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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 52, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM/C) in traditional African societies is grounded in traditions of patriarchy that subjugate women. It is widely assumed that approaches to eradicating the practice must therefore focus on women's empowerment and changing gender roles. METHODS: This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of the FGM/C beliefs and opinions of men and women in Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana. Data are analyzed from 22 focus group panels of young women, young men, reproductive age women, and male social leaders. RESULTS: The social systemic influences on FGM/C decision-making are complex. Men represent exogenous sources of social influence on FGM/C decisions through their gender roles in the patriarchal system. As such, their FGM/C decision influence is more prominent for uncircumcised brides at the time of marriage than for FGM/C decisions concerning unmarried adolescents. Women in extended family compounds are relatively prominent as immediate sources of influence on FGM/C decision-making for both brides and adolescents. Circumcised women are the main source of social support for the practice, which they exercise through peer pressure in concert with co-wives. Junior wives entering a polygynous marriage or a large extended family are particularly vulnerable to this pressure. Men are less influential and more open to suggestions of eliminating the practice of FGM/C than women. CONCLUSION: Findings attest to the need for social research on ways to involve men in the promotion of FGM/C abandonment, building on their apparent openness to social change. Investigation is also needed on ways to marshal women's social networks for offsetting their extended family familial roles in sustaining FGM/C practices.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Tomada de Decisões , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 48, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use among adolescent girls is low in many sub-Saharan African countries including Kenya. Attitude and perspectives about contraception of community members including adolescent girls themselves may be likely to limit contraceptive use among adolescent girls. This study was conducted to explore and compare adults'/parents' and adolescent girls' narratives and perspectives about contraception in Narok and Homa Bay counties, Kenya. METHODS: Qualitative data from 45 in-depth-interviews conducted with purposively selected consenting adolescent girls aged 15-19 was used. Additionally, twelve focus group discussions were held with 86 consenting adults conveniently recruited from the two counties. All discussions were conducted in the local language and audio recorded following consent of the study participants. Female moderators were engaged throughout the study making it appropriate for the study to solicit feedback from the targeted respondents. RESULTS: Findings highlighted adults' perceptions on adolescents' sexuality and the presence of stringent conceptions about the side-effects of contraception in the study communities. Some participants underscored the need for open contraceptive talk between parents and their adolescent girls. Four main themes emerged from the discussions; (i) Perceptions about adolescents' sexuality and risk prevention, (ii) Conceptions about contraception among nulligravida adolescents: fear of infertility, malformation and sexual libertinism, (iii) Post-pregnancy contraceptive considerations and (iv) Thinking differently: divergent views regarding contraceptives and parent/adolescent discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the need for increased attention towards adolescents and their caregivers particularly in demystifying contraceptive misconceptions. Programmatic responses and models which include the provision of comprehensive sexuality education and increased access to and utilization of SRH information, products and services through a well-informed approach need to be well executed. Programmatic efforts like SRH community education should further seek to enhance the capacity of parents to discuss sexuality with their adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Casamento , Relações Pais-Filho , Percepção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 103-116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In many South Asian communities, the majority of women are married during adolescence and reproduce before 20 years. Early reproduction may adversely affect maternal nutrition and linear growth, however whether early marriage has similar effects is unknown. Shorter women might also be preferentially chosen for earlier marriage. We hypothesized that early marriage and early pregnancy may each be associated with women's shorter height, independent of any selection effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data on 7,146 women aged 20-30 years from rural lowland Nepal. Linear regression models tested associations of early marriage and early reproduction with height, adjusting for women's education and husbands' characteristics (education and wealth) that might index preferential selection of short young women for marriage. RESULTS: Median ages at marriage and first pregnancy were 15 and 18 years, respectively, with 20% pregnant <16 years. Both early marriage and early pregnancy were independently associated with shorter stature, accounting for a decrement of 1.4 cm, which decreased to 1 cm after adjusting for women's education. Effects of early marriage and reproduction persisted after adjusting for the tendency of poorer and less educated men to marry young and short women, indicating a role for social selection. DISCUSSION: The decrements in height associated with early marriage and reproduction are indicative of broader adverse effects on maternal metabolism during a "critical period" of growth and maturation in the life-course of women. Although the magnitudes of effect are relatively small, they affect large numbers of women in this population.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370321

