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1.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1172-1179, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561308

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was cultivated in a Cd-contaminated soils with rice straw biochar (BC) and water-washed rice straw biochar (W-BC) were applied to investigate the underlying mechanisms and possible reasons for biochar's weakening effects on the immobilization of Cd in soil-rice system. The results indicated that W-BC reduced the Cd concentration in pore water as well as in the roots and shoots of rice by 26.24%, 53.23% and 62.47% respectively. On the contrary, there was an increase in Cd contents by 50.27% in pore water, 2.32% in the roots, and 12.80% in the shoots of rice under BC treatment. Furthermore, Cd content in rice shoot was significantly and positively correlated with Cl- addition to the soil (P < 0.01). This phenomenon could be attributed to several combined effects: (1) the increase of Cl- in the soil decreased the soil pH, enhanced the dissolved organic carbon in soil pore water and increased the complexes of Cd2+ and Cl-, resulting in the release of Cd from solid phase into solution phase, (2) the chloride in the soil increased the uptake of CdCl+ instead of Cd2+ by the roots, thereby causing an increase of Cd in rice tissues. These results demonstrate for the first time that biochar with high chloride content could weaken its immobilization effects on soil Cd and even enhance Cd uptake by rice.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluição Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 329-338, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537769

RESUMO

In this study, biochar was prepared from Alternanthera philoxeroides (AP) under O2-limited condition at 350 °C (LB) and 650 °C (HB) and treated with aging by HNO3/H2SO4 oxidation. Structural changes of the biochar after aging treatment and the treatment's effect on Pb(II) absorption were explored. The results showed that oxygen-containing functional groups, aromatic structure and surface area of the biochar increased after the aging treatment. However, the integrity of the tubular structure was broken into fragments. The adsorption process of Pb(II) was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and fitted by the Langmuir model. With the increase of pH, the adsorption capacities of Pb(II) increased gradually, and the adsorption effect was best at pH 5. The aged HB presented a decrease of the carboxyl group, which caused less adsorption capacity of Pb(II) than that of aged LB. The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) on fresh biochar at 350 °C and 650 °C were 279.85 and 286.07 mg·g-1 and on aged biochar were 242.57 and 159.82 mg·g-1, respectively. The adsorption capacity of HB for Pb(II) was higher than that of LB, and the adsorption capacity of aged biochar for Pb(II) decreased obviously, which might be attributable to changes in physicochemical properties of biochar after the aging treatment.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Chumbo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3245-3251, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529900

RESUMO

Biochar, with high degree of carbon stability, is considered as a kind of carbon sequestration material that can effectively alleviate the greenhouse effect. It is of great significance for carbon sequestration and mitigation to develop biochar with high carbon retention and stability. Mineral modification can regulate the stability of biochar. However, the relevant research has not received enough attention, and the underlying mechanism is not very clear. Firstly, the evaluation indices of biochar stability were summarized, mainly including H/C atomic ratio, O/C atomic ratio, coefficient of stability R50, volatile-matter content, thermal weight loss rate of carbon, carbon (chemical) oxidation loss rate, and cumulative CO2 emission of microbial mineralization. Then, based on the analysis of impact factors of biochar stability (such as raw material type, carbonization condition, external environment, etc.), we reviewed research progress about the effects of mineral modification on biochar stability. Furthermore, possible mechanisms of both enhancement and weakening effects on biochar stability were put forward. Enhancement is mainly due to the effects of physical barrier of minerals and the organic mineral complex formed by the interaction of mineral and biochar. While weakening effect is mainly due to special mineral composition, such as the Fe-bearing mineral composition, which promotes the thermal decomposition of biochar at high temperature. Finally, future research directions were proposed, in order to promote the development of carbon sequestration technology of biochar and provide technical support and theoretical basis for obtaining more stable biochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Minerais/química , Solo , Sequestro de Carbono
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 107-118, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471017

