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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110190, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148266

RESUMO

Quality of soils of the arid zones with low organic matter can be improved through the application of natural amendments especially biochar from various available feedstocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of corn residue and poultry manure and their biochars on soil organic carbon (SOC), hot-water soluble carbohydrates (HWSC), basal soil respiration (BSR),and structural stability determined by HEMC (high-energy moisture characteristic). A sandy loam soil in pots were thoroughly mixed with 1, 2 and 4% w/w of corn residues (CR) and poultry manure (PM) feedstock and their biochars prepared at 350 and 650 °C of slow pyrolysis. Maize seeds were planted in pots and grown until physiological maturity when soil characteristics were measured. Treatments considerably altered the means of studied soil quality indicators, and increased SOC (1.5-10 times) and HWSC (1-7 times), and HEMC indices: volume of drainable pores ratio (VDPR, 1.5- 3.5 times), and stability ratio (SR, 1-3 times). Increasing pyrolysis temperature, regardless of the type and rate of feedstock, significantly decreased the SOC, BSR and percent of water-stable aggregates, and consequently structural stability indices. Contribution of both PM feedstock and its biochars was less effective than the CR ones (particularly the biochar produced at higher pyrolysis temperature), due to elevated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) associated with higher slaking, physico-chemical dispersion and lower aggregate and structural stability.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110246, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148312

RESUMO

Reclamation of degraded soils such as those with low organic carbon content and soils co-contaminated with toxic elements and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern. Little is known about the efficiency of plant- and animal-derived biochars for improving plant growth and physicochemical and biological properties of co-contaminated soils, particularly under low content of organic matter. Hence, a pot trial was carried out by growing pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) to assess the influence of different doses (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%) of animal (pig carcass) and wood (Platanus orientalis) derived biochars on soil properties, nutrient availabilities, plant growth, and soil enzyme activities in two soils containing low (LOC) and high (HOC) organic carbon contents and co-contaminated with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalic acid (DEHP) and cadmium (Cd). Biochar applications improved pH, salinity, carbon content, and cation exchange capacity of both soils. Addition of biochars significantly increased the bioavailability and uptake of phosphorus and potassium in the plants in both soils with greater effects from pig biochar than wood biochar. Biochar additions also significantly enhanced urease, sucrase, and catalase activities, but suppressed acid phosphatase activity in both soils. The impact of pig biochar was stronger on urease and acid phosphatase, while the wood biochar was more effective with sucrase and catalase activities. The biomass yield of pak choi was significantly increased after biochar addition to both soils, especially in 2% pig biochar treatment in the LOC soil. The positive response of soil enzymes activities and plant growth for biochar addition to the Cd and DEHP co-contaminated soils indicate that both biochars, particularly the pig biochar can mitigate the risk of these pollutants and prove to be eco-friendly and low-cost amendments for reclaiming these degraded soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carvão Vegetal , Metais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Suínos , Madeira
3.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110255, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148317

RESUMO

Vegetation Filters (VFs) can be a sustainable solution to treat wastewater and to recover resources such as nutrients, water and biomass from small municipalities and isolated dwellings. However, under certain conditions, the leakage of nutrients, especially of nitrate, can represent a limitation. The addition of two sustainable soil amendments, woodchips and biochar, has been tested as a strategy to improve nutrient attenuation in VFs increasing sorption sites and microbial activity. To this end, unsaturated infiltration and batch experiments have been carried out at laboratory scale. The systems for infiltration experiments contain natural soil, natural soil amended with woodchips and natural soil amended with biochar. To determine the sorption capacity of NH4+, batch tests were performed using an amendment/SWW ratio of 1:20 and an NH4+ initial concentration ranging from 30 to 600 mg L-1. Results from the infiltration experiments show a high attenuation (~95%) of total phosphorous (TP) independently of the amendments. Different behaviour is observed for total nitrogen (TN). The removal of this species is obtained only in the soil amended with woodchips (>85%) whereas the natural soil alone and the soil with biochar have no impact on TN attenuation. In these two porous media, all the NH4+ input concentration is transformed to NO3- that infiltrates without further reactions. According to batch experiment results, the potential role of biochar in the nutrient attenuation is limited to sorption processes (Kd (NH4+) = 21.37-193.18 L kg-1). Woodchips act primarily as a labile source of carbon promoting biodegradation, being more effective for nutrient attenuation than the sorption capacity of biochar.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Águas Residuárias , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Solo
4.
Water Res ; 174: 115629, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113013