RESUMO

This paper examines recent changes in the life trajectories of Indian women. We use data from four major national population surveys that span the years 1998-2016. We look at several cohorts of women across the states and regions. We compare decisions related to education, marriage, childbearing and participation in the labor force. Though there is considerable diversity across states and regions, as well as religious groups, we find some consistent patterns that emerge everywhere. First, educational attainment and the age at marriage have been steadily increasing. Women who do not complete secondary school are more likely to marry early. Second, caste and religion (rather than education) play a significant role in decisions after marriage, such as the timing of births, the use of contraception and labor force participation. Third, women from disadvantaged communities continue to have very different life trajectories than other social groups. They are more likely to use contraception and participate in the labor force. Lower levels of schooling also appear to exacerbate the disadvantages of social identity. The pace of these changes varies sharply across states as well as regions of the country.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Religião , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, divorce is a common phenomenon in couples' marital life. As a result, many divorced couples and their children face several social, economic, and health problems after dissolution. There is little information on the magnitude and determinants of divorce in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of divorce from the first union and its predictors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey data for this analysis. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016. The survey employed a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 11,646 ever-married women were included in the analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistics regression was done to identify the determinants of divorce from the first marriage. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: About 25% (95%CI: 23.4% - 26.6%) ever-married women were divorced from their first marital relationship. Women who were married at age < 15 years (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.68), urban women (AOR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.22-2.35), women who did not attend formal education (AOR = 4.36; 95%CI: 3.14-6.05), women who were employed (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.31-1.73), and being childless (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.69) had higher odds of experiencing a divorce. Similarly, women who experienced partner violence, women with no house ownership, and women in the Amhara region had higher odds of divorce from their first marital union. Conversely, women in Oromia, SNNPR, the metropolis, and the pastoral regions had lower odds of divorce from their first marital union. CONCLUSION: Divorce from the first marriage is high in Ethiopia. Preventing early marriage and partner violence and promoting girls' education would reduce the divorce rate in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Etiópia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378386

RESUMO

Within the span of almost ten years, phone dating apps have transformed the dating scene by normalizing and, according to some voices, gamifying the digital quest for a partner. Despite amplified discussion on how swipe-based apps damage the fabric of intimate ties, scientific accounts on whether they have led to different relationship patterns are missing. Using 2018 survey data from Switzerland, this study provides a rich overview of couples who met through dating apps by addressing three main themes: 1) family formation intentions, 2) relationship satisfaction and individual well-being, and 3) assortative mating. The data indicate that in Switzerland, dating apps have recently taken over as main online dating context. Results further show that couples formed through mobile dating have stronger cohabiting intentions than those formed in non-digital settings. Women who found their partner through a dating app also have stronger fertility desires and intentions than those who found their partner offline. Generally, there are no differences between couples initiated through dating apps and those initiated elsewhere regarding relationship and life satisfaction. Though more data are needed to capture the full range of users' romantic and sexual experiences, current results mitigate some of the concerns regarding the short-term orientation or the poor quality of relationships formed through mobile dating. Findings finally suggest that dating apps play an important role in altering couple composition by allowing for more educationally diverse and geographically distant couples.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966292

RESUMO

Global efforts to eradicate 'child marriage' (<18 years) increasingly target governments, the private sector and the general public as agents of change. However, understanding of child marriage may be subject to popular misconceptions, particularly because of ambiguity in the age threshold implied by the term 'child', and because awareness campaigns routinely emphasize extreme scenarios of very young girls forcibly married to much older men. Here, we ascertain public knowledge of child marriage via an online survey. Half of those surveyed mistakenly believed that the cut-off for child marriage is younger than the threshold of 18 years, and nearly three-quarters incorrectly believed that most child marriages occur at 15 years or below (it primarily occurs in later adolescence). Most participants also incorrectly believed that child marriage is illegal throughout the USA (it's illegal in only 4/50 states), substantially overestimated its global prevalence, and mistakenly believed that it primarily takes place among Muslim-majority world regions. Our results highlight important popular misconceptions of child marriage that may ultimately undermine global health goals and perpetuate harmful stereotypes. Organizations seeking to empower women by reducing child marriage should be cautious of these misunderstandings, and wary of the potential for their own activities to seed misinformation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/tendências , Opinião Pública , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237923, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817661

