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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110252, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148316

RESUMO

China's energy intensive industries have posed great challenges in achieving carbon emissions reduction goals. We calculate the influence of carbon tax levying on the CO2 emissions as well as ecological efficiency of China's energy intensive industries utilizing inter-fuel and inter-factor substitution channel. To allow for the slow adjustment process of the enterprises of different fuels and factors inputs, a dynamic model and three-stage estimation procedure are used. Based on the substitution among fuels and factors, the results indicate that carbon tax levying will make the enterprises transform from consuming coal (with a higher carbon efficient) to lower oil/gas and electricity, and from inputting energy to inputting more labor and capital. Therefore, carbon tax is conductive for the CO2 reduction in China's energy intensive industries. With regard to the two kinds of ecological efficiency, carbon tax plays a negative role in improving them. Thus, carbon tax levy is suggested to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions in China's energy intensive industries. The future assessment tasks should include the ecological efficiency in to make the assessment more reasonable.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Indústrias , China , Carvão Mineral , Ecologia
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 207, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128638

RESUMO

Most discriminant methods do not consider the problem of misjudgment related to the superposition of information from different discriminant indexes. Therefore, we used principal component and Fisher discriminant analysis to model, assess, and classify environmental and ecological quality, and the impacts of coal mining. The analysis uses the following input parameters as discrimination indexes: geomorphology, phreatic water depth, thickness of the phreatic water layer, bedrock thickness above the uppermost coal seam, and thickness of the uppermost coal seam. Twenty-three datasets from the Yushenfu coal mine area, Shaanxi Province, China, were used to train the model. The validity of the model was tested by the backward substitution method, and the misjudgment rate was zero. Seven datasets were then used as test samples in a support vector machine model. Our results show that it is feasible to predict the environmental and ecological impacts of coal mining with principal component analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis, which can effectively eliminate the interaction between the sample variables. This results in a more accurate assessment of mine environmental quality and represents a new method for predicting the impacts of coal mining in environmentally sensitive areas.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Análise Discriminante , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Componente Principal , China , Carvão Mineral
3.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110108, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090821

RESUMO

City-level carbon footprint has been recognized as a useful measure of anthropogenic impact on climate change associated with citizens' activities within the administrative boundary. Although the promotion of consumer responsibility suggests rethinking urban indirect emissions, the detailed methodology is far from satisfactory for realistic applications. Due to the lack of multi-regional input-output tables for most cities, there is a wide application of single regional input-output tables. However, there still lacks further discussion on if there will be an obvious evaluation bias by applying city-level single-regional tables rather than multi-regional ones. To visualize the table coverage on its application consequence, both single- and multi-regional input-output tables were employed to compare disparities in the carbon footprint accounting in the case of Tokyo, Japan. Our analysis shows that the gap of emissions driven by Tokyo's final demand between single- and multi-regional input-output tables was considerably large. Furthermore, the results of multi-regional table were found to be 8.11 MtC higher for coal-generated emissions, 7.83 MtC for crude oil-generated emissions and 2.90 MtC for natural gas-generated emissions than those of the single-regional table. The largest deviation in emissions accounting was observed in the power, gas and heating supply sector, the construction sector and the private service sector. The gap between these two input-output tables was notable for all three types of fossil fuels (coal, crude oil and natural gas). These indicated that coal-generated emissions have been largely ignored by single-regional input-output table. The study highlighted the difference of carbon footprint accounting between these two types of input-output tables. Our findings are intended to assist policymakers and scholars in pinpointing and reallocating sectors that are likely to yield severely biased evaluation of emissions embodied in trade when a multi-regional table is not available.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Carbono , Cidades , Japão
4.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110149, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090841