RESUMO

Biochar (BC) and rhamnolipid (RL) is used in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, however, the combined effect of BC and RL in phytoremediation has not been studied until now. In this paper, the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using novel plant Spartina anglica was enhanced by the combination of biochar (BC) and rhamnolipid (RL). Samples of petroleum-contaminated soil (10, 30 and 50 g/kg) were amended by BC, BC+ RL and rhamnolipid modified biochar (RMB), respectively. After 60 day's cultivation, the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) for unplanted soil (UP), planted soil (P), planted soil with BC addition (P-BC), planted soil with BC and RL addition (P-BC + RL) and planted soil with addition of RMB (P-RMB) were 8.6%, 19.1%, 27.7%, 32.4% and 35.1% in soil with TPHs concentration of 30 g/kg, respectively. Compared with UP, the plantation of Spartina anglica significantly decreased the concentration of C8-14 and tricyclic PAHs. Furthermore, the application of BC and RMB alleviated the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to Spartina anglica via improving plant growth with increasing plant height, root vitality and total chlorophyll content. High-throughput sequencing result indicated that rhizosphere microbial community of Spartina anglica was regulated by the application of BC and RMB, with increase of bacteria and plant mycorrhizal symbiotic fungus in biochar and RMB amended soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Petróleo/análise , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11322-11330, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449402

RESUMO

The simultaneous effects of biochar on soil organic matter (SOM, C4) and sweet potato (SP) residue (Ipomoea batatas, C3) mineralization were studied over 180 days via 13C and 14C isotopic label partitioning. Upon concomitant SP residue addition, biochar mineralization decreased by 11% of the total added biochar-C. Compared to positive priming effects induced by biochar amendment alone on SOM (0.46 mg C g-1 soil) at 180 days, amendment solely with SP residues induced significantly larger effects (1.5 mg C g-1 soil). Combination biochar and SP residue addition reduced SOM mineralization by 20.5% and increased SP residue mineralization by 10.1%. Biochar addition caused preferential uptake of SP residues over SOM by microbes. Thus, the lower priming effects on SOM and CO2 emission induced by biochar amendment with or without SP residues compared to that from SP residue addition alone may result in crop residues being partly pyrolyzed to biochar in the cropland.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Cinética , Solo/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9450-9459, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381326

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the sorption, dissipation, and leaching of the herbicide mesotrione in soil amended with fresh and field-aged biochars, when added to the soil. The aging process was performed by burying the fresh biochar at 10 cm depth in three soils located in different points across the USA [Wisconsin (ABC_WI), Idaho (ABC_ID), and South Carolina (ABC_SC)] for six months. ABC_ID and ABC_SC slightly increased the sorption of mesotrione in soils, whereas ABC_WI removed greater amounts of herbicide from the solution. This was attributed to differences in water-soluble components and metal content of this aged biochar. Consequently, the persistence of the herbicide in the amended soils with fresh biochar and ABC_ID and ABC_SC were similar to that in unamended soils, while ABC_WI slightly increased mesotrione half-life. Differences between treatments were detected in leaching studies although no direct relationship with the dissipation batch studies was observed. Mesotrione leaching could not be detected in soil columns amended with ABC_WI and was high for the rest of treatments. The outcomes from this work demonstrate that temporal variability of biochar sorption capacities due to soil exposure can occur altering mesotrione's behavior in biochar-amended soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cicloexanonas/química , Herbicidas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Adsorção , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1037-1043, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466144

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) elucidated from biochars enhances the dissolution of iron oxides and reduction of iron. However, given that reduction mechanism of iron (Fe(III)) in the practical biochar applications for soil amendment and environmental remediation have not been fully elucidated, this study laid great emphasis on the photo-induced Fe(II) liberated from DOM-Fe(III) complexes. Thus, pyrolysis of biomass was carried out at 300 °C to maximize DOM release from biochars. Moreover, three different biomass samples (rice straw (R), granular sludge (G) from an anaerobic digester, and spent coffee grounds (C)) were chosen as carbon substrates for biochars preparation. To demonstrate the transformation of Fe(III), 1 and 5 wt% biochar was applied to the clean (S1) and arsenic-contaminated (S2) soil with/without the light. The results indicate that the light condition produces more Fe(II). The amount of Fe(II) accounts for 25.3, 28.6, and 30.7% of total iron under the light with 5 wt% GB, RB, and CB in S1, and 10.6, 13.1, and 13.8% in S2. This study demonstrates that Fe(II) is generated more under ultraviolet irradiation than visible light and dark condition. In addition, a control experiment without biochar showed that DOM plays an important role in the reduction of Fe(III). The mobility of arsenic increased under the light condition since the intermediates of DOM photo-degradation accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides and arsenic competes with DOM for the adsorption. Therefore, there was no significant correlation between the elution of arsenic and the formation of Fe(II) during the reductive dissolution of iron oxide under the light condition.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Arsênico/química , Biomassa , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostos Férricos , Ferro/química , Oryza , Oxirredução , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química
8.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 1038-1046, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434181