RESUMO

We are living nowadays in a social paradigm characterized by a high degree of fluidity. From professional career to leisure, from family patterns to neighborhood relationships, from cultural consumption to domestic technology, almost all the components of social reality have changed during recent decades. A given couple's experience is not insulated from these dynamics, or at least from the pressure that new trends constantly put on it. How can functional relationships be preserved in a continuously changing world? What possibilities are there for couples to sustain viable relationships in the face of all the waves of change, involving as they do new content, new rules, and, in many cases, new values? This paper sets out to analyze how the main factors related to marital life interact and what their impact is on individual satisfaction in the dyadic experience. To this end we planned and applied a sociological survey to a national sample (N = 455 participants, error limit 4.7) using a questionnaire focusing on an evaluation of dyadic life experience that included the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The major finding is that more liberal sexual attitudes and people's high view of the importance of money are the strongest predictors of a low-quality dyadic experience. The patterns observed also raise the possibility that positive perception of the parental model may serve to compensate for a couple's relatively shorter period of marital experience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Romênia/epidemiologia , Sociologia/tendências
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e141, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665045

RESUMO

AIMS: Mental health problems in early adulthood may disrupt partner relationship formation and quality. This prospective study used four waves of Australian data to investigate the effects of depression and anxiety in early adulthood on the quality of future partner (i.e. marriage or cohabiting) relationships. METHODS: A representative community sample of Australian adults aged 20-24 years was assessed in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. Analyses were restricted to those who at baseline had never entered a marriage or cohabiting relationship with no children (n = 1592). Associations were examined between baseline depression and anxiety levels (using the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety scales) and (a) future relationship status and (b) the quality of marriage or cohabiting relationships recorded at follow-up (up to 12 years later) (partner social support and conflict scales). RESULTS: Depression in early adulthood was associated with never entering a partner relationship over the study period. For those who did enter a relationship, both depression and anxiety were significantly associated with subsequently lower relationship support and higher conflict. Supplementary analyses restricting the analyses to the first relationship entered at follow-up, and considering comorbid anxiety and depression, strongly supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety in early adulthood is associated with poorer partner relationship quality in the future. This study adds to evidence showing that mental health problems have substantial personal and inter-personal costs. The findings support the need to invest in prevention and early intervention.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Estado Civil , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1085, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between family-related life events (cohabitation/marriage and becoming a parent) and change in physical activity. METHODS: Longitudinal data (n = 8045) from the 1970 British Cohort Study (30 and 34 years) were included. Life events (beginning cohabitation/marriage and becoming a parent) were reported and coded: 0 no, 1 yes, for each event occurring between 30 and 34 years. Participants reported frequency of participation in leisure-time physical activity at 30 and 34 years (Likert scale: mean change calculated ranging between - 4 and 4). Linear regression models were used to examine the association between life events and physical activity change (comparing individuals experiencing events between 30 and 34 years versus never experiencing the event - excluding participants that experienced previous events - with a final analysis sample of n = 3833 in parenthood analysis; n = 1137 in cohabitation analysis). Interaction terms were used to analyse combined parenthood and cohabitation status. Analyses were adjusted for level of education achieved, ethnicity, country of origin and other life events. ANCOVA was used to examine associations between change in physical activity and child age. RESULTS: Compared to remaining without children, becoming a parent was associated with a greater reduction in physical activity among men [ß:-0.234(95%CI:-0.396 to - 0.072)] but not women [0.126(- 0.048;0.301)]. No associations were found between cohabitation and physical activity. Men who became fathers both while cohabitating [- 0.201(- 0.383;-0.020)] and without cohabiting [- 0.937(- 1.623;-0.250)] experienced greater physical activity declines than those remaining single and without children; the decline was greatest among non-cohabiting fathers. These associations did not differ by child age. CONCLUSIONS: Parenthood appears to differentially impact physical activity for men and women; this association also differs by cohabitation status. Parenthood appears to be most detrimental to physical activity levels among men. Interventions for physical activity could target new or soon-to-be parents, especially fathers. Further analyses with device-measured physical activity data would be valuable to advance understanding of these associations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Características da Família , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1041, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of health workers on uptake of maternal healthcare services is well documented; however, their outreach for family planning (FP) services and influence on the intention to use contraceptives is less explored in the Indian context. This study examined the extent of health worker outreach for FP service and its effects on intention to use contraceptives among currently married women aged 15-49 years. METHODS: This study used data from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of India, conducted during 2005-06 and 2015-16 respectively. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to understand the level of and change in health worker outreach for FP services over time, and its association with intention to use contraceptives among currently married women. RESULTS: In the past 10 years, health workers' outreach for FP service has significantly increased by about 10 percentage points, although the level is not optimal and only 28% of non-users were reached by health workers in 2015-16. Increase in the outreach to younger and low parity women was higher than their respective counterparts. Intention to use contraceptive among women who were not using any method was 41% when health workers contacted and discussed FP, compared to only 20% when there was no such contact with health workers. Multivariable analysis suggests that contact with health workers has significant positive effects on intention to use contraceptive (AOR = 3.05; p < 0.001; 95% CI 2.85-3.27). CONCLUSION: Increased scope of outreach of frontline health workers to provide FP communication and services will not only help in building knowledge of contraceptive methods but will also increase women's intention to use a method. For India, this may be the most promising way to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals 3.7, which calls for universal access to reproductive health services.