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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125367, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442901

RESUMO

Fish muscle firmness is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance. Phosphorylation is known to change chemical and physical properties of proteins and is thus expected to affect muscle firmness, but only few such phosphoproteins have been identified. To explore phosphoproteins that affect fish muscle firmness, firm muscle (crisp grass carp) and soft muscle (ordinary grass carp) were analyzed by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We identified 27 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated phosphopeptides in crisp grass carp (ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.667, and P-value < 0.05) and their potential upstream kinases. Protein-protein interaction analysis clustered these phosphoproteins into four groups, many of which have been suggested to impact muscle firmness and its postmortem changes: muscle fiber, connective tissue, carbohydrate metabolism and signal regulation. These results provide novel insights into the role of protein phosphorylation in fish muscle firmness and will contribute to the quality improvement of fish products.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Alimentos Marinhos
2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125576, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648092

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 °C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 °C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and α-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 °C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Temperatura Baixa , Conectina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 700, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667668

RESUMO

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the muscle, liver, spleen and kidney tissue of two fish species was studied using an optimised diatomaceous earth assisted modified QuEChERS extraction method. Five-year-old free-ranging male African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and 5-year-old male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from the Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa were used for method development. Acetonitrile extraction produced more precise recoveries than hexane extraction. Fluorene and naphthalene were the most abundant PAHs detected in the majority of fish tissues analysed. PAH bioaccumulation in 5-year-old carp and 5-year-old catfish was in the order muscle > kidney > liver > spleen and liver > muscle > kidney > spleen, respectively. PCBs were mostly detected in carp spleen and kidney. Two-year-old carp were analysed to determine PCB and PAH bioaccumulation trends. The differences in ∑16PAH concentrations between the four organs tested were all statistically insignificant for the 3 fish tested (p > 0.05). All other organs with the exception of 5-year-old carp spleen and 5-year-old carp kidney recorded total 31 PCB concentrations (∑31PCB) < 25 ng g-1. Only 5-year-old carp spleen (∑31PCB of 592 ng g-1) and 5-year-old carp kidney (∑31PCB of 561 ng g-1) had significant differences (p < 0.05) from the spleen and kidney in 5-year-old catfish and 2-year-old carp. Whilst the carp and catfish sampled can be considered low PCB risk foods, 5-year-old carp muscle can be considered to be a high PAH risk food, with a benzo(a)pyrene concentration of 7 µg g-1, based on the EU Commission Regulation 2005/208/EC pertaining to the maximum permissible benzo(a)pyrene level in fresh fish muscle.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , África do Sul
4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113213, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541825

RESUMO

However the physiological stress in aquatic organisms associated with hydropower plants (HPP) ecosystems has been previously investigated, no studies have so far assessed it on biochemical level. Therefore this study evaluated an oxidative stress and toxicity in the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio associated with a small-scale HPP in the West Ukraine. A battery of liver, brain and blood markers was evaluated individuals inhabiting upstream and downstream of the dam of the small-scale Kasperivtci HPP (KHPP; an installed capacity of 7.5 MW), and from a reference site. Number of alterations were noted in fish from the KHPP impoundment facility including signs of oxidative stress (a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in protein carbonyls) and cytotoxicity (an increase in micronucleated erythrocytes and caspase-3 activity). No changes in DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes or brain cholinesterase activity were detected. As demonstrated by the integral stress index, fish associated with downstream of the dam revealed the greatest alterations reflected by the combined oppression of antioxidant system (SOD, catalase) and pro-oxidants (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and oxyradicals), low concentration of metallothioneins, but high cathepsin D activity (as markers of lysosomal dysfunction and autophagy) and increased vitellogenin concentration in males (indicating an endocrine disruption). The study highlights that fish inhabiting ecosystems associated with HPP, particularly downstream of the dam, may face additional stresses with long-term effects yet to be evaluated.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Carpa Dourada/fisiologia , Centrais Elétricas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124869, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549675

