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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267306

RESUMO

The present study investigated the encapsulation of ß-galactosidase in carrageenan, pectin and its hybrid hydrogels by using the ionotropic gelation method. The material obtained was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of pH, temperature and storage time were evaluated in terms of the catalytic activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme. Addition studies were conducted evaluating the performance of catalytic activity in vitro conditions. Carrageenan, pectin and hybrid hydrogels presented encapsulation efficiency of 58 ± 1%, 72 ± 1% and 77 ± 2%, respectively. The pectin hydrogel showed the higher ß-galactosidase activity in pH and temperature tests. However, the carrageenan hydrogel exhibited best stability after been stored for three months. Carrageenan and pectin hydrogels were 2.0 and 2.4 times more efficiently than commercial tablet in the releasing ß-galactosidase under in vitro conditions, respectively. The results suggest that pectin and carrageenan hydrogels may be useful for the development of new formulation of ß-galactosidase.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Pectinas/química , beta-Galactosidase/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Química Farmacêutica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tecnologia Farmacêutica
2.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(1): 1479164119896975, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000529

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products, especially toxic advanced glycation end-products derived from glyceraldehyde (advanced glycation end-product-2) and glycolaldehyde (advanced glycation end-product-3), are biologically reactive compounds associated with diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that toxic advanced glycation end-products were internalised into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells through scavenger receptor-1 class A (CD204). Toxic advanced glycation end-product uptake was inhibited by fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide and antagonistic ligand for scavenger receptors, suggesting that sulphated polysaccharides are emerging candidates for treatment of advanced glycation end-product-related diseases. In this study, we compared the effects of six types of sulphated and non-sulphated polysaccharides on toxic advanced glycation end-product uptake in RAW264.7 cells. Fucoidan, carrageenan and dextran sulphate attenuated toxic advanced glycation end-product uptake. Fucoidan and carrageenan inhibited advanced glycation end-product-2-induced upregulation of SR-A, while advanced glycation end-product-3-induced upregulation of scavenger receptor-1 class A was only suppressed by fucoidan. Dextran sulphate did not affect scavenger receptor-1 class A levels in toxic advanced glycation end-product-treated cells. Chondroitin sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid failed to attenuate toxic advanced glycation end-product uptake. Heparin and hyaluronic acid had no effect on scavenger receptor-1 class A levels, while chondroitin sulphate inhibited advanced glycation end-product-3-induced upregulation of scavenger receptor-1 class A. Taken together, fucoidan and carrageenan, but not the other sulphated polysaccharides examined, had inhibitory activities on toxic advanced glycation end-product uptake and toxic advanced glycation end-product-induced upregulation of scavenger receptor-1 class A, possibly because of structural differences among sulphated polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Carragenina/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Heparina/farmacologia , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(8): 1219-1222, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895373

RESUMO

To monitor delicate changes of biological HOCl in vivo, a new probe (OH-substituted coumarin-hemicyanine, probe 2) was synthesized for NIR and ratiometric HOCl detection. Selectivity studies indicated that the electron-donating group (OH) substituted on the indolium moiety enhanced the selectivity to detect HOCl. With HOCl, the probe showed a ratiometric fluorescence (I500/I650) with a low detection limit (49.1 nM) and a rapid response (within 2 min). In addition, probe 2 was successfully applied to visualize exogenous and endogenous HOCl in living cells and animals and exhibited a perfect mitochondria target ability. This probe has been further studied as a potential and powerful tool to probe HOCl in arthritis models.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/análise , Indóis/química , Animais , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Artrite/diagnóstico , Carragenina , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/toxicidade , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 41(1): 52-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802523

