exposed groups versus the control. The serum ACH50 and total immunoglobulins showed significantly lower values in the treatments of 25% and 50% compared to the control. The serum glucose, cortisol, ALT, and ALP values significantly escalated upon Ag-NPs exposure. The serum SOD and CAT showed enhanced activity in the treatment of 12.5% vice versa significantly diminished at concentrations of 25% and 50% compared to the control. The exposure to the concentrations of 25% and 50% significantly dwindled the lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin levels in skin mucus. In conclusion, sublethal concentrations of Ag-NPs LC50 (96h) impaired fish health status at higher concentrations and 12.5% of Ag-NPs LC50 (96h) was presumably safe for common carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Bioacumulação , Carpas/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hematócrito , Hematologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana
19.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 243-244: 110430, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105700

RESUMO

To lend insight into the potential role of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in facilitating anoxia survival of anoxia-tolerant vertebrates, we quantified the gene expression of the primary H2S-synthesizing enzymes, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS), in ventricle and brain of normoxic, anoxic and reoxygenated 21 °C- and 5 °C-acclimated freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) and 10 °C-acclimated crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Semi-quantitative Western blotting analysis was also conducted to assess 3MST and CBS protein abundance in ventricle and brain of 5 °C turtles and 10 °C crucian carp subjected to normoxia, anoxia and reoxygenation. We hypothesized that if H2S was advantageous for anoxia survival, expression levels would remain unchanged or be upregulated with anoxia and/or reoxygenation. Indeed, for both species, gene and protein expression were largely maintained with anoxia exposure (24 h, 21 °C; 5 d, 10 °C; 14 d, 5 °C). With reoxygenation, 3MST expression was increased in turtle and crucian carp brain at the protein and gene level, respectively. Additionally, the effect of cold acclimation on gene expression was assessed in several tissues of the turtle. Expression levels were maintained in most tissues, but decreased in others. The maintenance of gene and protein expression of the H2S-producing enzymes with anoxia exposure and the up-regulation of 3MST with reoxygenation suggests that H2S may facilitate anoxic survival of the two champions of vertebrate anoxia survival. The differential effects of cold acclimation on H2S enzyme expression may influence blood flow to different tissues during winter anoxia.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hipóxia/enzimologia , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo , Tartarugas/genética
20.
J Immunol ; 204(7): 1881-1891, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066597

RESUMO

Type I IFN mediates the innate immune system to provide defense against viral infections. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) potentiates the basal activation of endogenous STING, which facilitates the recruitment of TBK1 with the ectopically expressed IRF3 to induce IFN production. Moreover, NIK phosphorylates IKKα and confers its ability to phosphorylate p100 (also known as NF-κB2) in mammals. Our study demonstrated that NIK plays a critical role in IFN production in teleost fish. It was found that NIK interacts with IKKα in the cytoplasm and that IKKα phosphorylates the NIK at the residue Thr432, which is different from the mammals. Overexpression of NIK caused the activation of IRF3 and NF-κB, which in turn led to the production of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Furthermore, the ectopic expression of NIK was observed to be associated with a reduced replication of the fish virus, whereas silencing of endogenous NIK had an opposite effect in vitro. Furthermore, NIK knockdown significantly reduced the expression of IFN and key ISGs in zebrafish larvae after spring viremia of carp virus infection. Additionally, the replication of spring viremia of carp virus was enhanced in NIK knockdown zebrafish larvae, leading to a lower survival rate. In summary, our findings revealed a previously undescribed function of NIK in activating IFN and ISGs as a host antiviral response. These findings may facilitate the establishment of antiviral therapy to combat fish viruses.


Assuntos
Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Viremia/metabolismo , Viremia/virologia , Peixe-Zebra
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