RESUMO

A novel technique for phosphorus recovery from the liquid phase of anaerobic digestate was developed using biochar derived from iron-rich sludge (dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton's reagent). The biochar pyrolyzed from iron-rich sludge at a low temperature of 300 °C (referred to as Fe-300 biochar) showed a better phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity (most of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate) than biochars pyrolyzed at other higher temperatures of 500-900 °C, with the maximum P adsorption capacity of up to 1.843 mg g-1 for the liquid phase of anaerobic digestate. Adsorption isotherms study indicated that 70% P was precipitated through chemical reaction with Fe elements, i.e., Fe(II) and Fe(III) existed on the surface of the Fe-300 biochar, and other 30% was through surface physical adsorption as simulated by a dual Langmuir-Langmuir model using the potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH2PO4) as a model solution. The seed germination rate was increased up to 92% with the addition of Fe-300 biochar after adsorbing most of P, compared with 66% without the addition of biochar. Moreover, P adsorbed by the chemical reaction in form of iron hydrogen phosphate can be solubilized by a phosphate-solubilizing microorganism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the total solubilized P amount of 3.045 mg g-1 at the end of an incubation of 20 days. This study indicated that the iron-rich sludge-derived biochar could be used as a novel and beneficial functional material for P recovery from the liquid phase of anaerobic digestate. The recovered P with biochar can be re-utilized in garden soil as an efficient P-fertilizer, thus increasing the added values of both the liquid phase of anaerobic digestate and the iron-rich sludge.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Adsorção , Anaerobiose , Carvão Vegetal , Compostos Férricos , Fertilizantes , Ferro
5.
Waste Manag ; 105: 457-466, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135467

RESUMO

Biochar from agricultural biomasses and solid wastes represents a win-win solution for a rational waste management. Its sustainable usage requires the identification and standardization of biochar characteristics. The aim of this work was to identify the physical-chemical and spatial characteristics of biochars from pruning residues (PR), poultry litter (PL), and anaerobic cattle digestate (CD) at two pyrolysis temperatures (350 °C and 550 °C). The biochar characterization was carried out by applying emerging imaging techniques, 2D automated optical image analysis and hyperspectral enhanced dark-field microscopy (EDFM), and by SEM analysis. As predictable, the feedstock composition and the pyrolysis temperature strongly influence the physical structures of the biochar samples. Irrespective of charring temperature, PR biochar was mainly characterized by a broken and fragmented structure with an irregular and rough particle surface, completely different from the original PR wood cell. The EDFM imaging analysis evidenced the thermal degradation of PR vegetal products, composed primarily of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. On the contrary, small and regular particles with a smooth surface were produced by the PL pyrolysis, especially at 550 °C, due to the lower PL morphological homogeneity in comparison with the other biomasses. Finally, CD charring at both temperatures was characterized by changes in chemical composition, suggested by a lower pixel intensity. In conclusion, the emerging imaging techniques used in this study proved to be very effective in analyzing some properties of biochars, and can, therefore be considered as promising experimental strategies for detecting the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature of biochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Microscopia , Animais , Bovinos , Temperatura Ambiente , Madeira
6.
Waste Manag ; 105: 511-519, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143146

RESUMO

In order to improve characteristics of biochar, especially enhance immobilization of heavy metals in biochar, swine manure was pyrolyzed at low pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C) with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) added (0.5% and 2%, W/W). Results showed that NaOH addition during pyrolysis increased the pH, EC, ash content, yield rate, aromaticity and hydrophily, but did not increase surface area and porosity of resultant biochars. The addition of NaOH promoted the transformation of the mobile fraction of Cu, Zn and Cd into the oxidizable fraction. With respect to Cr and Pb, the oxidizable and residual fractions were increased slightly by the presence of NaOH. Meanwhile, adding NaOH could reduce the leachability and ecological risks of heavy metals in biochars. Our study suggested that NaOH-assisted pyrolysis of swine manure was an effective disposal approach for the immobilization of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Hidróxido de Sódio , Suínos
7.
Waste Manag ; 105: 531-539, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146414