RESUMO

Chronic arsenicosis has threatened the survival of aquatic animals with molecular mechanisms yet clear. In the present study, liver damage was evident by fluctuated activities of transaminases and declined ATPases in common carp under arsenic (As) exposure for 30 days. Mechanically, As significantly decreased cytochrome P-1A (CYP1A) activity and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, which corroborated mitochondrial dysfunction in the hepatocytes. This hypothesis was further suggested by Caspase-3-executed apoptosis by death receptor pathway (Fas, TNF-α and Caspase-8) and mitochondrial pathway (Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-9). The above results indicated that As-elicited oxidative damage lead to apoptotic hepatic injury in carp. On the contrary, zinc (Zn) exerted an ROS scavenger and an antidote to As in the present model evidenced by alleviated liver injury and restored liver function index. Moreover, Zn and As co-administration displayed partially recovered CYPs enzyme system and quenched apoptotic positive cells compared As treated alone. These outcomes could be applied to develop counter practices based on Zn preparations to decrease the biotoxicity of As.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33466-33477, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522399

RESUMO

The freshwater polyculture pond culturing occupied an important position in the aquaculture industry. Accumulation of trace metals was investigated in water, sediments, and fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from typical polyculture ponds in Chengdu, China. The results showed most of the pond water in Chengdu were safe for fish cultivation. The Cd and Cr concentrations in sediment samples from sites S3, S4, and S9 which were near the industrial park and road with a high traffic volume were higher than those of the other sites. Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb in sediments were unpolluted, while Cd was unpolluted to moderately polluted due to anthropogenic activities. Cu, Cd, and Pb in fish pond sediment of Chengdu had higher potential mobility under normal environmental circumstances. The trace metal concentrations in liver of three fish species were all higher than those in muscle tissues. The order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values for trace metals was Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd > Ni > 20. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr in the muscle of three fish species were all below the local and international maximum permissible levels. The target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) of trace metals in aquaculture fish ponds in Chengdu were lower than 1, which indicated that the consumption of grass, crucian, and common carp cultivated in the aquaculture ponds of Chengdu pose no health risk to the residents.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos , Carpa Dourada , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Tanques , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30907-30920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446604

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) instead of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for removing Aeromonas hydrophila from water used to culture Cyprinus carpio juvenile. Antibacterial materials as filter media were prepared by coating ZnONPs (two coating methods, referred as ZnA and ZnB) or AgNPs (referred as Ag) on the porous surfaces of zeolite beads. The characterization of coated samples was determined using FESEM, EDS, and GFAAS. The antibacterial activities of prepared samples were evaluated by the zone of inhibition test, tube test, and flow test. The diameter of inhibitory zones formed by ZnONP- and AgNP-coated zeolite beads was significantly higher than uncoated zeolite (control) (P < 0.05). Also, the tube test results revealed 100% killing of the bacterial cells after 24 h of contact to all coated materials. In the flow test (without fish), the antibacterial efficiency of filter columns that contained ZnA, ZnB, and Ag found to be 34.84, 23.77, and 100% after 96 h, respectively. The mortality rate of carp juveniles cultured in infected water treated with AgNP filters was significantly lower than those cultured in infected water or treated with ZnONPs filters (P < 0.05). The results indicated that although ZnONP filter media have somewhat antimicrobial properties (especially in vitro), their ability to complete removal of microorganisms from the water is not as high as AgNP filters. So, it still seems that zeolite coated with AgNPs has a higher potential for water disinfection in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aquicultura/métodos , Carpas/metabolismo , Desinfecção/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química , Prata/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual , Microbiologia da Água , Zeolitas/química , Zinco/farmacocinética , Óxido de Zinco/química
8.
Food Chem ; 301: 125278, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387033

RESUMO

Softening is always a problem in fish preservation. This study was aimed to investigate the role of myofibrillar structural proteins degradation in fish softening. The changes of myofibrillar structural proteins, muscle ultrastructure, myofibril fragmentation, and shear force were studied. The results indicated that during the superchilled preservation of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), small (low-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like desmin and troponin-T initiated textural deterioration, leading to Z-disk weakening and actin loosening. In contrast, giant (high-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like titin and nebulin were degraded in more amount in the later storage, contributing to Z-disk and M-band disassembly and vague of light and dark regions (I and A bands). Compared to each other, desmin and titin played more important part in softening. All these changes were involved in the increase of muscle fibril segments and the sharp decrease of shear force.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Miofibrilas/química , Animais , Conectina/química , Conectina/metabolismo , Desmina/química , Desmina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Troponina T/química , Troponina T/metabolismo
9.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103649, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374321

