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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596505

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CBS1P-1T, was isolated from a surface-sterilized bark of Aegiceras corniculatum. Growth of strain CBS1P-1T was observed with between 0 and 12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally with 5.0 %) and at between pH 6.0-9.0. It grew at temperatures between 25-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that ubiquinone-10 was the respiratory quinone. The lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified aminolipid. The major fatty acids of strain CBS1P-1T were C18 : 1 ω7c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CBS1P-1T was most related to Pseudooceanicola antarcticus CGMCC 1.12662T with a sequence similarity of 96.5 %. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CBS1P-1T and P. antarcticus 1.12662T were 77.5 and 21.1 %, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain CBS1P-1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudooceanicola, for which the name Pseudooceanicola endophyticus is proposed. The type strain is CBS1P-1T (=KCTC 62836T=CGMCC 1.13743T).


Assuntos
Primulaceae , Rhodobacteraceae , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , Casca de Planta , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 728, 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657980

RESUMO

The research was carried out in the coppice-originated pure oak stands that are being converted to high forests in northwest Turkey. The main goal of the research was to determine the bark thickness (BT) based on tree variables, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height (H), crown diameter (CD), and age (AGE) of the stem sections taken from a total of 350 trees that were destructively sampled from different sites, different oak species (Quercus petraea, Quercus frainetto, Quercus cerris), and different development stages. Models were developed with stepwise multiple regression analysis to predict BT based on the variables. For all oak species, all models obtained by stepwise multiple regression analysis were found to be significant at p = 0.001 level. In Quercus petraea, only the DBH-dependent model explained the variation in BT at a rate of 73%, estimating with an absolute error rate of 21%. The fit statistics of the models (based on DBH and DBH-H explanatory variables) obtained for Quercus frainetto are very close to each other, and they explained the variation in BT at a rate of 69% and estimated with an error rate of 26%. Models (based on DBH and DBH-H explanatory variables) explain the variation in BT in Turkey oak at a rate of 91%, indicating species-specific results. The models based on only DBH can be used with high accuracy to estimate BT.


Assuntos
Quercus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Casca de Planta , Turquia
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3066-3075, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467697

RESUMO

Lycii Cortex, the dry root bark of Lycium barbarum(Solanaceae), is rich in chemical compositions with unique structures, such as organic acids, lipids, alkaloids, cyclopeptides and other components, and plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. It has the effect of cooling blood and removing steam, clearing lung and reducing fire. It is mainly used in the treatment of hot flashes due to Yin deficiency, hectic fever with night sweat, cough, hemoptysis and internal heat and diabetes. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the crude extract or monomer of Lycii Cortex has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. In this paper, the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cortex Lycii were reviewed in order to further clarify its effective substances, promote the development of medical undertakings, and ensure the "Healthy China" plan.


Assuntos
Lycium , China , Hipoglicemiantes , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Casca de Planta
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10848-10855, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514798

RESUMO

Although extractives have been symbolized as major bioactive pharmacological compounds from Salix (Salicaceae) bark, we speculated that these pharmaceutical effects cannot be solely attributed to phenolic components and their derivatives, but the long-chain suberin acids also contribute to their therapeutic effects. Hence, isolation and deconstruction of suberin were conducted, for the first time, to enrich our knowledge about the macromolecular components at the cell wall of willow bark. Saponification was adopted to obtain suberin extracts at a yield of approximately 5 wt % based on the bark of the studied hybrids. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed qualification and quantification of 23 compounds from the released suberin monomers, from which fatty acids represented majority of the isolated suberin, namely, fatty acid methyl esters (C17-C19); mono-carboxylic acid (C7-C16); alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acid (C7-C16); and omega-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids (C16-C22). Additionally, the lipophilic extractive was dominated by piceol, heptacosane, ß-sitosterol, and fatty acids (C16-C28) from the studied hybrids. These findings could boost our integrative approach toward full valorization of willow bark.


Assuntos
Salix , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Lipídeos , Casca de Planta
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125855, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523546

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hot water extraction followed by organosolv pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysability of spruce bark biomass. To this end, samples were pretreated at five different temperatures in the presence or not of acid catalyst. The cellulose content of pretreated biomass reached 49.6% w/w. During the enzymatic hydrolysis trials with 3% w/w dry solids, the final hydrolysis yield reached up to 70.1%, which corresponded to the release of 7.8 g/L of glucose. Whereas, the final hydrolysis yield obtained during the high-gravity enzymatic hydrolysis reached up to 43.5%. The concentration of released glucose was in range of 33.3 - 40.0 g/L with a hemicellulose sugars in a range of 5.5 - 6.6 g/L. These values are suitable for downstream bioconversion processes and represent a significant improvement over existing steam pretreatment methods.


