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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115765, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195303

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mesua Assamica (King & prain) Kosterm. (MA) is an evergreen endemic medicinal tree available in Assam in India and other parts of south Asia. The bark of the plant is traditionally used for ant-malarial activity and treating fevers. It was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties, but no research findings have been reported about its protective activity on intestinal inflammatory disorders like ulcerative colitis (UC) yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the anti-ulcerative property of ethanolic extract of MA (MAE) in-vitro on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and in-vivo chronic restraint stress aggravated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical constituents of MAE were identified by LC-MS/MS. The in-vitro effects of MAE on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells stimulated with TNF-α 30 ng/ml were investigated for its potential therapeutic effects. Parameters such as body weights, behavioural, colonoscopy, colon lengths and spleen weights were measured and recorded in chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced UC model in C57BL/6 mice. Histological, cytokines and immunoblotting analysis in the colon tissues were determined to prove its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. RESULTS: MAE poses significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in-vitro in GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells evidenced by DCFDA and immunoflourescence assay. MAE treatment at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days has reduced Disease activity Index (DAI), splenomegaly and improved the shortened colon length and sucrose preference in mice. MAE treatment has increased the levels of anti-oxidants like GSH and reduced the levels of MDA, MPO and nitrite levels in colon tissues. Moreover, MAE has ameliorated neutrophil accumulation, mucosal and submucosal inflammation and crypt density evidenced by histopathology. Furthermore, MAE treatment significantly reduced the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α. we found from immunoblotting that there is a concomitant decrease in protein expression of NF-κB, STAT3 signalling cascades and phosphorylation of IKBα with an increase in Nrf2, SOD2, HO-1 and SIRT1 in colon tissues. In addition, we have performed molecular docking studies confirming that phytochemicals present in the MAE have a stronger binding ability and druggability to the NF-κB, Nrf2 and SIRT1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: MAE exhibited significant anti-colitis activity on chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis via regulating NF-κB/STAT3 and HO-1/Nrf2/SIRT1 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , NF-kappa B , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células HEK293 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 312(Pt 2): 137257, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423726

RESUMO

Some chemical elements released in nature due to anthropogenic actions are harmful to living beings, and finding efficient and low-cost ways to measure their presence is a challenge. The major goal of this work was to use the barks of urban trees as bioindicators of the presence of these elements. For this purpose, tree barks of sixteen individual trees were collected, including Ipê (Bignoniaceae Family); Sibipiruna (Fabaceae Family); Pine (Pinaceae Family), in the city of Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, in three different districts. Two samples, one of Ipê and another of Sibipiruna, collected in the Mata Atlântica forest in Juquitiba, SP, Brazil, were used as control samples. They were also analyzed; six soil samples were collected in the same places as the tree barks in Sorocaba. The samples were analyzed using the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy technique. The elements studied ranged from Al to Bi. The results were submitted to univariate and multivariate statistical analysis showing that Sibipiruna presented a high concentration of the element Ca. At the same time, Ipê and Pine showed high concentrations of K. In the identified elements, the probable sources of contamination were pointed out, such as elements from the dust of braking automobiles (Al, Si, S, Ti, Fe, Cu, and Ba), elements from the paint used to paint the asphalt (Si, Ca, Cr and Pb) and elements from the tire tread wear (Al, S, Ca and Zn). From the analysis of soil samples and trees, it was found that there was high pollution by the element Pb in the specimens collected in front of the old Saturnia battery factory, located in the district of Éden in the city of Sorocaba, SP, Brazil (Coordinates: Lat 23K253141 m E; Long 23K7405583 m S).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Pinus , Casca de Planta , Fluorescência , Chumbo , Raios X , Poluição Ambiental , Árvores , Solo
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(5): 1287-1294, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451555

RESUMO

Aristolochia bracteolatais utilized in confronting multiple and complicated disease conditions such as cancer, lung inflammation, dysentery, syphilis, gonorrhea, arthritis, skindiseases, snake bite and oxidative stress relating to humans due to their acceptability, affordability and proximity. This investigation seeks to determine the antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects of methanol extract of A. bracteolate root bark in vitro. The phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and enzymes inhibitory (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase) properties of root bark extract were evaluated by standard procedures. The methanol extract indicated the presence of diverse phytochemicals (tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides and terpenoids) and contained a remarkable amount of saponins (8.20±0.03%), phenols (6.82±0.01%), alkaloids (4.71±0.03%) and flavonoids (3.50±0.12%). The extract showed not only strong antioxidant properties against DPPH, FRAP and TBARS radicals with IC50 value of 57.87, 54.64 and 47.54 mg/ml, respectively but also anti-diabetic activity by inhibiting alpha-amylase (IC50=53.70 mg/ml) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50=49.18 mg/ml). GC-MS chromatogram identified a diverse array of active metabolites in the methanol extract of A. bracteolate root bark. This study suggested that the methanol extract of A. bracteolate root bark possessed anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic activities.