RESUMO

Preparation of biochar from industrial solid wastes is receiving increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, alkaline protease, neutral protease and collagenolytic protease are used in preliminary steps of leather production, which are expected to replace the traditional chemical agents while preserving quality of the finished leather. The protease application has remarkable positive influence towards characteristics of biochar prepared by collagen-containing solid wastes produced in preliminary steps. The enzymatic action time should be more than 3 h for complete permeation and catalysis, and the diameters of treated collagen fibers were in the range of 10 to 20 nm. The micro-cracks occurring on collagen fibers would have an obviously impact on the formation of biochar. The application of proteases reduce the pollution of traditional production through replacing traditional polluted chemicals, and the characteristics of biochars are obviously improved with good surface area and high carbon content approximately 70%. Its surface area can reach 967 m2/g. These biochars contain oxygen-containing functional groups, and the oxygen content of biochars are all over 20%. The enzyme application in leather production are effective to the properties of biochars prepared by collagen-containing solid wastes. This research can serve as a basis for the preparation of biochar derived from of natural bio-wastes thereby promoting the development of biomaterials.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Resíduos Sólidos , Colágeno , Peptídeo Hidrolases
8.
Waste Manag ; 105: 560-565, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163835

RESUMO

The paper examines the process of carbonization of waste from corncobs at carbonization temperatures within a range of 300-700 °C in a laboratory-scale reactor. These studies are important because of reductions in wood resources for the preparation of barbecue charcoal due to environmental protection laws and legislative processes in many countries aimed at the protection of forest resources. The results presented here include the physical and chemical properties of char as a function of carbonization temperatures as well as the characteristics of the heating rate of a fixed bed of corncobs and within a single corncob particle. The combustion characteristics of the char were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the volatile matter yield of the char decreased, whereas the fixed carbon yield and higher heating value (HHV) increased, along with higher carbonization temperatures. TGA analysis shows that the ignition and burnout temperature of the char increased, with a simultaneous decrease in the value of the S index, along with increased carbonization temperatures. The results show that carbonization temperatures of 500 °C and above meet the standards for the production of barbecue charcoal.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Zea mays , Carbono , Temperatura Ambiente , Madeira
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 240, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185514

RESUMO

Metal ion contamination in wastewater is an issue of global concern. The conventional methods of heavy metal removal from wastewater have some drawbacks, ranging from generation of sludge to high cost of removal. Adsorption technique for copper(II), zinc(II), and chromium(VI) using activated carbon has been found efficient. However, it is not economical on a large scale. This, therefore, necessitates the search for economical and readily available plant biomass-based activated carbons for the sequestration of the metal ions. This review presents the state of the art on the adsorption of copper(II), zinc(II), and chromium(VI) from industrial wastewater. Based on the literature review presented, the groundnut husk and corncob based activated carbons were found to possess the maximum adsorption capacities for copper(II), zinc(II), and chromium(VI) removal, when compared with the other plant biomass-based activated carbons. The high values of the adsorption capacities obtained were as a result of the isotherms and pH of the adsorbent as well as the initial concentration of the metal solutions. From the review, the equilibrium data fitted better with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms than with other isotherms. Research gaps were identified which include a need to investigate the kinetic and the thermodynamic behaviors of the metal ions onto the studied adsorbents. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the three types of activation of the adsorbents should be investigated using single and multi-metals. The optimization of particle size, contact time, temperature, initial concentration, and adsorbent dosage for adsorption of copper(II), zinc(II), and chromium(VI) onto the studied adsorbents using response surface methodology is equally required.