RESUMO

We established three types of thrombosis models to explore the effects of the static magnetic field (SMF) on thrombosis in rats and mice with three different MF intensities. In the carrageenan-induced thrombosis model in rats, the SMF treatments reduced the black tail length of rats, extracorporeal thrombus, and the mass of wet and dry thrombus, and improved the coagulation index value. In FeCl3 -induced arterial thrombosis model in rats, the SMF treatment showed some anti-thrombotic effects. More specifically, the SMF treatment affected rodent blood pressure, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue-type plasminogen activator, thrombus mass, and thrombus protein content. In the adrenaline-induced thrombosis model in mice, the SMF treatment had certain effects on the diameter and blood flow velocity of mouse auricle microcirculation in fine veins and arteries. Overall, the highest MF intensities we tested, 20-150 mT, showed a trend of anti-thrombotic effect, indicating that the moderate-intensity SMF might serve as a potential treatment for clot-related diseases in the future. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020;41:52-62 © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


Assuntos
Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Carragenina/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Compostos de Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Microcirculação , Ativadores de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111863, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740050

RESUMO

In recent years, drug discovery paradigm has been shifted from conventional single target inhibition toward multitarget design concept. In current research, we have reported synthesis, in-vitro, in-vivo and acute toxicity determination of N-substituted pyrrolidine-2,5-dione derivatives as multitarget anti-inflammatory agents. We synthesized cycloalkyl, alkyl and aryl carbonyl derivatives by the Michael addition of ketones to N-substituted maleimides using self-assembled three component system as an organocatalyst. Anti-inflammatory potential of the compounds was determined by using different in-vitro assays, like cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase, albumin denaturation and anti-protease assays. Amongst the synthesized compounds, 13a-e series of compounds showed inhibition in low micromolar to submicromolar ranges. These compounds also demonstrated COX-2 selectivity. Compound 13e with IC50 value 0.98 µM and SI of 31.5 emerged as the most potent inhibitor of COX-2. Based on in-vitro results, in-vivo anti-inflammatory investigations were performed on compounds 3b and 13evia carrageenan induced paw edema test. The possible mode of action of compounds 3b and 13e were ascertained with various mediators like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandin and leukotriene. In-vivo acute toxicity study showed the safety of synthesized compounds up to 1000 mg/kg dose. The selectivity of the compounds against cyclooxygenase isoforms was supported by docking simulations. Selective COX-2 inhibitors showed significant interactions with the amino acid residues present in additional secondary COX-2 enzyme pocket. Furthermore, in-silico pharmacokinetic predictions confer the drug-like characteristics.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Albuminas/antagonistas & inibidores , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Carragenina , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Food Chem ; 306: 125641, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606628

RESUMO

Temperature fluctuation is a common problem in the frozen storage of shrimp products. This study investigated the influence of carrageenan oligosaccharide (CO) and xylooligosaccharide (XO) on the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals in frozen peeled shrimp exposed to temperature fluctuations. Shrimp soaked with water and 3.0% (w/v) Na4P2O7 solution were designated as the negative and positive controls, respectively. Our data revealed that both CO- and XO-soaked shrimp had significant improvements in thawing and cooking loss, myofibrillar protein content, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and textural variables when exposed to temperature fluctuations compared to control samples. Microstructural imaging indicated that soaking the shrimp in CO and XO slowed the progression of damage caused to tissue myofibrils by large ice crystals, as well as inhibited the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals in muscle tissues. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that treatment with the oligosaccharides exhibited marked effects on the stability of muscle proteins and inhibited the degradation of muscle proteins affected by the temperature fluctuations. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the incorporated CO and XO may bind to muscle proteins and capture water molecules in the myofibrillar network through hydrogen bonding, thereby suppressing the myofibrillar denaturation and tissue structure destruction induced by the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Glucuronatos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Animais , Congelamento , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Gelo/análise , Temperatura , Água/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 614-622, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb is a common herb in East Asia. The flower buds are usually regarded as the traditional medicinal part, while leaves and stems are considered less valuable and receive little attention. This study compared the chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory effects of the different tissues in L. japonica Thunb for the first time. RESULTS: Thirty compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole / time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and iridoids were identified as the major components. The flower buds (FLJ), leaves (LLJ), and stems (SLJ) of L. japonica Thunb showed strong similarities in chemical components. The LLJ contained higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids than the FLJ and SLJ. Furthermore, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema assays in mice. Moreover, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ showed a cytoprotective effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were suppressed by treatments of FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ, respectively. The LLJ possessed a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the FLJ. CONCLUSION: Leaves and stems of L. japonica Thunb have chemical components and anti-inflammatory properties similar to flower buds, and may become alternative or supplementary sources of flower buds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112278, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589967