Assuntos
Etanol , Lignina , Biomassa , Celulose , Hidrólise , Casca de Planta , Água
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125862, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523580

RESUMO

Multistage fractionation of pine bark was performed using subcritical and supercritical CO2 at increasing pressures and temperatures. In total, seven fractions were collected, which demonstrated different enrichments of families of compounds. In particular, subcritical CO2 yielded 41% of the total extract in which unsaturated fatty acids represented the most abundant family. The subsequent five supercritical steps increased the recovery of sterol esters, wax esters and resin acids at higher temperatures and pressures, reaching 80% of the total extractable mass. In the last step, using ethanol as a co-solvent, an additional 20% of extract was recovered, which was enriched with phenolics and glycerol. A full characterisation of the extracts was accomplished by high-temperature GC-MS/FID using four internal standards, which were representative of the main classes of compounds contained in the pine bark extract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Pinus , Dióxido de Carbono , Fracionamento Químico , Casca de Planta , Solventes
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1585692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485509

RESUMO

In traditional medicine, various parts of the plant Juglans regia L. are used to treat several pathological conditions including diabetes and infectious and periodontal diseases. This includes the bark of Juglans regia. The present study is aimed at evaluating for the first time the mineral composition, investigating the antidiabetic and antibacterial properties of Moroccan J. regia bark, and finally determining the correlations between the chemical composition of the tested extracts and their biological activities. The mineral composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Then, nine extracts were prepared by different methods and modalities of extractions and investigated for their antidiabetic activities, via tests of inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and beta-galactosidase enzymes, and for their antibacterial activities against six strains involved in infectious diseases and periodontology. Finally, the correlation between the chemical compositions of the different extracts prepared and their antidiabetic and antibacterial potencies was determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). J. regia is an important source of mineral elements, mainly Fe (19849.8), K (3487.8), Mg (2631.03), and P (691.02) mg/kg plant material. All the extracts of J. regia possess antidiabetic activity, and in particular, the macerated acetone extract gave the highest inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase (IC50 value of 5445.33 ± 82.58 µg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (IC50 value of 323.7 ± 1.71 µg/mL), and beta-galactosidase (IC50 value of 811.2 ± 8.32 µg/mL). For the results of antibacterial activity, the macerated acetone extract at the concentration of 80 mg/mL was found to be the most active by inducing inhibition diameters of 12, 17, 18, 11, 14.5, and 16 mm against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria innocua, respectively. PCA allowed us to deduce that the extracts richer in polyphenols, in particular, the two acetone and ethanol macerates, have a better antidiabetic activity against alpha-glucosidase as well as a better antibacterial activity. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous and organic macerate extracts showed a better antidiabetic activity and justified the use of J. regia bark as an antibacterial and antiseptic agent in traditional Moroccan medicine in the treatment of dental affections.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Minerais/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química , beta-Galactosidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148091, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380268