Assuntos
Cromo , Metais Pesados , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Zinco/isolamento & purificação
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122801, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004811

RESUMO

To provide insight into direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) via carbon-based materials and ferric oxides, the effects of three conductive materials (i.e. activated carbon (AC), iron modified activated carbon (FEAC) and goethite (FEOOH)), on methanogenesis from volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were evaluated. Under the acid stress (~4 g/L VFAs), the maximum methane yield of 266 mL/g-chemical oxygen demand (COD) was found in the FEOOH supplemented reactor, which was 48% higher than that of AC reactor. The reasons for the enhanced activity of the electron transport chain and extracellular electron transfer ability by FEOOH include: 1) the activation on iron-containing enzymes that involved in methanogenesis and acidogenesis; 2) selective enrichment on functional microorganism. The higher electron donating capacities (EDC) value of FEOOH may be a triggering factor on the growth of Syntrophomonadaceae, which perform DIET with methanogens (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina) for the syntrophic degradation of VFAs.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Methanosarcina , Anaerobiose , Transporte de Elétrons , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Compostos de Ferro , Metano , Minerais
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122842, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006925

RESUMO

In this work, magnetic wakame biochar nanocomposites for the first time had been synthesized to investigate their adsorption to methylene blue dye. As-prepared magnetic biochar samples were obtained by the impregnation method to load nickel on wakame biochar via one-step carbonization with activation agent KOH at 800 °C. The prepared samples were characterized by BET, XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, TEM and so on. The results exhibited that the maximum adsorption capacity of BW(Ni)0.5 to methylene blue could reach 479.49 mg/g at 20 °C. The adsorption behavior was more suitable for Langmuir isotherm equation and the kinetic data were most consistent with the pseudo second-order model. And also, the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process. After five cycles, it was found that BW(Ni)0.5 had a high adsorption capacity for methylene blue (117.58 mg/g). This study demonstrated that wakame biochar could have great potential in dye wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Undaria , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Azul de Metileno , Termodinâmica
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122805, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007847

RESUMO

Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) is an advanced technology in treating pharmaceutical wastewater, but the membrane fouling limits its development. In this study, the biochar with adsorption capacity of biopolymers was added in AnMBR to investigate its potential in treating pharmaceutical wastewater and alleviating membrane fouling. In the biochar-amended AnMBR, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) was removed effectively, and more COD was biotransformed into CH4. Membrane fouling mitigation was achieved in the third stage with a 56% decrease of average transmembrane pressure difference (TMP) rising rate. The predominant culprit, proteins of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS-proteins) in sludge mixture and cake layer, was reduced significantly. Particularly, the proportion of micromolecular (0.1-0.15 kDa) EPS-proteins in cake layer was 1.5-folds that of the control group. The important bio-foulant genus Arcobacter aggregating on the membrane had less and almost half the relative abundance (16.5%) than that of the control group (30.7%).


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Membranas Artificiais , Esgotos
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122850, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007849

RESUMO

This study analyzed the chemical speciation, leaching ability, and environmental risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in cow manure biochar (CMBC) pyrolyzed at various temperatures. The total content, chemical speciation, and leaching ability of the heavy metals were determined through microwave digestion, modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure, and leaching solution systems (TCLP, distilled water, and SPLP). The risk assessment code, Muller geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index, and germination index were used to evaluate the environmental safety and ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Significant differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of CMBCs. The heavy metal contents in CMBCs were higher than those in CM. The bioavailable fraction of heavy metals was transformed into a relatively stable fraction with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the potential risks and ecotoxicity of biochar were reduced, thus improving environmental safety. The study results provide important data for biochar applications.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Pirólise , Medição de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122876, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007854

RESUMO

Co-pyrolysis and steam co-gasification of wheat straw (WS) and lignite coal (LC) were studied in a tube furnace between 700 °C and 900 °C. Synergistic effect in co-pyrolysis is not always apparent. However, with the introduction of H2O vapor, synergetic effect is more obvious. Gas volume generated by co-gasification was higher than the prediction in all cases. Meanwhile, temperature played an important role and had a linear relationship with the excess gas volume when it exceeded 800 °C. These findings can be explained by that sufficient H2O vapor could enhance synergy according raising catalytic effect of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs), promoting free radical generated and increasing reactivity of half-chars. Moreover, co-gasification of WS and LC with several blending ratios were studied at 850 °C. It found H2O vapor could promote free radical formation stronger with higher ratio of WS during co-gasification, thus showing an enhancing effect on the reactivity of WS-derived chars.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Vapor , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Triticum
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 137012, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041056