Assuntos
Aristolochia , Saponinas , Humanos , Metanol , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , alfa-Glucosidases , Casca de Planta , Fenóis , Flavonoides/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases , Amilases , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(22): 8539-8550, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autism is a disorder that manifests itself in early childhood. Early diagnosis of autism may not only help the affected children themselves, but also affect family well-being and social stability. The natural drug Albizia bark has been reported to have some effect in the prevention and treatment of autism in children. Therefore, we used network pharmacology and molecular docking to explore the possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TCMID and BATMAN-TCM was used to retrieve the chemical constituents of Albizia bark, and then obtained the relevant targets about autism by TTD, Gene Cards and OMIM. The resulting ingredients and targets were predicted, then a protein interaction network was constructed, and finally bioinformatics analysis was performed. Finally, molecular docking was used to verify the effective ingredients and targets obtained from the screening. RESULTS: Leucaena saponin B, luteolin, 3', 4', 7-trihydroxyflavone, which may be the key compounds for the treatment of autism. BP mainly involving signal transduction, G protein coupled receptor signal pathway, protein phosphorylation. CC, mainly involving plasma membrane, integral component of plasma membrane, MF, including protein binding, adenosine triphosphate binding, protein kinase activity. Molecular docking showed that AKT1, HRAS, PIK3CA, PIK3R1 and SRC, five potential targets, had good binding ability to Leucaena saponin B. CONCLUSIONS: The natural drug Albizia bark exerts pharmacological effects in a multi-component, multi-target and multi-channel manner, including neural regulation, inflammatory response and immune regulation.


Assuntos
Albizzia , Transtorno Autístico , Saponinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacologia em Rede , Casca de Planta
5.
J Mass Spectrom ; 57(11): e4890, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353856

RESUMO

Boehmeria rugulosa Wedd. is an evergreen tree of Urticaceae family. Its bark has been extensively used in ethno-medicinal system for various ailments such as bone fracture, sprain, snakebite, and wound healing. Phyto-metabolites, which are considered as the principle components for biological activities, have been least explored for this plant. The present work investigated metabolite profiling of the stem bark of B. rugulosa in water extract using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) technique coupled with the UNIFI platform. We identified, for the first time, 20 polyphenolic metabolites belonging to seven groups: caffeoylquinic acids, coumaroylquinic acids, flavan-3-ols, oligomeric flavonoids, caffeic acid derivatives, coumaric acid derivative, and flavone glycoside in the B. rugulosa extract. UNIFI informatics-coupled UPLC-QToF-MS platform aids in the quick identification and fragmentation pattern of metabolites, with higher degree of reproducibility. The present study provides a chemical and therapeutic basis for further exploration of B. rugulosa as a valuable source of phytochemicals that could be instrumental in deciphering its ethno-medicinal utility for various human diseases.


Assuntos
Boehmeria , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Casca de Planta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(12): 700, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367587

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative and short rod-shaped strain CBK1P-4T, isolated from surface-sterilized bark of Avicennia marina was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach to resolve its taxonomic position. Strain CBK1P-4T grew at 10-30 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 5.5) and in the presence of 0-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1-2%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CBK1P-4T belonged to the genus Jiella and was most closely related to species of the genus Jiella (97.4-98.3%). The genome comparisons between strain CBK1P-4T and the closely related species indicated that average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were below the recommended thresholds for assigning strains to the same species (95-96% and 70%, respectively). The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid. The principal fatty acids were C18:1ω7c and C19:0cycloω8c. The polar lipids were mainly comprised of phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified glycolipid. The dominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The DNA G + C content of strain CBK1P-4T was 66.7%. Based on the phenotypic features, phylogenetic analysis as well as genome analysis, we conclude that strain CBK1P-4T represents a novel Jiella species, for which the name Jiella avicenniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBK1P-4T (= CGMCC 1.18742T = JCM 34330T).