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euryops arabicus (Asteraceae) is grown in Arab Peninsula. Its aerial parts possess ethnomedicinal applications against several inflammatory conditions. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euryops arabicus (E. arabicus) organic extract as well as its major polymethoxylated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute toxicity of the total extract of E. ararbicus was evaluated by assessing LD50. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in rats injected with carrageenan in the plantar area. Paw edema volume, histological changes and rats'stair climbing and motility were assessed. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) challenged with carrageenan. Inflammation markers were assessed in cellular lysates and collected media. RESULTS: The extract was found safe and considered unclassified with an oral LD50 > 2000 mg/kg in rats. Pretreatment of rats with a total extract of E. arabicus at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced increase in paw edema volume and histopathological changes. Also, it significantly ameliorated diminution of climbing and motility. Phytochemical studies led to the isolation and identification of five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated in carrageenan-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). All compounds exhibited appreciable antioxidant activities. Further, pre-incubation of the cells with the isolated metabolites significantly ameliorated the rise in cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by carrageenan challenge. Further, the compounds inhibited the leakage of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in media collected from stimulated cells. CONCLUSION: E. arabicus exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan model as it ameliorated rat paw edema, histopathological changes and movement dysfunction. in vitro activity of isolated compounds was confirmed in stimulated PBMCs. Thus, the anti-inflammatory activity of E. arabicus can be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-chemotactic properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/imunologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Medicina Arábica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 50-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880331

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the influence of ι- and κ-carrageenan addition to strawberry sorbet prepared by various freezing methods (cryostat and conventional freezer) on freezing kinetics and ice crystals structure. Four variants of strawberry-based sorbet were prepared: with no additive, with 0.1% addition of ι- and κ-carrageenan, and 1:1 blend of both. Freezing curves and freezing time, as well as the size and morphology of ice crystals, were analyzed. The addition of carrageenan stabilizers resulted in freezing process elongation. Reference samples were characterized by different dynamics of the freezing process. The addition of carrageenan increased the final temperature of the samples, compared to the reference sample (even 2.6 °C of difference). Additives reduced ice crystals growth. The most efficient was mixture of both fractions of carrageenan--the samples in this variant frozen in conventional freezer were characterized by the smallest ice crystals diameter--average 5.44 µm, while for the reference sample it was 17.79 µm. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research can give a new path for the carrageenan's hydrolysates application--not only for dairy products. Iota carrageenan fraction was recommended for dairy products according to its water-holding capacity in the presence of calcium ions. This study showed that mix of ι- and κ-carrageenan could bring positive results to such product as sorbet without any milk proteins addition. This experiment data could also be helpful when optimizing frozen desserts production in small gastronomy--especially the temperature and time of freezing modifications.


Assuntos
Carragenina/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Gelo/análise , Temperatura , Água/química
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110185, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753345

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are effective antimicrobial reagent, especially for the treatment of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. However, it is difficult to remove the residual harmful reducing agents in AgNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical reduction method. In addition, AgNPs exhibit cytotoxicity when exposed directly to cells for biomedical applications and will rapidly aggregate in aqueous environment. Herein, we develop a new route to synthesize submicron-particles containing AgNPs (κC@Ag MPs) with high aqueous stability, robust antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. AgNPs were firstly greenly synthesized using κ-carrageenan as environmental friendly reducing and stabilizing agent under heating in aqueous solution. Then the AgNPs were immobilized in the net of κ-carrageenan by adding KCl to obtain κC@Ag MPs. The results indicated that κC@Ag MPs were quite stable without any agglomeration and precipitation in aqueous solution for more than three months. κC@Ag MPs exhibited robust antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, even better than that of pure AgNPs. Notably, κC@Ag MPs maintained the long-lasting retention of antibacterial activity. In addition, κC@Ag MPs possessed well cytocompatibility towards the L02 and L929 cells. Overall, κC@Ag MPs may have prospective application as effective and sustainable antibacterial agent in biomedical fields.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Carragenina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Química Verde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110186, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753406