RESUMO

Biochar application to fertilized paddy soils has been recommended as an effective countermeasure to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions, but its mechanism and effective duration has not yet been adequately elucidated. A laboratory incubation experiment was performed to gain insight into the combined effects of fresh and six-year aged biochar on potential methane oxidation (PMO) in paddy soils with ammonium or nitrate-amendment. Results showed that both ammonium and nitrate were essential for CH4 oxidation though high ammonium (4 mM) inhibited PMO as compared to low ammonium (1 mM and 2 mM), and that nitrate was better in promoting PMO than ammonium. Moreover, ammonium-amendment promoted type I pmoA, and nitrate-amendment enhanced type II pmoA abundance. Both fresh and aged biochar increased PMO as well as nitrification by enhancing the total, type I and type II methanotrophs as compared to the control. Increased soil PMO with mineral N input in both six-year aged biochar and fresh biochar amendment, indicating that biochar mitigated CH4 by promoting PMO for prolonged period in fertilized paddy soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Metano/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Nitratos , Nitrificação , Oryza , Solo/química
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 751-761, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255813

RESUMO

This article focuses on implementing multivariate analysis to evaluate biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (BCN) from three different feedstocks for the detection and differentiation of heavy metal ions in aqueous systems. The BCN were produced from dairy manure, rice straw and sorghum straw biochar using our NanoRefinery process. The NanoRefinery process transforms biochar into advanced nanomaterials using depolymerisation/chemical oxidation and purification of nanomaterials using solvent extraction. Dairy manure biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (DMB-CN), rice straw biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (RSB-CN) and sorghum straw biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (SSB-CN) were utilised as probes for the evaluation of their fluorescent properties and the detection of heavy metal ions. The BCN fluorescence quenching and fluorescence recovery was tested with lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+) and mercury (Hg2+). Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis were used to differentiate among heavy metal ions in water samples. The BCN from different feedstocks had different characteristics and produced different interactions with heavy metal ions. DMB-CN had the highest quenching for Hg2+ and Ni2+ while SSB-CN and RSB-CN responded best to Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The fluorescence quenching was modelled using linear and empirical functions. PCA and discriminant analysis used the quenching measurements to differentiate heavy metal ions in aqueous system. A key result was that the discriminant analysis had a 100% accuracy to detect Pb2+, 66% for Ni2+ and Cu2+, and 33% for Hg2+. This study has shown that biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials could be used in heavy metal ions sensing applications. This is the first step in the development of a fast and accurate method for the detection of heavy metal ions in waters using environmentally friendly BCN.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Análise Multivariada
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109432, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306919

RESUMO

Vegetation cover can be used in the phytomanagement of polluted areas by adding value to abandoned sites and reducing the dispersion of pollutants by erosion. Appropriate amendments, that allow both efficient plant growth and the immobilization of contaminants in the soil must be chosen in order to optimize the efficiency of this process. We used a mining technosol mainly contaminated by arsenic (1068 mg kg-1) and lead (23387 mg kg-1) to study the effect of three amendments (biochar, compost and iron grit) on (i) physico-chemical properties of the soil and soil pore water, (ii) metal(loid) mobility, bioavailability and bioaccessibility (CaCl2 and Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET)), and (iii) the capability of Trifolium repens to germinate and grow. All the amendments used increased the pH and electrical conductivity of the SPW, resulting in a 90% decrease in the concentration of lead in the soil pore water (SPW). We also demonstrated a decrease in Pb phytoavailability. The amendments allowed the establishment of a plant cover, although the addition of iron grit alone did not allow any clover germination. For the Pontgibaud technosol, the combination of the three amendments resulted in a significant decrease in As and Pb concentrations in clover tissues, mainly in the aerial organs. The amendments also made it possible for some of them to halve the phytoavailable fraction of arsenic. However, for compost, both the As concentrations in the SPW, and the bioavailable fraction of As increased. All the amendments used had contrasting effects on the bioaccessible fractions of metal(loid)s. The most efficient amendment combination was the addition of 5% biochar and 5% compost.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Trifolium/química , Compostagem , Ferro/química , Mineração , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(11): 2106-2115, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318348