RESUMO

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is as key mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. ATP is normally sequestered in the intracellular milieu and released by apoptotic and necrotic cells, where it acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator in the extracellular milieu. A limited number of studies have explored the involvement of purinergic signaling in oomycete infections, including Saprolegnia parasitica; this is a most destructive oomycete pathogen, associated with high mortality and severe economic losses for fish producers. The aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic signaling exerts anti- or pro-inflammatory effects in spleens of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) naturally infected by S. parasitica. Animals naturally infected with S. parasitica showed typical gross lesions characterized by cotton-wool tufts on the tail and fins, as well as severe histopathological lesions such as necrosis. Spleen ATP and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx) levels were higher in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica compared to control on day 7 post-infection (PI). Spleen nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity (ATP as substrate) was greater in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica than in uninfected on day 7 PI, while no significant differences were observed between groups with respect to NTPDase (adenosine diphosphate as substrate) and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Finally, adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was lower in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica than in uninfected fish on day 7 PI. In summary, spleen tissue necrosis in the context of saprolegniosis provokes an intense release of ATP into the extracellular milieu, where it interacts with the P2X7 purine receptor and leads to a self-sustained pro-inflammatory deleterious cycle, contributing to an intense inflammatory process. In response to excessive ATP levels in the extracellular milieu, ATP and adenosine hydrolysis were modulated in an attempt to restrict the inflammatory process via upregulation of NTPDase and downregulation of ADA activities. We conclude that the purinergic signaling pathway modulates immune and inflammatory responses during natural infection with S. parasitica.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Micoses , Necrose , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Saprolegnia/patogenicidade , Baço/patologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 411-421, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351285

RESUMO

Sucralose (SUC) is an organochlorine that is used as a common sweetener in different dietary products around the world. Its extended use and production have led to this product is released into the environment in concentrations ranging from ng L-1 to µg L-1 in surface waters, groundwaters, wastewater treatment plants and ocean waters. A previous study carried out by our research team demonstrated that SUC is capable of inducing oxidative stress in Cyprinus carpio at environmentally-relevant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if SUC was capable of inducing alterations to DNA, apoptosis, and oxidative damage in the blood cells of C. carpio. Carps were exposed to two environmentally-relevant concentrations (0.05 and 155 µg L-1) of SUC, and the following biomarkers were determined: comet assay, micronucleus test (MN), caspase-3 activity, TUNEL assay, hydroperoxide content, lipid peroxidation level, protein carbonyl content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Results obtained showed that SUC is capable of inducing DNA damage. A maximum increase of 35% and 23% were observed for c1 and c2, respectively in the comet assay; increases of 586% and 507.7% for c1 and c2, respectively, were found at 72 h through the MN test. The activity of caspase-3 showed a greater response for c1 and c2 at 96 h, with 271% and 493.5%, respectively. TUNEL assay also showed the highest response at 96 h, with 51.8 for c1 and 72.9 for c2; c1 y c2 were able to induce oxidative stress with the highest expression at 72 h. A correlation between DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and plasma levels of SUC in both concentrations were observed. With the data obtained, we can conclude that SUC, at environmentally-relevant concentrations, was capable of generating DNA alterations, apoptosis and oxidative stress in blood cells in common carp.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sacarose/toxicidade , Edulcorantes/toxicidade
11.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(11): 1255-1262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298479

RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) is a biologically active steroid hormone that is involved in the regulation of oocyte growth and maturation, as well as development of the endometrium and implantation in the uterus of humans. It can also stimulate oocyte maturation in female fish, as well as spermatogenesis and sperm motility in male fish. Thus, P4 has been extensively used in human and animal husbandry as a typical progestin. However, P4 remaining in the water environment will pose a potential hazard to aquatic organisms. For example, it can interfere with sex differentiation and reproduction in aquatic vertebrates such as fish. Therefore, we investigated the effects of prolonged progesterone exposure on the expression of genes related to circadian rhythm signaling and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in Yellow River Carp, which may have a potential impact on their sex differentiation. Our results suggested that P4 exposure altered the expression of genes related to circadian rhythm signaling, which can lead to disorders in the endocrine system and regulate the HPG axes-related activities. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to the HPG axes was also altered, which might affect gonadal development and the reproductive systems of Yellow River Carp. In addition, these changes may provide a plausible mechanism for the observed shifts in their sex ratio toward females.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/metabolismo , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/patologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Masculinidade , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 741-748, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344536