RESUMO

This 2-year (2017 and 2018) field study evaluated biochar and nitrogen application rates effect on herbage phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal from a mixed-grass sward of tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) irrigated with treated wastewater. Treatments used in this study carried out at the Main Station Field Laboratory, Reno, NV were three biochar application rates (0, 8.9, and 17.8 Mg/ha), and three N rates (0, 80, and 120 kg N/ha) arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design experiment with four replications of each treatment combination. Responses were considered different P < 0.05. There was a linear increased in soil volumetric water content as biochar rate increased from 0 to 17.9 Mg/ha. However, biochar application rate did not affect the quantity of biomass produced, forage tissue P and N concentrations, P and N removal or interact with the other experimental variables of N rate and year to influence the response variables. There was, however, an N rate effect (P < 0.05) on biomass production and it was greater for the 80 and 120 kg N rate (average = 8.3 Mg DM/ha) relative to the 0 kg N/ha rate (6.0 Mg DM/ha). Further, cumulative P removal for the 80 and 120 kg N rate (average = 48.9 kg/ha) was greater than the 0 kg N/ha rate (38.1 kg/ha), and cumulative N removal was in the order 120 kg N/ha (321.1 kg/ha) > 80 kg N/ha (267.4 kg/ha) > 0 kg N/ha (187.8 kg/ha). There was a trend for a biochar × N rate interaction on soil P concentration and it tended to be greater for the combinations 8.9 and 17.8 Mg/ha biochar rates and 80 and 120 kg N/ha rates compared to the unamended control. Even though our study did not reveal a definitive effect of biochar on the major response parameters (biomass, tissue P and N concentrations) evaluated, the trend for a biochar × N rate interaction on soil P concentration offers hope that biochar-amended soils coupled with appropriate N fertilization will be effective in P retention on agricultural landscapes irrigated with treated wastewater.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Poaceae , Solo , Águas Residuárias
16.
Water Res ; 172: 115432, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004911

RESUMO

Biological activated carbon (BAC) is widely used as a polishing step at full-scale drinking water plants to remove taste and odor compounds and assimilable organic carbon. BAC, especially with pre-ozonation, has been previously studied to control regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) and DBP precursors. However, most previous studies only include regulated or a limited number of unregulated DBPs. This study explored two full-scale drinking water plants that use pre-chloramination followed by BAC and chloramine as the final disinfectant. While chloramine generally produces lower concentrations of regulated DBPs, it may form increased levels of unregulated nitrogenous and iodinated DBPs. We evaluated 71 DBPs from ten DBP classes including haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, halonitromethanes, haloacetaldehydes, haloketones, iodinated acetic acids, iodinated trihalomethanes, nitrosamines, trihalomethanes, and haloacetic acids, along with speciated total organic halogen (total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine) across six different BAC filters of increasing age. Most preformed DBPs were well removed by BAC with different ages (i.e., operation times). However, some preformed DBPs were poorly removed or increased following treatment with BAC, including chloroacetaldehyde, dichloronitromethane, bromodichloronitromethane, N-nitrosodimethylamine, dibromochloromethane, tribromomethane, dibromochloroacetic acid, and tribromoacetic acid. Some compounds, including dibromoacetaldehyde, bromochloroacetamide, and dibromoacetamide, were formed only after treatment with BAC. Total organic halogen removal was variable in both plants and increases in TOCl or TOI were observable on one occasion at each plant. While calculated genotoxicity decreased in all filters, decreases in overall DBP formation did not correlate with decreases in calculated cytotoxicity. In three of the six filters, calculated toxicity increased by 4-27%. These results highlight that DBP concentration alone may not always provide an adequate basis for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos
17.
Water Res ; 172: 115489, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006772