RESUMO

Porosity is indispensable for a bone tissue-engineered scaffold for facilitating endogenous cell migration and nascent bone ingrowth. In large-sized cranial bone defect repair, porous scaffolds meet great challenges to match cranial bone regeneration and provide sufficient protection with structural integrity. Therefore, the pore features of the scaffolds for cranial bone regeneration should differ from those typical porous scaffolds used in tubular bone repair and be finely tuned. In this study, a series of porous mineralized collagen/PCL scaffolds with different pore features were fabricated via freeze-drying and applied in a Sprague Dawley rat cranial bone calvarial defect model. The pore size for four groups increased from 10-45 µm to 40-130 µm. As scaffold porosity increased, the compressive strength decreased from 2.09 ±â€¯0.12 MPa to 0.51 ±â€¯0.04 MPa. The micro-computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction images showed that as pore size and porosity increased, the amount of new bone formation had a maximum in group 3 (pore size: 20-100 µm, compressive strength: 1.06 ±â€¯0.03 MPa). In addition, the histological and histomorphometric analyses showed a consistent tendency which confirmed the Micro-CT results. Meanwhile, histological findings including bony bridging, tissue response at the bone-implant interface and fibrous capsule thickness indicated that the dura mater pathway played the most important role in the regenerative process of this calvarial defect model.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Crânio/fisiologia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Carragenina/química , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Prata/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115485, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826445

RESUMO

Rice starch with hydrocolloids (pectin, xanthan gum, sodium alginate or ι-carrageenan) was gelatinized and subsequently spray dried to prepare pre-gelatinized rice starch (PRS) with hydrocolloids (PRS-H). The PRS-H displayed concave granular shape with amorphous structure, indicating rice starch in PRS-H was completely gelatinized. Cold paste viscosity of PRS-H was enhanced in comparison with that of PRS. Especially, xanthan and ι-carrageenan increased cold paste viscosity of PRS-H more than pectin and alginate did. Cold paste viscosity of physically mixed PRS and hydrocolloids (PRS+H), and flow behavior of hydrocolloids themselves as well as gelatinized starch-hydrocolloids without spray drying (GRS-H) indicated interactions existed between starch and hydrocolloids during the preparation. Swelling power, water solubility index, and dynamic viscoelastic properties of PRS-H were also adjusted by different hydrocolloids. These results showed that premixing hydrocolloids with starch before gelatinization in method of spray drying would be a suitable methodology for manufacture PRS with altered properties.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Gelatina/química , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Alginatos/química , Carragenina/química , Coloides , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química
13.
Food Chem ; 309: 125795, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706675

RESUMO

The efficiency of drug delivery and sensory perception is intertwined with mucoadhesive systems. The physiochemical characteristics of mucus induce flocculation of emulsion droplets, which could significantly influence their sensory perception. In this study, we investigated the interactions between pectin- and carrageenan-coated nanoemulsions with mucin. The size and ζ-potential changes in the nanoemulsions were investigated at pHs 3.0-5.0. The results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in size without the addition of gums; however, the ζ-potential decreases from 2.92 mV to -2.51 mV as pH increased. The stability of nanoemulsions over the extended time (15 days) and at elevated temperature (60 °C) resulted in minimal degree of phase separation observed. The mucin particle size method was employed to characterize mucin-nanoemulsion interactions. Results confirmed that mucin-emulsion complexes were formed instantaneously mostly due to electrostatic interactions. The contact angle analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed contribution of wetting and absorption mechanisms in the mucin interactions.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Emulsões/química , Mucinas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Pectinas/química , Adsorção , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática , Temperatura
14.
Food Chem ; 302: 125299, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437710