RESUMO

Waterborne exposure to arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is inevitable due to its widespread industrial and agricultural applications. Oxidative stress and cascaded programmed cell death is now hypothesized to be the dominant mechanisms of arseniasis evidenced in vivo and in vitro. This study aimed to explore the interaction of divalent zinc ion (Zn2+), an efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger with arsenite in the heart of common carp, and extensively investigated the exact signaling molecules involved. Significant induction of cardiotoxicity including oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy was evident in heart tissues following arsenite exposure (P < 0.05). The dissipation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) was induced by ROS burst, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Arsenite induced classic apoptotic hallmarks, characterized by chromatin degradation and subsequent formation of clumps adjacent, and elevated expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and Caspase family, and also increased autophagic flux evidenced by accelerated formation (LC3) and degradation (p62) of autophagosomes. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was phosphorylated inhibited, while MAPK signaling (p38, ERK and JNK) displayed elevated phosphorylation levels in arsenite-exposed heart tissues. In contrast, above phenomena were effectively inhibited by Zn2+, which supplement attenuated arsenite-induced myocardial toxicity through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, as well as suppressing intracellular ROS cluster via activating antioxidative system via MAPK pathway. Our results provided experimental explanation and evidences for cardiotoxicity of arsenite. Furthermore, our findings hint that the application of zinc preparations may provide a candidate for the prevention and treatment for arsenic poisoning.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Carpas/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Trióxido de Arsênio , Arsenitos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/química
13.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 165-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331515

RESUMO

Temperature is a key factor that influences fish metabolism. Therefore, it is important to understand how temperature variation affects lipid metabolism and energy consumption in fish. We determined respiration frequency, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and lipid metabolism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after 18 days of temperature stress (5 °C and 30 °C, with 17 °C as the control). We found that respiratory frequency was positively correlated with water temperature (p < 0.01), whereas red blood cell count and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content and concentration were negatively correlated with temperature. In liver and heart, triglyceride (TG) levels were lower in both stress groups (5 °C and 30 °C) than in the control (17 °C) (p < 0.01), and highest in muscle from the high temperature stress group (p < 0.01). The non-esterified fatty acid concentration was negatively correlated with TG levels. In brain, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity decreased with increasing temperature and hepatic lipase (HL) activity was lower in both stress groups than in the control (p < 0.01). In muscle, the activity of LPL and HL was lowest in the high temperature stress group, resulting in a significant increase in TG levels. Na+/K+-ATPase activity in heart was lower in both stress groups than in the control (p < 0.01). The expression of LPL mRNA in heart increased with increasing temperature (p < 0.01), whereas LPL mRNA expression in brain and liver increased in both stress groups (p < 0.01). Our results show that temperature can significantly affect lipid metabolism in common carp, and that different tissues respond differently to changes in temperature.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Respiração , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 278-287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349013