RESUMO

Benzene is a toxic contaminant and can harm many aquatic species and cause serious damages to the river eco-system, if released to rivers. In 2012, a major spill accident occurred on the Huaihe River in Eastern China with 3 tons of benzene released to the river section 70 km upstream of a natural reserve. Two emergency measures were taken to minimize the impact of the accident on the natural reserve: 1) flow control by adjusting upstream sluices to delay the arrival of the contaminant plume at the reserve and 2) in-situ treatment using activated carbons to reduce the contaminant concentration. Here we develop a process-based mathematical model to analyze the monitoring data collected shortly after the accident, and explore not only how effective the adopted measures were over the incident but more importantly the mechanisms and critical conditions underlying the effectiveness of these measures. The model can be used as a tool for designing optimal management responses to similar spill accidents in regulated river systems, combining flow control and in-situ treatment.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Benzeno , Carvão Vegetal , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
18.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care ; 00: 1-9, Feb., 2020. graf., ilus.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1052925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficiency of hemoperfusion in removing South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom from rats compared with neutralization by antivenom. DESIGN: An exploratory experimental investigation in rats involving the injection of snake venom with or without subsequent hemoperfusion or antivenom administration. SETTING: Basic animal research laboratory in a private university. ANIMALS: Normal, healthy male Wistar rats (0.29-0.40 kg, 3-6 months old) from a commercial breeder. INTERVENTIONS: Four experimental groups of randomly allocated rats (n = 3/group) were studied: Group 1: rats were injected with a single dose of venom (5 mg/kg, IM, in the right thigh) with no other treatment; blood samples were collected minutes before death to determine leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte counts; Group 2 (Control): rats underwent hemoperfusion alone for 60 min using a hemoperfusion cartridge designed for protein adsorption (by granulated charcoal) and protein precipitation (by tannic acid); Group 3 (Venom + antivenom): rats were injected with venom (5 mg/kg, IM) and, 10 min later, were treated with antivenom at the venom:antivenom ratio recommended by the manufacturer; Group 4 (Venom + hemoperfusion): Rats were injected with venom (5 mg/kg, IM) and, 10 min later, were hemoperfused for 60 min. In groups 2-4, blood samples were collected for leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte counts 24 h after venom. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Rats injected with venom alone (Group 1) developed signs of neurotoxicity and ataxia and died in 9.0 ± 0.43 h but showed no changes in leukocyte or erythrocyte counts. In contrast, there were no deaths in groups 2-4. The lack of deaths in Groups 3 and 4 indicated that antivenom and hemoperfusion, respectively, protected against the lethal effects of the venom. ONCLUSIONS: Hemoperfusion with a double-action hemoperfusion cartridge capable of protein adsorption and precipitation protected rats against C. d. terrificus venom. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Hemoperfusão , Proantocianidinas , Venenos Elapídicos , Carvão Vegetal
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122962, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066092

RESUMO

The influence of pig manure biochar amendment (PMBA) during the pig manure (PM) and wheat straw (WS) composting was evaluated. Five concentration of PMBA (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and10%) were applied to explore the bacterial distributions in PM compost by 16SDNA amplicons sequencing. The results showed that the addition of 6% PMBA could significantly enhanced the bacterial community abundance compared with other composts, while control has relative less bacterial population (332 OTU). The visualization of phylogenetic tree and krona demonstrated the distinctive distribution of each composts, suggested that biochar dosages have an influence on bacterial communities' variation during co-composting. Beta-diversity of distance matrix heat-map and principal component analysis confirmed that bacterial communities were considerably correlated with increasing PMBA. Redundancy also confirmed the similarity and discrepancy among all treatments and environmental factors. This work considered as the potential of PMBA as a booster in composting, where T4 has most plentiful bacterial community and diversity.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Filogenia , Solo , Suínos
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 122978, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066094

RESUMO

Batch experiments followed by solid-phase analyses were conducted to explore As(III) and As(V) removal mechanisms by Fe-modified biochars (FeBC) pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 600, and 900 °C). Arsenic removal by FeBC, best described by pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, increased from 73.8 to 99.9% for As(III) and 86.8 to 99.9% for As(V) as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The addition of calcite enhanced the removal efficiency (all > 99%). Confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (CMXRFI) analyses indicated As co-located with Fe and diffused deeper into the particles as the pyrolysis temperature increased. For As(III)-spiked systems, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data indicated 20.2 to 81.5% of As(III) was oxidized to As(V) as the pyrolysis temperature increased; an increase of oxidation efficiency was observed after adding calcite. For As(V)-spiked systems, no As(V) reduction was observed. Overall, As(III/V) removal using FeBC was affected by the spatial distribution and species of As.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Síncrotrons , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Raios X
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