RESUMO

Waste materials from coal mining and consumer products can pose significant risks to the environment. Residual coal deposits lead to the formation of acid drainage and release of contaminants, causing negative changes in soil and aquatic systems. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) polymers are an environmental concern due to their high useage, and slow degradation in the environment. In this study both waste materials were used to develop a composite to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal mining waste (CMW). The composite material was produced in different formulations (0-80 % wt CMW), and samples were tested for formation of acid drainage and release of contaminants. Chemical characterisation of the CMW and leachate of the composite materials was performed by X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry. Ecotoxicological effects in soil and water were investigated using standard tests with the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, the collembolan, Folsomia candida and the bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri. Composites with 20 % wt LDPE showed a 50% increase in the pH value of the leachate compared to the CMW leachate. Iron, aluminium and sulfate concentrations were lower in leachates of the composite materials, and a reduction in the ecotoxicological impact on the tested organisms was observed. The hydrophobic nature of the composite's polymeric matrix as well its physical properties contributed to a better coating of the coal residue particles, blocking the contact with water and reducing the environmental risks of CMW. These results show that the production of composite material is a viable alternative route for treating coal and LDPE waste.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Animais , Brasil , Carvão Mineral , Meio Ambiente , Mineração , Polietileno , Reciclagem
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122906, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028218

RESUMO

Lignite could be used to promote methane production during high-solid anaerobic co-digestion (HS-AcoD) of pig manure, however, the effects of lignite amendment on the fate of ARGs during HS-AcoD are unknown. Here, we explored the influence of lignite (0%, 8%, 16%, 32%, and 64%) on the fate of ARGs during HS-AcoD of pig manure. The results showed that 16% lignite reduced the absolute abundance of ARGs by 28.71% compared with the 0% lignite treatment. Variation partitioning analysis suggested the combined effect of microbial community, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and environmental factors was the major driver shaping the pattern of ARGs. The potential hosts of ARGs were Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Tissierella and Streptococcus. Structural equation models analysis suggested lignite indirectly impacted the pattern of ARGs by significantly reducing the abundance of microbial community and MGEs. These findings give an insight into the mechanistic understanding of the lignite influence on the reduction of ARGs during HS-AcoD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Carvão Mineral , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Suínos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122876, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007854

RESUMO

Co-pyrolysis and steam co-gasification of wheat straw (WS) and lignite coal (LC) were studied in a tube furnace between 700 °C and 900 °C. Synergistic effect in co-pyrolysis is not always apparent. However, with the introduction of H2O vapor, synergetic effect is more obvious. Gas volume generated by co-gasification was higher than the prediction in all cases. Meanwhile, temperature played an important role and had a linear relationship with the excess gas volume when it exceeded 800 °C. These findings can be explained by that sufficient H2O vapor could enhance synergy according raising catalytic effect of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs), promoting free radical generated and increasing reactivity of half-chars. Moreover, co-gasification of WS and LC with several blending ratios were studied at 850 °C. It found H2O vapor could promote free radical formation stronger with higher ratio of WS during co-gasification, thus showing an enhancing effect on the reactivity of WS-derived chars.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Vapor , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Triticum
7.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050337

RESUMO

Understanding exposure to air pollution during extreme events such as fire emergencies is critical for assessing their potential health impacts. However, air pollution emergencies often affect places without a network of air quality monitoring and characterising exposure retrospectively is methodologically challenging due to the complex behaviour of smoke and other air pollutants. Here we test the potential of roof cavity (attic) dust to act as a robust household-level exposure proxy, using a major air pollution event associated with a coal mine fire in the Latrobe Valley, Australia, as an illustrative study. To assess the relationship between roof cavity dust composition and mine fire exposure, we analysed the elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of roof cavity dust (<150µm) from 39 homes along a gradient of exposure to the mine fire plume. These homes were grouped into 12 zones along this exposure gradient: eight zones across Morwell, where mine fire impacts were greatest, and four in other Latrobe Valley towns at increasing distance from the fire. We identified two elements-barium and magnesium-as 'chemical markers' that show a clear and theoretically grounded relationship with the brown coal mine fire plume exposure. This relationship is robust to the influence of plausible confounders and contrasts with other, non-mine fire related elements, which showed distinct and varied distributional patterns. We conclude that targeted components of roof cavity dust can be a useful empirical marker of household exposure to severe air pollution events and their use could support epidemiological studies by providing spatially-resolved exposure estimates post-event.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Austrália , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mineração , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumaça/análise
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122991, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078906