RESUMO

The core microbiome, as a unique group of microorganisms, is an emerging research hotspot that provides a new opportunity to improve growth and production of a host. However, the subjectivity associated with the concept of "core microbiome" means there is currently no uniform definition method for the core microbiome. In this study, the strengths and limitations of four commonly used definition methods for the core microbiome were explored from composition to function based on the 16S rRNA gene dataset of Eucommia ulmoides bark from 25 different biogeographical regions in China. There were differences in the composition of the core microbiomes defined by the different methods. The four definition methods of phylogeny, membership, composition, and network connection contained 274, 10, 5, and 5 core OTUs (operational taxonomic units), respectively. In contrast, the core microbiomes defined by different methods displayed similarities in function. In addition, different definition methods showed varying preferences for abundant taxa, intermediate taxa, and rare taxa. Some core taxa defined by the definition method of phylogeny were significantly associated with pharmacologically active ingredients of E. ulmoides bark. The findings of this study suggest that although the core microbiomes defined by different methods have preferences in composition and function, the term refers to a group of microbes that are particularly notable and important for host-associated microbiomes. Therefore, we propose: (I) The definition method of the core microbiome should be selected according to the ecological problems faced; (II) A combination of multiple methods may comprehensively reveal the core microbiome at different levels of the host, and may also facilitate understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that govern host-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Eucommiaceae , Microbiota , Filogenia , Casca de Planta , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 20, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer. Despite the advancement in treatment, drug resistance remains a major cause for setback. In an earlier work, the authors reported that Boswellia dalzielii (Hutch) stem bark exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in head and neck cancer cells, AW8507. Therefore, the cell death induction effect of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark chloroform extract in head and neck cancer cell line, AW8507, and its derived constituent on cell cycle and apoptosis proteins was further investigated. METHODS: The cell death induction activity of the Boswellia dalzielii stem bark chloroform fraction (CLBD) in AW8507 was determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining in flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed for compounds analysis of the CLBD, and reverse virtual screening was used to identify the mechanism of action of the compound, acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, that was elucidated in the Boswellia dalzielii chloroform fraction. RESULTS: The data obtained showed that Boswellia dalzielii stem bark Chloroform extract increased the percentage of cells presenting for early apoptosis from 4.14 to 10.10% in AW8507 cells. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the chloroform fraction identified acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Reverse virtual screening on selected proteins showed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid is a multi-protein target compound. It binds preferably to phosphorylated-cyclin dependent kinase 1 (p-CDK1) (binding score = - 9.2 kcal/mol), blocking the activation of cyclin B-CDK1 needed for cell cycle progression at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid also binds more tightly with αß tubulin (binding score = 8.9 kcal/mol) than with the standard drug, docetaxel (binding score = 8.3 kcal/mol). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained confirmed the culpability of Boswellia dalzielii-derived acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid in the obstruction of the cell cycle progression in head and neck cancer cell line, AW8507; and the induction of apoptosis earlier reported for Boswellia dalzielii (Hutch) stem bark. Additional in vitro and/or in vivo studies would be required to validate in silico observations.


Assuntos
Boswellia , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Divisão Celular , Clorofórmio , Humanos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443392

RESUMO

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various allergic diseases that are mediated by T helper cell type-2 (Th2) responses, including asthma and atopic dermatitis. The primary focus of this study was the identification of potent inhibitors of the TSLP signaling pathway for potential therapeutic use. The 80% methanol extract of Machilus thunbergii bark significantly inhibited the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in human mast cell (HMC)-1 cells. Through activity-guided isolation, three lignans (1-3) were obtained and identified as (+)-galbelgin (1), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (2), and machilin A (3). Among them, two lignans (1 and 2) significantly inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation and TSLP/TSLPR interaction, as determined by ELISA. Our results indicated that lignans isolated from M. thunbergii are a promising resource for the treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Lauraceae/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361750

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography and NMR spectroscopy were used to purify and characterize betulin from an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of acacia bark. Betulin, a known inducer of apoptosis, was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), glycogen synthase kinase 3α/ß (GSK-3 α/ß), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) with activities in the micromolar range for each. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to investigate its putative use as an anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, with activity similar to that of imatinib mesylate, a known ABL1 kinase inhibitor. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking, revealing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ABL1 ATP binding pocket. Together, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and to potential treatments for leukemia.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Células K562 , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/genética , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109603, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352274

RESUMO

AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 322 million people worldwide and is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A possible pathophysiological mechanism correlating both diseases is the increased oxidative stress in brain regions due to hyperglycemia. Myrsine coriacea (Primulaceae) is popularly known as "capororoca" and studies have been shown that this plant exhibits several pharmacological properties attributed to myrsinoic acid A (MAA) and B (MAB). Indeed, previous results have been shown its effects on the central nervous system, leading us to explore possible psychotropic effects. MAIN METHODS: The effects of treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of the barks from Myrsine coriacea (HEBMC, 150 mg/kg, o.g.), MAA (5 mg/kg, o.g.), and MAB (3 mg/kg, o.g.) were evaluated in streptozotocin (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic female rats. After 28 days of treatments, rats were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). Also, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of these rats. KEY FINDINGS: The treatment with MAA or MAB increased the latency of first immobility in diabetic rats, and the HEBMC administration decreased the immobility time, and increase the climbing in FST. However, only MAB treatment reduces the immobility time, increases the climbing, and swimming in FST, and increases the crossing of diabetic animals in the OFT. Besides, this behavioral improvement promoted by MAB administration was accompanied by reducing in oxidative stress in the HIP and PFC, but not reducing hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that MAB's antioxidant effect in the HIP of diabetic animals may be essential to its antidepressant-like effect.