RESUMO

In order to illustrate the immunometabolic changes of fish during bacterial infection, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) was injected with Flavobacteriumcolumnare(F.columnare) and then the immune response, nutrient metabolism and related signaling pathways were assayed from 6 h post injection (hpi) to 7 days post injection (dpi). After F.columnare injection, gill lamellae showed obvious fusion and higher mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-8 in the head kidney were also significantly upregulated at 6 hpi and 3 dpi. Moreover, the expression of IgZ in the gill was significantly upregulated at 3 dpi and 7 dpi, while the expression of IgM in the head kidney was significantly upregulated at 1 dpi and 3 dpi after F.columnare injection. During bacterial infection, the systematic nutrient metabolism was also significantly affected. Hepatic glycolysis, indicated by GK mRNA expression and PK activity, was significantly upregulated at 1 dpi, while glucogenesis, indicated by PEPCK mRNA expression and enzyme activity, was significantly increased at later time, which resulted in the decreased hepatic glycogen content at 1dpi but increased glycogen content at 7 dpi in the experimental group. LPL, which catalyzed the lipid catabolism, showed decreased mRNA expression and enzyme activity at 6 hpi, while ACC, which was rate-limiting of FA synthesis, was significantly increased at 6 hpi, 3 dpi and 7 dpi. During this process, the nutrient sensing signaling was also significantly affected. TOR signaling in grass carp was significantly activated while ERK signaling was significantly inhibited after F.columnare infection, both of which might function as the sensor and regulator of fish immunometabolic changes.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/imunologia , Flavobacterium/fisiologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27023-27031, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313232

RESUMO

Ammonia is one of the most common aquatic pollutants. To analyze the effect of ammonia exposure on the glutathione redox system, we investigated the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glutathione, and transcription and activities of glutathione-related enzymes in liver and gills of FFRC strain common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to 0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/L of ammonia. The results showed that H2O2 content reached a maximum level at 48 h of exposure in the liver of fish. In gills, H2O2 increased rapidly at 6 h and reached to maximum levels at 24 h of exposure, indicating that gills experienced oxidative stress earlier than the liver of fish exposed to ammonia. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio increased significantly within 24 h of exposure. Meanwhile, the transcription and activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased significantly in the liver, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and GST increased in the gills of fish exposed to ammonia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content kept at a low level after exposure to low concentration of ammonia, but increased significantly after exposure to 30 mg/L ammonia for 48 h along with a decrease in GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio. These data showed that the glutathione redox system played an important role in protection against ammonia-induced oxidative stress in the liver and gills of FFRC strain common carp, though the defense capacity was not able to completely prevent oxidative damage occurring after exposure to higher concentration of ammonia. This research systematically studied the response of the glutathione redox system to ammonia stress and would provide novel information for a better understanding of the adaptive mechanisms of fish to environmental stress.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1-7, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315061

RESUMO

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important aquaculture fish in China. This study tried to explore the effects of dietary alcoholic extract of lotus leaf (AELL) addition on the growth performance and health status of grass carp by feeding juvenile fish (average weight: 34 ±â€¯1 g) with four different experimental diets: control, AELL7, AELL14 and AELL21 for 8 weeks. At the end of the growth trial, the highest values of final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake (FI) all occurred in group AELL14 (P < 0.05). Compared to control, the crude lipid content of whole-body and the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the three experimental groups decreased, while the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) values almost all increased in the three experimental groups. The highest serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration occurred in AELL14 group (P < 0.05). In AELL14 and AELL21 groups, both the serum complement 3 (C3) concentration and lysozyme (LYS) activity were significantly higher, whereas the final cumulative mortality in challenge test was significantly lower, when compared to those in control group (P < 0.05). The AELL exerted dose-dependent beneficial effects on grass carp health through up-regulating related gene expressions and enzyme activity. In conclusion, the optimal dietary AELL level is 0.14% for juvenile grass carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Nelumbo/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 2093-2100, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257784

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of SrCl2·6H2O to mark otoliths of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp fish were immersed with four concentrations of the Sr compound (i.e., 0, 4, 8, 12 mg·L-1) for 2 d to determine the essential concentration for immersing. Then, the carp fish were immersed in 8 mg·L-1 of the Sr compound for five different immersing times (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 d) to establish the essential immersing time. Results from electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) showed that otolith Sr marks were very obvious in all C. carpio fish of the aforementioned Sr immersed group with high ratio of Sr/Ca concentration and red color (high Sr level) ring map, compared to the control group with low ratio of Sr/Ca concentration and basic blue color (low Sr level) map. We obtained a 100% mark-success rate of otolith Sr marking in juvenile C. carpio. No significant difference were observed on the average body length, mass and mortality between the immersed group and the control group, suggesting that Sr marking had no negative impact on fish. As clear and complete otolith Sr marked rings occurred at concentration of 8 mg·L-1 or more, and immersing time of 2 d or more for the Sr compound, 8 mg·L-1 and 2 d were suggested as the essential immersing Sr concentration and immersing time, respectively. Our results demonstrated the strong feasibility of otolith Sr marking for juvenile C. carpio.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Membrana dos Otólitos/metabolismo , Estrôncio/metabolismo , Animais
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 194-201, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195228