RESUMO

In this work, the pyrolysis behavior of lignite, Chinese herb residues (CHR) and their blends were explored by thermogravimetric analysis. The co-pyrolysis improved the pyrolysis characteristic of lignite, leading to an increment of index D. Analysis results showed that 30%-50% of CHR add ratio was the appropriate choice for co-pyrolysis with lignite. It was clarified that synergetic effects between lignite with CHR occurred during the co-pyrolysis treatment. And the promoting effects were dominated at 240 °C to 310 °C, while it turned to inhibiting effects at 315 °C to 355 °C. The pyrolysis kinetic evolution was adapted by a new general distributed activation energy model with four pseudo-components. The simulation results demonstrated an excellent match with the adjusted coefficients Radj2 over 99.97%. In addition, G-DAEM further considered A-E kinetic compensatory effect. The outcomes enriched the applicability of this model in thermal process of other fuels.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Termogravimetria
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123024, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086035

RESUMO

In present study, evaluate the effect of fine coal gasification slag (FCGS) as additive on abundance of bacterial diversity during pig manure composting. The six different dosages of FCGS 0% (T1), 2% (T2), 4% (T3), 6% (T4), 8% (T5) and 10% (T6) (dry weight basis) were mixed with original raw materials for 42 days an aerobic composting. The results indicated that FCGS adopted could affect the succession of bacterial diversity in different ways. Among all treatments, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, unidentified_Bacteria, and Actinobacteria were the highest abundance in weighted unifrac distance but Firmicutes; Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes were main bacteria in unweighted unifrac distance. The ß-diversity and principal component analysis indicated a significant difference in bacterial diversity in all treatments which T4 obtained difference obviously. Therefore, the results showed that T4 was a potential candidate to enhance significantly abundance of bacterial community in PM compost.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Spirochaeta , Animais , Bactérias , Carvão Mineral , Esterco , Solo , Suínos
10.
Waste Manag ; 105: 84-91, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035330

RESUMO

The utilization of agricultural wastes in existing pulverized coal power plants is an attractive option to alleviate environmental pollution and reduce over-exploitation of fossil fuels. A coupled system model of biomass gasification coupled to a coal-fired boiler is established in Aspen Plus and successfully validated by experimental data. A 20 t/h straw gasifier operates at the rated capacity and the straw gas is introduced to the boiler running at different loads. The co-firing ratio increases with the reduction of boiler load. Results indicate that the main parameters, such as furnace combustion temperature, flue gas temperature, and NO and SO2 emission decrease with the reduction of boiler load. Compared to pure coal combustion, co-firing can reduce the furnace combustion temperature and increase the flue gases temperature. More importantly, the coal consumption, and NO and SO2 emissions are reduced at all loads, especially at lower loads. The excess air ratio should be adjusted to obtain the optimum combustion performance in the furnace, but there is still a slight drop of around 0.2% in boiler efficiency when co-firing. Meanwhile, the coupled system efficiency at various loads can reach slightly more than 84% under optimum conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carvão Mineral , Biomassa , Gases , Centrais Elétricas , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 135292, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019003

RESUMO

Coal production and utilization are recognized as two principal sources of potentially toxic elements in the environment. Here the published literature (2008-2018) was searched to collect data on As, Ni, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils near different types of coal industrial areas such as coal mines, thermal power plants, coal chemical plants, coal mining cities and coal waster piles. The contamination levels of soils and associated health risks were assessed using global reference materials and multiple contamination indices. The results revealed that average concentrations of potentially toxic elements varied widely, yet most of them exceeded global averages in background soils and upper continental crust concentrations. Spatial distribution analysis suggested the concentrations of potentially toxic elements varied according to coalification and combustion conditions. Higher concentrations were found in Southeast Asia, South Europe, and North Africa compared with other regions. Assessment of the geoaccumulation index revealed that contamination levels of Cd and Hg were higher than those of other elements. In particular, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Hg were most likely to accumulate in soils near coal mining areas, while Cd and Hg tended to accumulate near coal chemical plants. Regarding non-carcinogenic risks, oral ingestion was the major pathway of exposure to potentially toxic elements in coal industry-associated soils, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Tolerable non-carcinogenic risk of potentially toxic elements and relatively high carcinogenic risks of As were observed. Children were most vulnerable to non-carcinogenic risks, while the carcinogenic risks estimated for adult and children populations were similar. Accordingly, As should be designated as top candidates for priority control to protect human health in the vicinity of coal industry-associated areas. This study provides timely information for developing control and management strategies to reduce soil contamination by potentially toxic elements in different types of coal industrial areas.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , África do Norte , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Medição de Risco
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1363-1371, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904230