RESUMO

A magnetic cotton stalk biochar (MCSBC) was synthesized through chemical co-precipitation, based on cotton stalk biochar (CSBC). The MCSBC and CSBC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The characterization analyses showed that the magnetization process endowed the CSBC with excellent magnetic properties with a superparamagnetic magnetization of 27.59 emu/g. Batch adsorption experiment results indicated that the Cr(VI) maximum adsorption capacity of MCSBC was 20.05 mg/g, which was higher than that of CSBC (18.77 mg/g). The adsorption kinetic data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption isotherms were well represented by the Sips isotherm model. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the entropy increased. The potential adsorption mechanism was the electrostatic adsorption of anionic Cr(VI) to the positively charged MCSBC surface, the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) and the complexation of Cr(III) by oxygen-containing functional groups of MCSBC. The regeneration studies showed that MCSBC kept 80% of its initial Cr(VI) adsorption capacity in the cycle. All the findings suggest that this novel magnetic biochar could be used in the field of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cromo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Cromo/análise , Cinética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109451, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352213

RESUMO

Potassium (K) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. However, in China, available K is relatively low in the soil, and with the extensive use of chemical fertilizer, K use efficiency is constantly reducing, and consequently increasing the potential risk of environmental pollution and economic loss. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the negative impact of over-fertilization on the environment to obtain optimal crop yield. Biochar as a soil amendment has been applied to improve soil fertility and increase crop yield. However, the effects of successive biochar application on cotton yield, agronomy efficiencies and potash fertilizer reduction are not well documented. Our results of a pot experiment showed that the application of 1% biochar to soil under different K levels significantly improved dry mass accumulation and K content of different plant parts, and increased the number of buds, bolls and effective branches of cotton. Particularly, plants treated with 150 mg/kg K2O and 1% biochar had the highest growth parameters. The most important characteristics including the harvest index, K fertilizer contribution index, partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency and apparent recovery efficiency of K under C1 (1% biochar) were generally greater than those under C0 (without biochar). The 75 mg/kg K2O application was optimal to produce the highest yield with 1% biochar, demonstrating that biochar can increase cotton yield and therefore, reduces chemical K fertilizer application and alleviates agricultural environment risks of chemical fertilizer.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/análise , Solo/química , China , Minerais
13.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 779-789, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349192

RESUMO

Biochar addition to soil may change the hydrophobicity of amended soil and influence soil hydraulic properties. Soil hydrophobicity, i.e. soil water repellency (SWR) can interrupt water infiltration and form preferential flow leading to a potential risk of soil erosion or groundwater pollution. Up to date, the effect of different biochars on soil hydrophobicity remains unclear and the association of SWR with soil hydraulic properties is still unknown. To link the biochar hydrophobicity to SWR and soil water holding capacity (WHC), the surface structure and chemical composition of 27 biochars with different feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures were characterized, and the SWR and soil WHC of biochar-added soil were investigated. Carboxylic groups on the biochar surface, surface area and pore volume were mostly influenced by pyrolysis temperature, which suggested the dominant factor determining the severity of biochar hydrophobicity was pyrolysis temperature. Hydrophilic soil became hydrophobic after biochar amendment. A higher addition rate led to a stronger SWR of hydrophilic soil. Biochar addition increased soil WHC of hydrophilic soil with low total organic carbon (TOC) content. Biochar did not have significant influence on SWR and soil WHC of hydrophobic soil with high TOC content. It implied that the influence of biochar on SWR and soil hydraulic properties mainly depended on soil original hydrophobicity and TOC content. Therefore, the properties of biochar and influence on soil hydrophobicity and hydraulic properties should be considered before processing biochar application.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Solo/química , Água Subterrânea , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 316-322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263938