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Intenção , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients are surviving decades after congenital heart surgery (CHS), raising the importance of postoperative quality of life as an outcome measure. We determined the long-term social outcomes after CHS performed during childhood. METHODS: Between 1953 and 2009, 10 635 patients underwent surgery for congenital heart defects at <15 years of age in Finland. We obtained 4 control subjects per patient, matched by age, sex, birth time, and hospital district, from Statistics Finland, which also provided data on the highest education level, employment status, marital status, and progeny for both patients and control subjects. We included patients who were alive and ≥18 years of age at the end of the follow-up on December 31, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 7308 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients had on average similar high school or vocational education rates as the general population but lower undergraduate or higher education rates (female patients: risk ratio [RR] 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-0.9]; male patients: RR 0.8 [95% CI 0.7-0.9]). Patients were less likely to be married or have progeny compared with the general population. The rate of employment was significantly lower (female patients: RR 0.8 [95% CI 0.8-0.9]; male patients: RR 0.8 [95% CI 0.8-0.9]) and the rate of retirement (female patients: RR 2.1 [95% CI 2.0-2.3]; male patients RR 3.1 [95% CI 2.9-3.5]) significantly higher among patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo CHS at childhood age are, on average, more disadvantaged from both an educational and professional standpoint compared with the general population, regardless of the severity of the defect.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sociológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1008, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda, just like in many sub-Saharan countries, studies on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) among married women are limited. The aim of this paper was to determine the correlates of emotional, sexual, physical IPV and any form of IPV among married women in Uganda. METHODS: The 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) data was used, and a weighted sample of 6879 married women were selected from the Domestic Violence module. Frequency distributions were used to describe the characteristics of respondents. Chi-square tests were used to establish the association between IPV and the explanatory variables. Binary logistic regressions were used to establish the factors that were associated with IPV among married women in Uganda. RESULTS: More than half (56%) of the married women experienced some form of IPV. Sexual IPV was the least prevalent (23%) and 4 in 10 women (41 and 40%) experienced physical and emotional IPV, respectively. Factors associated with all the different forms of IPV included, age, region, witnessing parental violence, partner's controlling behaviors, duration of the relationship, and frequency of intoxication of the male partner. CONCLUSION: IPV among Ugandan married women is far too common. This calls for collective efforts to reduce IPV in Uganda by addressing excessive alcohol consumption, controlling behaviors, and lack of awareness of the issue. Interventions aimed at preventing perpetration and tolerance of violence in the home settings should be promoted.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 583, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistently high prevalence of girl-child marriage remains a public health and developmental concern in Nigeria. Despite global campaign against the practice and policy efforts by Nigerian government, the prevalence remains unabated. This study investigates the prevalence and the influence of ethnicity and religious affiliation on the girl-child marriage among female adolescents in Nigeria. METHODS: Data of 7804 girls aged 15-19 years extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey were used. Ethnic groups were classified into five: major Northern ethnic group (Hausa/Fulani); Northern ethnic minorities; two major Southern ethnic groups (Yoruba and Igbo), and Southern ethnic minorities. The prevalence of girl-child marriage was determined for the five ethnic groups and individually for each ethnic minority group. Relationships between ethnicity and religious affiliation on girl-child marriage were explored using Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusting for residence, education and wealth quintile. RESULTS: Child marriage was higher for the Northern majority ethnic group of Hausa/Fulani (54.8%) compared to the two major Southern ethnic groups (3.0-3.6%) and aggregated Northern ethnic minorities (25.7%) and Southern minorities (5.9%). However, overall, the less known Northern ethnic minority groups of Kambari (74.9%) and Fulfude (73.8%) recorded the highest prevalence. Compared to the major Southern ethnic group of Yoruba, the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of child marriage was significantly higher for Northern ethnic minorities (AHR = 2.50; 95% C.I. = 1.59-3.95) and Northern major ethnicity (AHR = 3.67, 95% C.I. = 2.33-5.77). No significant difference was recorded among Southern ethnic groups. Girls affiliated to other religions (Muslim and traditionalist) had higher child-marriage risks compared to Christians (AHR = 2.10; 95% C.I. = 1.54-2.86). CONCLUSION: Ethnicity and religion have independent associations with girl-child marriage in Nigeria; interventions must address culturally-laden social norms that vary by ethnic groups as well as religious-related beliefs.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/etnologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Religião , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 729, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Niger has the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world. While child marriage in Niger is clearly normative in the sense that it is commonly practiced, the social and contextual factors that contribute to it are still unclear. METHODS: Here, we tested the importance of village-level factors as predictors of young age at marriage for a group of married adolescent girls (N = 1031) in the Dosso district of rural Niger, using multi-level and geographic analyses. We aggregated significant individual level factors to determine whether, independent of a girl's own sociodemographic characteristics, the impact of each factor is associated at the village level. Finally, we tested for spatial dependence and heterogeneity in examining whether the village-level associations we find with age at marriage differ geographically. RESULTS: The mean age of marriage for girls in our study was 14.20 years (SD 1.8). Our statistical results are consistent with other literature suggesting that education is associated with delayed marriage, even among adolescent girls. Younger ages at marriage are also associated with a greater age difference between spouses and with a greater likelihood of women being engaged in agricultural work. Consistent with results at the individual level, at the village level we found that the proportion of girls who do agricultural work and the mean age difference between spouses were both predictive of a lower age at marriage for individual girls. Finally, mapping age at marriage at the village level revealed that there is geographical variation in age at marriage, with a cluster of hot spots in the Hausa-dominated eastern area where age at marriage is particularly low and a cluster of cold spots in the Zarma-dominated western areas where age at marriage is relatively high. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that large-scale approaches to eliminating child marriage in these communities may be less successful if they do not take into consideration geographically and socially determined contextual factors at the village level.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Níger/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
19.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(2): 156-171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432937