RESUMO

The dry impinger method, the indirect dilution method, and the direct dilution method can be used to measure the condensable particulate matter (CPM) emissions. We tested these methods in determining the CPM emissions from typical stationary sources in China and found that the CPM concentrations measured by the dry impinger method are much higher than those measured by the two dilution methods regardless of the type of stationary source. The soluble gases (e.g., SO2, HCl, and NH3) partially absorbed by the impinger solutions are the main reason for the overestimation of the CPM concentrations. This is supported by detecting more water-soluble ions (e.g., SO42-, Cl-, and NH4+) from the CPM collected using the dry impinger method. The positive biases of the CPM concentration and its water-soluble ions collected by the dry impinger method are larger under the conditions with high concentrations of soluble gases such as at the flue gas desulfurization inlet in coal-fired power plants. Comparing to the direct dilution method, the indirect dilution method can better capture the rapid dilution, cooling, and condensation of condensable gas precursors in the presence of filterable particulate matter and is recommended as the appropriate method for the CPM measurement in stationary sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , China , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Íons , Centrais Elétricas
13.
Waste Manag ; 104: 192-197, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981820

RESUMO

The article presents the results pertaining to granulation of two types of fly ash from (1) coal (hard coal) incineration and (2) lignite (brown coal) combustion. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of granules were compared to obtain the good quality of aggregates. Three types of binders were added to the ash blends: hydrated lime, Portland cement and phosphogypsum. The experimental technological line was used for pelletizing the fine mixtures; then, the obtained granules were tested immediately after their manufacturing (in fresh state) as well as after curing. The addition of binder improved their mechanical properties. Granulation of powders regimented with strictly defined shares of grains fraction. The axial compression test was conducted to find the best toughness, with consideration of the curing time of granules. Granules in the diameter of 15-18 mm were obtained using a disc granulator. The comparison revealed that the granulation of coal fly ash was more effective because of the processing conditions, and the obtained bodies were characterized by better mechanical properties then those made of the lignite fly ash.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Carvão Mineral , Materiais de Construção , Incineração
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2122-2132, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944680

RESUMO

As scientists seek to better understand the linkages between energy, water, and land systems, they confront a critical question of scale for their analysis. Many studies exploring this nexus restrict themselves to a small area in order to capture fine-scale processes, whereas other studies focus on interactions between energy, water, and land over broader domains but apply coarse resolution methods. Detailed studies of a narrow domain can be misleading if the policy intervention considered is broad-based and has impacts on energy, land, and agricultural markets. Regional studies with aggregate low-resolution representations may miss critical feedbacks driven by the dynamic interactions between subsystems. This study applies a novel, gridded energy-land-water modeling system to analyze the local environmental impacts of biomass cofiring of coal power plants across the upper MISO region. We use this framework to examine the impacts of a hypothetical biomass cofiring technology mandate of coal-fired power plants using corn residues. We find that this scenario has a significant impact on land allocation, fertilizer applications, and nitrogen leaching. The effects also impact regions not involved in cofiring through agricultural markets. Further, some MISO coal-fired plants would cease generation because the competition for biomass increases the cost of this feedstock and because the higher operating costs of cofiring renders them uncompetitive with other generation sources. These factors are not captured by analyses undertaken at the level of an individual power plant. We also show that a region-wide analysis of this cofiring mandate would have registered only a modest increase in nitrate leaching (just +5% across the upper MISO region). Such aggregate analyses would have obscured the extremely large increases in leaching at particular locations, as much as +60%. Many of these locations are already pollution hotspots. Fine-scale analysis, nested within a broader framework, is necessary to capture these critical environmental interactions within the energy, land, and water nexus.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Água , Biomassa , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Centrais Elétricas
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1992-2001, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894980