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of atrazine and the effects of different environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, Ca2+ and biochar on the adsorption characteristics of atrazine in different types of soil using the intermittent adsorption method. The kinetic experiment showed that the adsorption of atrazine in albic, black and saline-alkaline soils reached equilibrium within 24 h. In the thermodynamics experiment, the Freundlich model effectively described the adsorption characteristics of atrazine in all three types of soil, indicating that the adsorption process forms multi-molecular layers. Lower soil pH conditions were more favorable for the absorption of atrazine. The addition of appropriate concentrations of Ca2+ or biochar could promote the adsorption of atrazine by the soil. Biochar could promote the fixation of atrazine in soils.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química , China , Cinética , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121818, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344637

RESUMO

A novel mesoporous biochar (PBC) was facilely prepared from Medulla tetrapanacis. PBC exhibited high efficiency for the sorption of Cu2+ (458.72 mg/g) and Pb2+ (1031.23 mg/g) ions, and these values were higher than that of reported literatures. In the multi-metal system, the maximum sorption capacity for Cu2+, Pb2+, Cr3+, and Fe3+ were 430.88 mg/g, 701.63 mg/g, 696.67 mg/g, and 697.01 mg/g, respectively, and the removal efficiencies of those ions were more than 80% at a metal ion concentration of 200 mg/L. Furthermore, the PBC was effective for the treatment of industrial effluent wastewater. The ash content (45.46%) of the PBC was higher than that of most other biochar derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Complexation, precipitation, π-π interactions, ion exchange, and physical sorption were the main sorption mechanisms. Overall, PBC is an inexpensive product, which is simply synthesized and an excellent adsorbent for heavy metal ion removal.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cobre/química , Chumbo/química , Adsorção , Biomassa , Cátions Bivalentes/química , Troca Iônica
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121840, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349174

RESUMO

Three types of raw biochar (i.e. CBC, OBC, PBC produced from cornstalk, orange peel and peanut hull, respectively) and the modified ones (i.e., KMnO4-, KOH- and H3PO4-treatment) were employed to activate H2O2 for the removal of tetracycline (TC). The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, H2O2 concentration and initial pH were examined. TC removal by raw biochars w/o H2O2 was dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature of biochar, but the removal efficiency was still quite low under optimum conditions. The KMnO4-treatment significantly enhanced the adsorption of TC on all three biochars, but only enhanced the TC removal by CBC + H2O2. The KOH-treatment had insignificant effect on the adsorption of TC on biochar, but improved the performance of CBC/PBC + H2O2. The H3PO4-treatment had a negative impact on TC removal by biochar w/o H2O2. Overall, H2O2 could either enhance or decrease the TC removal by biochar, depending on biochar type, H2O2 concentration and solution pH.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Tetraciclina/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 165-177, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319253

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants are widely detected and persistent in environmental waters. Advanced oxidation processes are among the most effective methods for removing emerging contaminants from water; however, high energy consumption greatly increases the operating costs and limits large-scale applications. In this study, a passive treatment system consisting of four columns packed with mixtures of silica sand, zero-valent iron (ZVI), biochar (BC), and a mixture of (ZVI + BC) were evaluated for simultaneous removal of eight pharmaceuticals, four artificial sweeteners, and two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from water. Overall, the passive treatment system was more effective for removing target pharmaceuticals (almost complete removal) than artificial sweeteners and PFASs (partial removal). Columns ZVI, BC, and (ZVI + BC) exhibited similarly effective removal (>97%) of target pharmaceuticals, including carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen, from ~9 to <0.25 µg L-1; pharmaceuticals were more rapidly removed by Columns ZVI and (ZVI + BC) than Column BC, except for ibuprofen. Column ZVI was more effective for removing artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K and sucralose than Columns BC and (ZVI + BC); however, BC exhibited relatively greater removal of saccharin than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Acesulfame-K and saccharin (~110 µg L-1) were partially removed in the treatment columns. Cyclamate was not removed in any of the columns. However, >76% of input sucralose (~110 µg L-1) was removed in the three treatment columns. Reactive medium BC alone was more effective for removing target PFASs than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Input perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (~45 µg L-1) was partially removed in the columns containing BC but not ZVI alone. Between 10 and 80% of input perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (24 ̶ 90 µg L-1) was removed in Column ZVI; greater removals (57 ̶ 99%) were observed in Columns BC and (ZVI + BC).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Edulcorantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ferro
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121859, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362200