Assuntos
Alcenos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Depressão/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Myrsine/química , Teste de Campo Aberto/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
14.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361786

RESUMO

Silver birch, Betula pendula Roth, is one of the most common trees in Europe. Due to its content of many biologically active substances, it has long been used in medicine and cosmetics, unlike the rare black birch, Betula obscura Kotula. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the antioxidant properties of extracts from the inner and outer bark layers of both birch trees towards the L929 line treated with acetaldehyde. Based on the lactate dehydrogenase test and the MTT test, 10 and 25% concentrations of extracts were selected for the antioxidant evaluation. All extracts at tested concentrations reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radical, and 25% extract decreased malonic aldehyde formation in acetaldehyde-treated cells. The chemical composition of bark extracts was accessed by IR and HPLC-PDA methods and surprisingly, revealed a high content of betulin and lupeol in the inner bark extract of B. obscura. Furthermore, IR analysis revealed differences in the chemical composition of the outer bark between black and silver birch extracts, indicating that black birch may be a valuable source of numerous biologically active substances. Further experiments are required to evaluate their potential against neuroinflammation, cancer, viral infections, as well as their usefulness in cosmetology.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betula/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetaldeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Betula/classificação , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Oxidantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polônia , Superóxidos/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 5178-5188, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382717

RESUMO

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the anti-inflammatory properties of French maritime pine bark extract and the neuroprotective effects, we aimed to evaluate the effects of its supplementation on TBI. Sixty-seven TBI patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) were enrolled. After stabilizing the hemodynamic status, the intervention group received 150 mg of French maritime pine bark extract supplementation (Oligopin) with enteral nutrition for 10 days. The control group received a placebo. Inflammatory status and oxidative stress markers were measured three times. Also, clinical and nutritional statuses were assessed. Supplementation, significantly decreased IL-6 (ß = -53.43 pg/ml, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -91.74, -15.13, p = .006), IL-1ß (ß = -111.66 pg/ml, 95% CI = -183.79, -39.5402, p = .002) and C-reactive protein (ß = -19.99 mg/L, 95% CI = -27.23, -12.76, p Ëƒ .001) in the intervention group compared to control group after 10 days. Clinical scores including acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and sequential organ failure assessment were reduced (ß = -3.72, 95% CI = -5.96, -1.49, p = .001and ß = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.23, -0.90, p < .001, respectively), and Nutric score was reduced compared to control group (ß = -.60, 95% CI = -1.08, -0.12, p = .01). The survival rate was higher by 15% in the intervention group compared to control group. Oligopin supplementation in TBI patients in ICU reduced inflammation and improved the clinical status and malnutrition score and thereby reducing the mortality rate.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Pinus/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional , Casca de Planta/química
16.
Fitoterapia ; 154: 105021, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403776

RESUMO

Bark of Phellodendron chinense Schneid. (Rutaceae), called "Huang Bai" in China, is one of the 50 most used Chinese medicines in clinical practice. In this paper, a new isoquinoline alkaloid glycoside was isolated from P. chinense, and its structure was elucidated using spectroscopic method. The compound was eventually identified as (1S, 3"S)-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-1-[(4-hydroxybenzyl) methyl]-2-methyl-8-O-isoquinolinyl-[3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl]-ß-D-glucopyranoside and named as Phellodendronoside A (PDA). The results of molecular docking showed that PDA could stably bind to an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) proteins that are closely related to inflammation. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of PDA was evaluated using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW264.7 macrophage model. We observed that PDA can effectively reduce the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decrease the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, we found that PDA inhibits the activation of ERK, JNK and p38MAPK proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that PDA has excellent anti-inflammatory effect in vitro by inhibiting the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, and its mechanism of action involves suppressing the activation of MAPK pathways, suggesting that PDA may be a potential agent for the treatment of inflammatory illness.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Phellodendron/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Isoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270386

RESUMO

Antibiotic contamination raises concerns over antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can severely impact the human health and environment. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a widely used antibiotic that is incompletely metabolized in the body. In this study, the research objectives were (1) to isolate the native strain of Trichoderma sp. from the environment and analyze the tolerance toward SMX concentration by evaluating fungal growth, and (2) to investigate the potential of SMX removal by fungi. The potential fungi isolated from rotten tree bark showed 97% similarity to Trichoderma harzianum (Accession no. MH707098.1). The whole cell of fungi was examined in vitro; the strain Trichoderma harzianum BGP115 eliminated 71% of SMX after 7 days, while the white rot fungi Trametes versicolor, demonstrated 90% removal after 10 days. Furthermore, the tolerance of fungal growth toward SMX concentration at 10 mg L-1 was analyzed, which indicated that Trichoderma harzianum BGP115 (the screened strain) exhibited more tolerance toward SMX than Trametes versicolor (the reference strain). The screened fungi isolated from rotted tree bark demonstrated the ability of SMX bioremoval and the potential to be tolerant to high concentrations of SMX.