RESUMO

The existing technologies to control Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants can be improved to achieve the centralized control of Hg0 emissions, which continue to pose a risk of Hg exposure to human populations. In this work, MoSx@γ-Fe2O3, formed by the sulfuration of phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo)-grafted γ-Fe2O3, was developed as a magnetic and regenerable sorbent to recover gaseous Hg0 from coal-fired flue gas as a cobenefit to the use of wet electrostatic precipitators. The thermal stability of γ-Fe2O3 was notably enhanced by HPMo grafting; thus, the magnetization of MoSx@γ-Fe2O3 hardly decreased during the application. The kinetic analysis indicates that the chemical adsorption of gaseous Hg0 was mainly dependent on the amounts of surface S22- and surface adsorption sites. Although the amount of S22- on sulfurated γ-Fe2O3 decreased after HPMo grafting, the amount of surface adsorption sites significantly increased due to the formation of a layered MoSx structure on the surface. Therefore, the ability of sulfurated γ-Fe2O3 to capture Hg0 was improved considerably after HPMo grafting. Furthermore, low concentrations of gaseous Hg0 in coal-fired flue gas can be gradually enriched by at least 1000 times by MoSx@γ-Fe2O3, which facilitates the recovery and centralized control of gaseous Hg0 in flue gas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Cinética , Molibdênio , Ácidos Fosfóricos , Centrais Elétricas
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2429-2438, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990528

RESUMO

The strengthening carbon mitigation efforts to meet the 1.5 °C target requires the development of zero/negative CO2 emission technologies to eliminate large direct CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel fired power stations. Amine scrubbing is a dominant technology to capture CO2 from fossil-fuel power stations, but its application in achieving zero/negative emission in power stations is rarely reported. The present study investigates the MEA-based technologies to achieve zero and negative CO2 emission in coal-fired power stations, and their techno-economic performance was evaluated in detail. These zero/negative-emission technologies include 99.7% CO2 capture from flue gas (zero emission), biomass cocombustion with coal integrated with CO2 capture at ratios of 10% biomass/90% CO2 capture and 5% biomass/95% CO2 capture (zero-emission), and 10% biomass/95% CO2 capture for negative-emission power station. Our investigation revealed that these zero/negative-emission technologies are technically and economically viable, and their CO2 avoided costs did not significantly increase compared to the standard 90% CO2 capture. The CO2 avoided cost for 99.7%-capture is estimated at $66.5/tonne CO2, which is $2.6/tonne CO2 higher than that of 90%-capture. The biomass cocombustion zero/negative-emission technologies show better economic performance with CO2 avoided cost of $64.1-64.8/tonne CO2, which is only $0.2-0.7/tonne CO2 higher than the standard 90%-capture. These results indicate that the amine-based CO2 capture integrated with biomass cocombustion technology would be economically competitive to achieve zero or even negative CO2 emissions in coal-fired power stations.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Centrais Elétricas , Aminas , Biomassa , Carvão Mineral
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8285-8307, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900771

RESUMO

Self-heating occurring was studied in the Bytom coal-waste dump using petrographic, mineralogical, and organic geochemical to assess the changes induced by heating on organic material and quantify-qualify the emitted gases. The distribution of geochemical markers such as n-alkanes, alkylbenzenes, alkylcyclohexanes, phenols, sulfurous compounds, and emitted gases in the waste dump is outlined. Heating of organic material there is indicated by high vitrinite random reflectance (Rr)% values that typically characterize samples with short-chain n-alkanes, alkylbenzenes, and alkylmethylbenzenes. Contents of minerals showing minor alterations are high with ~ 90% in burned-out samples. Inside the dump where temperatures can reach up to 700-1300 °C and oxygen contents are significantly reduced, conditions favor coking. This situation is confirmed by the formation of enormous quantities of phenols and alkylbenzenes or by elevated amounts of H2 formed under low-oxygen conditions (pyrolysis). Aromatization, pyrolysis (thermal cracking), and oxidation are associated with the heating in the dump. Gases such as methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene formed during self-heating can serve as fuel for the fire inside the dump, in the process generating huge amounts of CO2.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Calefação , Carvão Mineral/análise , Oxigênio/química , Polônia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110135, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901537