RESUMO

The adsorption mechanisms of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution using camellia seed husk biochars pyrolyzed at different temperatures were studied. The adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on biochars are mainly controlled by ion exchange, oxygen functional groups (OFGs) complexation, Pb(II)/Cd(II)-π interactions, and precipitation with minerals. Compared to the raw biochars, both carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups increased in the biochars washed with HCl. However, the previous research ignored the effect of the increased OFGs. Thus, a revised method was proposed from this study to more accurately calculate the contribution of four different mechanisms. Precipitation with minerals was the dominant mechanism for Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal, accounting for 80.61-89.03% and 53.57-75.84%, respectively, of the total adsorption as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 °C to 700 °C. As for oxygen functional groups complexation, the percentage of Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal were 4.76-8.55% and 11.34-29.59%, respectively.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Chumbo/química , Oxigênio/química , Adsorção , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução , Pirólise
19.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106017, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325735

RESUMO

Silver (Ag)-based technologies are amongst the most common approaches to removing radioiodine from aqueous waste streams. As a result, a large worldwide inventory of radioactive AgI waste presently exits, which must be stabilized for final disposition. In this work, the efficacy of silver-impregnated granular activated carbon (Ag-GAC) to remove iodide (I-), iodate (IO3-) and organo-iodine (org-I) from cementitious leachate was examined. In addition, cementitious materials containing I-, IO3-, or org-I loaded Ag-GAC were characterized by iodine K-edge XANES and EXAFS to provide insight into iodine stability and speciation in these waste forms. The Ag-GAC was very effective at removing I- and org-I, but ineffective at removing IO3- from slag-free grout leachate under oxic conditions. I- or org-I removal was due to the formation of insoluble AgI(s) or Ag-org-I(s) on the Ag-GAC. When I--loaded Ag-GAC material was cured with slag-free and slag grouts, I- was released from AgI(s) to form a hydrated I- species. Conversely, when org-I loaded Ag-GAC material was cured in the two grout formulations, no change was observed in the iodine speciation, indicating the org-I species remained bound to the Ag. Because little IO3- was bound to the Ag-GAC, it was not detectable in the grout. Thus, grout formulation and I speciation in the waste stream can significantly influence the effectiveness of the long-term disposal of radioiodine associated with Ag-GAC in grout waste forms.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Modelos Químicos , Prata/química , Iodetos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 701-707, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254836

RESUMO

Disposal of concentrate from brackish water desalination is limited by concerns of salt leaching into fresh water sources. Prevention of salt from leaching can greatly increase desalination concentrate management costs, as there are few options to recover those costs. An option for concentrate disposal is to grow halophyte crops using the concentrate as irrigation water. The purpose of this study was to determine how much of the Ca, Mg, Na, and K taken up by Atriplex species during growth can be stabilized by pyrolysis, thus preventing those cations from returning into the soil solution after harvest. Results show that salts in the biomass are concentrated into the biochars and that pyrolysis conditions affect the amount of salt that can be leached with water. Ca was the most retained of the cations: 100% and 94% were retained in A. canescens biochars and A. lentiformis 600 °C biochar, respectively. Mg retention was similar: 100% and 93% retained for A. canescens and A. lentiformis 600 °C biochars, respectively. Increasing pyrolysis temperature increased the retention of Ca and Mg; trends for K and Na were inconsistent. Soil application of these biochars will still be problematic due to low retention of Na against short-term leaching, thus limiting the potential for on-site sequestration to enable land utilization for crop production. With more understanding of the salt formation and retention mechanisms within biomass, higher amounts of salt might be sequestered longer, while taking advantage of the carbon sequestration and soil quality benefits of biochars.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Modelos Químicos , Sais/química , Atriplex
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