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria , Avicennia , Avicennia/genética , Avicennia/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alphaproteobacteria/genética , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ubiquinona/química
7.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2138041, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317599

RESUMO

Ulmus parvifolia (U. parvifolia) is a Chinese medicine plant whose bark and leaves are used in the treatment of some diseases such as inflammation, diarrhea and fever. However, metabolic signatures of seeds have not been studied. The seeds and bark of U. parvifolia collected at the seed ripening stage were used for metabolite profiling analysis through the untargeted metabolomics approach. A total of 2,578 and 2,207 metabolites, while 503 and 132 unique metabolites were identified in seeds and bark, respectively. Additionally, 574 differential metabolites (DEMs) were detected in the two different organs of U. parvifolia, which were grouped into 52 classes. Most kinds of metabolites classed into prenol lipids class. The relative content of flavonoids class was the highest. DEMs contained some bioactive compounds (e.g., flavonoids, terpene glycosides, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Most kinds of flavonoids and sesquiterpenes were up-regulated in seeds. There were more varieties of terpene glycosides and triterpenoids showing up-regulated in bark. The pathway enrichment was performed, while flavonoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis were worthy of attention. This study identified DEMs with pharmaceutical value between seeds and bark during seed maturation and offered a molecular basis for alternative or complementary use of seeds and bark of U. parvifolia as a Chinese medicinal material.


Assuntos
Triterpenos , Ulmus , Ulmus/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278096, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441750

RESUMO

The antifungal activity of the 70% ethanol stem bark extract of Erythrina senegalensis (ESB) against different strains and drug resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were evaluated in the study. The effect of ESB on biofilms as well as its activity in combination with fluconazole, nystatin or caspofungin against the Candida strains were also evaluated. We then evaluated the antifungal activity of a microemulsion formulation of ESB against planktonic and biofilms of the Candida species. UPLC-QTOF-MS2 analysis was then undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents of the extract and UPLC fingerprints developed for the routine authentication as part of quality control measures. ESB exerted strong antifungal activities against C. albicans ATCC 10231 and SC5314 strains, and C. glabrata ATCC 2001 strain with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 3.91 to 31.25 µg/mL and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) that ranged from 62.5 to 250 µg/mL. It also exhibited potent antifungal activities (MIC = 4-64 µg/mL) against a collection of C. albicans and C. glabrata clinical isolates that were resistant to either nystatin or azole antifungals. The formulated ESB demonstrated higher antifungal potency against the C. albicans and C. glabrata strains with MIC values of 3.91-31.25 µg/mL which was the same as the MFC values. The extract and its microemulsion formulation were active against biofilms of the strains of the Candida species inhibiting their biofilm formations (SMIC50 = 16-64 µg/mL) and their preformed biofilms (SMIC50 = 128 ->512 µg/mL). ESB also exhibited synergistic antifungal action with fluconazole and nystatin against C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. glabrata ATCC 2001 strains in the checkerboard assay. Chemical characterization of the extract revealed the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and their prenylated derivatives, anthracene glycosides and alkaloids. UPLC Fingerprints of the extract was also developed and validated for routine identification and authentication of the stem bark of E. senegalensis. The study findings have demonstrated that the stem bark of E. senegalensis is as a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be developed as novel antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata , Erythrina , Candida albicans , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fluconazol , Nistatina/farmacologia , Casca de Planta , Biofilmes , Candida , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 303, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. (Lauraceae), Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae), Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), and Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) have been recommended for improvement of memory via inhalation, in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). In this respect, the essential oils (EOs) from those plants were obtained and evaluated for cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activity as ChE inhibitors are the available drugs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: EOs obtained from the plants under investigation, were evaluated for their potential to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro based on the modified Ellman's method. The most potent EO was candidate for the investigation of its beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) inhibitory activity and neuroprotectivity. RESULTS: Among all EOs, C. verum demonstrated the most potent activity toward AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 453.7 and 184.7 µg/mL, respectively. It also showed 62.64% and 41.79% inhibition against BACE1 at the concentration of 500 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. However, it depicted no neuroprotective potential against ß-amyloid (Aß)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Also, identification of chemical composition of C. verum EO was achieved via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and the major constituent; (E)-cinnamaldehyde, was detected as 68.23%. CONCLUSION: Potent BChE inhibitory activity of C. verum EO can be considered in the development of cinnamon based dietary supplements for the management of patients with advanced AD.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase , Acetilcolinesterase , Casca de Planta/química , Irã (Geográfico)
10.
Fitoterapia ; 163: 105345, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336134

RESUMO

Nine undescribed protolimonoids, including two apotirucallane and seven tirucallane triterpenoids, as well as five known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 4-8, with an undescribed 22,25-epoxytirucallene part, were established their absolute configuration by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of 4. Such compounds might provide evidence for the degradation of protolimonoids to limonoids, bridging an oxidative cleavage biogenetic pathway between these structurally diverse triterpenoids. None of them showed anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, or monoamine oxidase B inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Dictamnus , Triterpenos , Dictamnus/química , Casca de Planta/química , Estrutura Molecular , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276798, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383507