RESUMO

Due to potential adverse effects and bioaccumulation in biota and humans, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have raised wide attention in recent years. Ingestion is a vital pathway for PFASs to transmit to humans especially through water and fish. In present study, PFASs in water and fish from the drinking water source of Beijing in China were investigated. Three layers of water were collected in order to find the connection between concentrations of PFASs and depth of water, which showed no prominent correlation. PFASs in water from Miyun Reservoir with concentrations of 5.30-8.50 ng/L, were relatively lower compared with other reports on raw drinking water. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs. In addition, six species of fish (including Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Erythroculter dabryi, Pseudohemiculter dispar, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Siniperca chuatsi) were analyzed, with concentrations of PFASs ranging from 1.70 to 14.32 ng/g wet weight (w.w.). Due to relatively stronger bioaccumulation potential, long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) were detected with higher concentrations, especially perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of PFASs through drinking water and fish consumption were 0.20-0.34 and 3.44-12.61 ng/kg bw/day based on Exposure Factors Handbook of Chinese Population, respectively. In addition, the EDI of high-priority concern PFASs via pork, chicken and dust were also calculated, with value of 0.015-0.043, 0.003-0.013 and 0.074-0.390 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The total EDI of PFOS and PFOA via diverse pathways were less than suggested tolerable daily intake (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day), indicating that the detected levels would not cause severe health effects on Beijing residents.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Pequim , Caprilatos/análise , Carpas/metabolismo , Criança , Ácidos Decanoicos/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
19.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 963-971, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159146

RESUMO

Bisphenol S (BPS) has been widely used as a bisphenol alternative in recent few years. However, with mounting evidence suggesting that the presence of BPS in the environment also poses risks to ecosystems and human health, we decided to use the juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its primary macrophages as in vivo and in vitro models to examine if BPS is a safe substitute of BPA. The present study evaluated the immune responses of chronic BPS exposure and their mechanisms of action associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Potential oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory effects of BPS exposure were identified in fish liver after 60-day exposure, based on the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, antioxidant capacity, NO production, lipid peroxidation, and induction of inflammatory cytokine expression, as well as acute phase protein levels of C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin M, lysozyme, and complement component 3. Moreover, pparγ, PPAR pathway-associated genes retinoid x receptor α (rxrα) and nuclear factor-κb (nfκb) presented a rough concentration-dependent alteration after BPS exposure. An acute BPS exposure to the isolated primary macrophages from juvenile common carp was performed to help elucidate gene expression patterns of pparγ, rxrα, and nfκb in a typical immune cell model, the results were consistent with what we found in vivo experiments for long-term BPS exposure. Furthermore, with coexposure to BPS and a PPARγ antagonist, the restriction of PPAR signaling pathway significantly inhibited the induction of ROS and the mRNA level of interleukin-1ß, confirming the involvement of PPAR pathway in BPS-induced chronic inflammatory stress in liver.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Animais , Carpas/imunologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Food Chem ; 295: 569-578, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174797

RESUMO

Fish scales are usually discarded or used to produce fish meal, etc. In order to enhance their utility, we produced the gelatin hydrolysates from fish scales (FSGH) and they were heated with glucose, xylose, and ribose to prepare sugar-FSGH Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The antioxidant capacity and sensory property of MRPs were evaluated. The results showed that ribose-FSGH MRPs exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than glucose- and xylose-FSGH MRPs. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity of ribose-FSGH MRPs were 25.32 µM and 193.37 µM Trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, and the reducing power was 0.509. Flavor compounds (such as butanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and maltol) of ribose-FSGH MRPs were produced in abundance after 5 h of heating and ribose-FSGH MRPs exhibited flavor enhanced effect on caramel-like and mouthfulness sensory attributes. These results suggest that ribose-FSGH MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Carpas/metabolismo , Gelatina/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
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