RESUMO

Flocculation and sedimentation of a protein-rich biomass from shrimp boiling water (SBW) using food grade polysaccharides (carrageenan, alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) as flocculants was investigated at different pH-values. The effect of flocculant concentration on particle size and viscosity of SBW was also evaluated. Flocculation with carrageenan (0.45 g/L) at pH = 4 exhibited the most efficient protein sedimentation; protein concentration of the upper phase was here reduced by 77%, allowing 86% protein to be sedimented from SBW. Flocculation by alginate and CMC at pH = 4 showed 67% and 60% protein reduction of the upper phase at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. Contrary to alginate and CMC, carrageenan concentration affected the size distribution of flocs. Finally, carrageenan at 0.45 g/L and pH = 4 was successfully tested in a scaled up trial (5L) providing 78.5% protein recovery and a biomass with 75% protein on dry weight basis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Pandalidae/química , Alginatos/química , Animais , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Carragenina/química , Floculação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Viscosidade , Águas Residuárias/química
15.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878353

RESUMO

Changes in lipid profile constitute the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Algae extracted carrageenans are long-chain polysaccharides and their ability to form gels provides for the formation of vegetable jelly. The objective was to evaluate the bioactive potential of carrageenan (E407) in the lipid profile, after ingestion of jelly. A total of 30 volunteers of both sexes, aged 20-64 years and with total cholesterol (TC) values ≥200 mg/dL, who ingested 100 mL/day of jelly for 60 days, were studied. All had two venous blood collections: before starting the jelly intake and after 60 days. At both times, TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG), were evaluated using commercial kits and spectrophotometer. The statistics were performed using the SPSS 25.0 software and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Serum values after 60 days of jelly intake revealed a statistically significant decrease in TC levels (5.3%; p = 0.001) and LDL-C concentration (5.4%; p = 0.048) in females. The daily intake of vegetable jelly for 60 days showed a reduction in serum TC and LDL-C levels in women, allowing us to conclude that carrageenan has bioactive potential in reducing TC concentration.


Assuntos
Carragenina/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861583

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in cardiovascular diseases. Nitrogen monoxide participates in the regulation of endothelial processes. Thus, derivatives of classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), trolox or cinnamic acids esterified with 2-(nitrooxy)ethanol were designed and studied. It was found that the nitrogen monoxide (NO) releasing activity was comparable to that of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. The nitrooxy derivatives decreased potently lipid indices in the plasma of hyperlipidaemic rats (30-85%). All compounds presented increased anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, inhibiting carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema as high as 76%, up to six times higher than that of the parent acids. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was significant for most of them, although the parent molecules exerted a minor effect (IC50 > 0.2 mM). Those compounds incorporating an antioxidant structure inhibited rat microsomal membrane lipid peroxidation strongly and possessed radical scavenging activity. These results indicated that the described compounds could act at different targets in multifactorial diseases, further limiting the possible adverse effects of drug combinations.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Cromanos/química , Cinamatos/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/síntese química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esterificação , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/genética , Estrutura Molecular , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/química , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Ratos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615111

RESUMO

Natural occurring polymers, or biopolymers, represent a huge part of our planet biomass. They are formed by long chains of monomers of the same type or a combination of different ones. Polysaccharides are biopolymers characterized by complex secondary structures performing several roles in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Because of their versatility and biodegradability, some of them are extensively used for packaging, food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries as sustainable and renewable materials. In the recent years, their manipulation at the nanometric scale enormously increased the range of potential applications, boosting an interdisciplinary research attempt to exploit all the potential advantages of nanostructured polysaccharides. Biomedical investigation mainly focused on nano-objects aimed at drug delivery, tissue repair, and vaccine adjuvants. The achievement of all these applications requires the deep knowledge of polysaccharide nanomaterials' interactions with the immune system, which orchestrates the biological response to any foreign substance entering the body. In the present manuscript we focused on natural polysaccharides of high commercial importance, namely, starch, cellulose, chitin, and its deacetylated form chitosan, as well as the seaweed-derived carrageenan and alginate. We reviewed the available information on their biocompatibility, highlighting the importance of their physicochemical feature at the nanoscale for the modulation of the immune system.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biopolímeros/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Polissacarídeos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Alginatos/química , Carragenina/química , Celulose/química , Quitina/química , Quitosana/química , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Amido/química
18.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1078-1086, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549890