RESUMO

It is commonly expected that natural selection will favor earlier reproduction, yet ecological constraints can force people to delay marriage. Furthermore, humans demonstrate sex-specific preferences in marriage partners - with grooms normally a few years older than their brides; however, the age at which individuals marry can influence the spousal age gap. We investigate factors influencing age at first marriage and age difference at marriage using nineteenth-century historical demographic data from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Analyses suggest ecological constraints affected male, but not female, age at first marriage. Males who migrated from their natal community and who married in communities whose primary economic activity was agriculture experienced delayed age at first marriage. The age at which females first married increased over time causing a reduction in the age gap between spouses. Furthermore, the spousal age gap showed sex-specific effects: women who married early in life were much younger than their husbands, while women who married late in life were older than their husbands, suggesting that variation in female reproductive value influenced mate choice. Males, on the other hand, who married late in life showed a preference for marrying much younger females, indicating preferences for females with high reproductive value.


Assuntos
Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/etnologia , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 771, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indian women are more prone to first birth at a relatively younger age after marriage. Also, we do not have sufficient literature available that focuses on contraceptive use before first birth. The analysis of the present study was done using data from the fourth round of National Family Health Survey (2015-16), India. The objectives of the present study were to measure the levels and trends of contraceptive use before first birth among Indian ever married women, aged 15-34 years. METHODS: The study includes 279,896 ever married women aged 15-34 years at the time of the NFHS-4 survey. To identify the socio-demographic determinants governing the pioneering study behavior, multivariable techniques have been used in the analysis. The statistical significance of the relationship between socio-demographic factors and contraceptive use prior to first birth was tested using a chi-squared test for association. Hosmer Lemeshow statistics and Nagelkerke R square have been used to check how well the logistic regression model fits the data. Map of India showing different zonal classification is made using the ArcGIS software version 10.3. RESULT: The trends of contraceptive usage show a decline in use before first birth and the various socio-demographic factors affecting the use of contraceptive before first birth are religion, caste, education, wealth index, media exposure, age at marriage and the zonal classifications. CONCLUSION: The noticeable result in this study is the comparative decline in contraceptive use by women in India before first birth in NFHS-4 with respect to previous NFHS done in India. The likelihood of using contraception before first birth is significantly affected by factors like place of residence, religion, caste, current age of women, age at marriage, education level of women, wealth index, media exposure and zonal classification.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Anticoncepção/tendências , Casamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Religião , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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