Assuntos
Sulfametoxazol , Trichoderma , Humanos , Hypocreales , Casca de Planta , Polyporaceae , Trametes , Trichoderma/genética
18.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114229, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252820

RESUMO

Quinoline alkaloids are the main bioactive and potentially toxic constituents in the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. (BXP), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of skin inflammation, eczema and rubella. However, the comprehensive analysis of the chemical components and metabolites of quinoline alkaloids remain unclear. In this study, an integrated strategy by combining UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and UPLC/Qtrap-MS was established to comprehensively profile the quinoline alkaloids from BXP and their metabolites in rat plasma, urine and feces. Q-TOF-MS (MSE mode), Qtrap-MS (EMS, MIM, pMRM and NL mode) were performed for acquiring more precursor ions and clearer precursor product ions. A step-by-step manner based on the diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs), in-house database, ClogP value and dipole moment (µ) was proposed to overcome the complexities due to the similar fragmentation behaviors of the quinoline alkaloids. As a result, a total of 73 quinoline alkaloids were unambiguously or tentatively identified. Among them, 4 furoquinolines, 10 dihydrofuroquinolines, 2 pyranoquinolinones, 4 dihydropyranoquinolinones and 9 quinol-2-ones were characterized in BXP for the first time. Moreover, a total of 98 BXP-related constituents (including 57 prototypes and 41 metabolites) were detected in rat plasma, urine and feces. The metabolic pathways included phase I reactions (O-demethylation, hydroxylation and 2,3-olefinic epoxidation) and phase II reactions (conjugation with glucuronide, sulfate and N-acetylcysteine). In conclusion, the integrated strategy with the proposed stepwise manner is suitable for rapid identifying and characterizing more extensive quinoline alkaloids of BXP in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the results will be helpful for revealing the pharmacological effective substances or toxic substances of BXP and provide a solid basis for further research.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Dictamnus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Quinolinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fezes , Casca de Planta , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(6): 205, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286391

RESUMO

Drug-loaded electrospun fibers have attracted increasing attention as a promising wound dressing material due to their capability of preventing from infections and inflammation and maintaining an appropriate environment for wound healing. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA), which is widely used in wound management, was chosen as electrospinnable polymer. A triterpene extract (TE) from the outer bark of birch known for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and wound healing effects was chosen to produce TE-loaded PLA electrospun fibers for wound dressing. A binary solvent system of dichloromethane (DCM) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was employed, and the ratio of the solvents was optimized for preparing smooth and uniform fibers. The morphology of TE-loaded PLA electrospun fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The entrapment of TE in PLA fibers was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the solid state of TE in PLA fibers. The release behavior of TE was assayed by a shaking flask method for a period of 96 h. The results revealed that TE-loaded electrospun PLA microfibers could be reliably prepared and are promising future candidates in wound therapy.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Betula/química , Nanofibras/química , Casca de Planta/química , Poliésteres/síntese química , Triterpenos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Nanofibras/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/síntese química , Poliésteres/análise , Triterpenos/análise
20.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299650

RESUMO

A combination of flash chromatography, solid phase extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and in vitro bioassays was used to isolate phytocomponents endowed with anticholinesterase activity in extract from Phyllanthus muellarianus. Phytocomponents responsible for the anti-cholinesterase activity of subfractions PMF1 and PMF4 were identified and re-assayed to confirm their activity. Magnoflorine was identified as an active phytocomponent from PMF1 while nitidine was isolated from PMF4. Magnoflorine was shown to be a selective inhibitor of human butyrylcholinesterase-hBChE (IC50 = 131 ± 9 µM and IC50 = 1120 ± 83 µM, for hBuChE and human acetylcholinesterase-hAChE, respectively), while nitidine showed comparable inhibitory potencies against both enzymes (IC50 = 6.68 ± 0.13 µM and IC50 = 5.31 ± 0.50 µM, for hBChE and hAChE, respectively). When compared with the commercial anti-Alzheimer drug galanthamine, nitidine was as potent as galanthamine against hAChE and one order of magnitude more potent against hBuChE. Furthermore, nitidine also showed significant, although weak, antiaggregating activity towards amyloid-ß self-aggregation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Phyllanthus/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
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