RESUMO

This study evaluated to determine the phenolic and flavonoids contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity of the hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves, pulp, and seeds of Annona cacans. The isolation and structural identification of the constituent acetogenin, phenolic acid, and flavonoids were also reported. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ß-carotene/linoleic acid methods. Cell proliferation was determined by spectrophotometric quantification of the cellular protein content using a sulforhodamine B assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in paw edema model, to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by carrageenan in mice. Fractionation resulted in the isolation of one acetogenin (annoreticuin-9-one), two flavonoids (quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside-6-O-α-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-ß-glucoside), and one phenolic acid (p-coumaric acid). The pulp extract presented potent antioxidant activities by the DPPH (IC50 = 44.08 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 39.32 µg/mL) methods, as well as high contents of phenols (618.95 mg GA/g) and flavonoids (477.35 mg QE/g). The bioguided fractionation demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction of the pulp extract and annoreticuin-9-one showed potent antiproliferative activity against ovarian cancer (GI50 = 6.4 µg/mL). The anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated significant inhibition of edema compared to the control group in 2 and 4 h; in addition, the extracts inhibited the increase in MPO activity after 6 h, when compared to the DEX and control groups. For the first time, this study demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity, as well as compounds isolated, suggesting that A. cacans could also be potential sources for prevention of cancer and other diseases associated with oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Acetogeninas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química
19.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(1): 57, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poncirin is flavanone derivative (isolated from Poncirus trifoliata) with known pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-colitic. The present study aimed to explore the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic potentials of poncirin in murine models of inflammatory pain. METHODS: The analgesic potential of poncirin was evaluated in formalin-, acetic acid-, carrageenan- and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain models in mice. Anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic activities were measured using Von Frey filaments, Randall Selitto, hotplate and cold acetone tests. The serum nitrite levels were determined using Griess reagent. The Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assess the effect of poncirin on mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of poncirin (30 mg/kg) markedly reduced the pain behavior in both acetic acid-induced visceral pain and formalin-induced tonic pain models used as preliminary screening tools. The poncirin (30 mg/kg) treatment considerably inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia as well as thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. The qRT-PCR analysis showed noticeable inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) (p < 0.05) in poncirin treated group. Similarly, poncirin treatment also enhanced the mRNA expressions levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as transcription factor such as nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) (p < 0.05), heme oxygenase (HO-1) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (p < 0.05). Chronic treatment of poncirin for 6 days did not confer any significant hepatic and renal toxicity. Furthermore, poncirin treatment did not altered the motor coordination and muscle strength in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain model. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that poncirin treatment significantly reduced pain behaviors in all experimental models of inflammatory pain, suggesting the promising analgesic potential of poncirin in inflammatory pain conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Carragenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Dor Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505754

RESUMO

Novel derivatives of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as of the antioxidants α-lipoic acid, trolox and (E)-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid with lorazepam were synthesised by a straightforward method at satisfactory to high yields (40%-93%). All the tested derivatives strongly decreased lipidemic indices in rat plasma after Triton induced hyperlipidaemia. They also reduced acute inflammation and a number of them demonstrated lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Those compounds acquiring antioxidant moiety were inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and radical scavengers. Therefore, the synthesised compounds may add to the current knowledge about multifunctional agents acting against various disorders implicating inflammation, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lorazepam/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrilatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/farmacologia , Cromanos/química , Cromanos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Lorazepam/análogos & derivados , Ratos , Ácido Tióctico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia
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