RESUMO

In the study, first-time personal exposure level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured during cooking hours in participants of three different types of kitchen both in the particulate and gaseous phase using traditional and improved cookstoves. Along with that, indoor particulate matter (PM) concentration was also estimated during the cooking hours to examine the impact of intervention in different kitchens. The results of the study clearly revealed that the kitchen characteristics and type of cookstove technology have a significant impact on PM2.5, PM1 and PAHs concentration. Cookstoves intervention has resulted in maximum reduction of PM1 i.e. 75% in an enclosed kitchen followed by semi-enclosed and open kitchen having 71% and 52%, respectively. In addition, correlation analysis of PM2.5 and PM1 with PAHs showed a strong association (r2 = 0.9), showing the affinity of PAHs to bind to fine range of particles. Health risk assessment was also carried out to assess the PM daily dose and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk due to inhalation of PAHs. The study confirmed the personal concentration of PAHs compounds was significantly high (p < 0.05) during use of traditional cookstove compared to improved cookstove among all the three kitchens. Furthermore, to measure the toxicity levels, PAHs concentrations have been converted to benzo[a]pyrene equivalence for calculating cancer and non-cancer effects using toxicity equivalency factors. The overall lifetime carcinogenic risk was the highest 2.5E-03, 6.4E-04 among women who prepared meals in the enclosed kitchen compared to 8.4E-04, 1.3E-04 in semi-enclosed and 2.2E-04, 4.6E-05 in the open kitchen during use of traditional and improved cookstoves, respectively, which exceeded the US EPA standard i.e. 1 × 10-6. The study underlined the importance of personal monitoring for exposure, and risks-based studies along with the time-activity of user to measure the actual inhalation risk for the participants. These findings indicated that women are exposed to hazardous smoke in the indoor kitchen and are at greater risk of developing cancer, especially in rural areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Gases/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113455, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706755

RESUMO

The contamination of ground water with arsenic is a great public health concern. This paper discusses the possible formation mechanism of high As groundwater; identify the main influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on As occurrence in groundwater; and finally estimates As-induced potential health hazards in an intensive agricultural region, Datong Basin (Northern China). Our findings indicate that the predominant controlling factors of As in groundwater can be divided into natural factors and anthropogenic activities. Natural factors can be classified as natural potential source of As, environmental geological characteristics and hydrochemical conditions; anthropogenic activities are manifested in industrial coal mining, domestic coal burning, agricultural irrigation return flow and excessive application of fertilizers, and groundwater exploitation. Microbial and/or chemical reduction desorption of arsenate from Fe-oxide/hydroxide and/or clay minerals, As-bearing Fe-oxide/hydroxide reduction coupled with sulfate reduction, and competition with phosphorus are postulated to be the major process dominating As enrichment in the alkaline and anoxic groundwater. In addition, age-dependent human health risk assessment (HHRS) was performed, and high risk values reveal a high toxic and carcinogenic risk of As contaminate for population who is subject to the continuous and chronic exposure to elevated As.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , China , Carvão Mineral , Fertilizantes/análise , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Oxirredução
20.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113390, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706768

RESUMO

With increasingly severe air pollution, the aggravated health risks of particulate matter, especially ultrafine particles, are emerging as an urgent and sensitive topic. Considering the heterogeneity and complexity of ultrafine particles, there is insufficient evidence about their toxic effects and possible molecular mechanisms. To address this question, we analyzed the emission characteristics of quasi-ultrafine particles collected during winter in a typical coal-burning city, Taiyuan, and confirmed their contribution to lung cancer cell adhesion and metastasis. For the specific mechanism, we revealed that the endocytosis of quasi-ultrafine particles stimulated the release of HMGB1, induced NFκB-facilitated proinflammatory cytokine production through the interaction of HMGB1 with RAGE, and resulted in cancer-endothelial cell adhesion. These findings remind us of the potential effects of anthropogenic quasi-ultrafine particle pollution and provide a theoretical reference for the mitigation of tumorigenesis in a severe particulate matter contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Propriedades de Superfície
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