RESUMO

Variation of the bark depends on tree age, origin, geographic location, or site conditions like temperature and water availability. Most of these variables are characterized by very high variability but above of all are also affected by climate changes. This requires the construction of improved bark thickness models that take this complexity into account. We propose a new approach based on time series. We used a recurrent neural network (ANN) to build the bark thickness model and compare it with stem taper curves adjusted to predict double bark thickness. The data includes 750 felled trees from common oak and 144 Scots pine-trees representing dominant forest-forming tree species in Europe. The trees were selected across stands varied in terms of age and site conditions. Based on the data, we built recurrent ANN and calculated bark thickness along the stem. We tested different network structures with one- and two-time window delay and three learning algorithms-Bayesian Regularization, Levenberg-Marquardt, and Scaled Conjugate Gradient. The evaluation criteria of the models were: coefficient of determination, root mean square error, mean absolute error as well as graphical analysis of observed and estimated values. The results show that recurrent ANN is a universal approach that offers the most precise estimation of bark thickness at a particular stem height. The ANN recursive model had an advantage in estimating trees that were atypical for height, as well as upper and lower parts on the stem.


Assuntos
Pinus sylvestris , Pinus , Quercus , Casca de Planta , Teorema de Bayes , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364016

RESUMO

Biochar from forest biomass and its remains has become an essential material for environmental engineering, and is used in the environment to restore or improve soil function and its fertility, where it changes the chemical, physical and biological processes. The article presents the research results on the opportunity to use the pyrolysis process to receive multifunctional biochar materials from oak biomass. It was found that biochars obtained from oak biomass at 450 and 500 °C for 10 min were rich in macronutrients. The greatest variety of the examined elements was characterized by oak-leaf pyrolysate, and high levels of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, Na were noticed. Pyrolysates from acorns were high in Fe, K, P and S. Oak bark biochars were rich in Ca, Fe, S and contained nitrogen. In addition, biomass pyrolysis has been found to improve energy parameters and does not increase the dust explosion hazard class. The oak biomass pyrolytic at 450 and 500 °C after 10 min increases its caloric content for all samples tested by at least 50%. The highest caloric value among the raw biomass tested was observed in oak bark: 19.93 MJ kg-1 and oak branches: 19.23 MJ kg-1. The mean and highest recorded Kstmax were 94.75 and 94.85 bar s-1, respectively. It can be concluded that pyrolysis has the potential to add value to regionally available oak biomass. The results described in this work provide a basis for subsequent, detailed research to obtain desired knowledge about the selection of the composition, purpose, and safety rules of production, storage, transport and use of biochar materials.


Assuntos
Quercus , Madeira , Biomassa , Madeira/química , Casca de Planta , Carvão Vegetal/química , Solo/química , Folhas de Planta
13.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364121

RESUMO

Essential oils have been used by indigenous peoples for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Their easy availability played an important role. Even today, essential oils are used in various fields-be it as aromatic substances in the food industry, as an aid in antibiotic therapy, in aromatherapy, in various household products or in cosmetics. The benefits they bring to the body and health are proven by many sources. Due to their complex composition, they offer properties that will be used more and more in the future. Synergistic effects of various components in an essential oil are also part of the reason for their effectiveness. Infectious diseases will always recur, so it is important to find active ingredients for different therapies or new research approaches. Essential oils extracted from the bark of trees have not been researched as extensively as from other plant components. Therefore, this review will focus on bringing together previous research on selected bark oils to provide an overview of barks that are economically, medicinally, and ethnopharmaceutically relevant. The bark oils described are Cinnamomum verum, Cedrelopsis grevei, Drypetes gossweileri, Cryptocarya massoy, Vanillosmopsis arborea and Cedrus deodara. Literature from various databases, such as Scifinder, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed, among others, were used.


Assuntos
Cryptocarya , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/química , Casca de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cryptocarya/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum
14.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(10): 664-665, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317580
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 973686, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330129

RESUMO

Climate changes have promoted an increased fungal infection of maple trees with Cryptostroma corticale, the causative agent of sooty bark disease. The hosts of C. corticale are maples, and since the early 2000s the fungus has been appearing more frequently in European forests, due to the droughts and hot summers of recent years. Infestation by C. corticale discolors the wood and makes it unusable for further processing, which leads to considerable economic damage in the timber industry. Therefore, the occurrence and spread of sooty bark disease raise serious problems. In addition to forestry and economic problems, the conidiospores of C. corticale can also cause health problems in exposed wood workers and they can trigger hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Since the spores, which are deposited over the entire area under the bark of infected trees, can spread during processing, exposed workers must take special precautions to protect themselves against exposure. If an occupational disease is nevertheless suspected following exposure to C. corticale, valid diagnostics are required to confirm possible HP and derive appropriate therapies and exposure reduction or avoidance. Diagnosis of HP is based on several criteria, one of them is the detection of specific IgG in patient's serum against the potentially triggering antigens, in this case C. corticale antigens. To produce a diagnostic tool to measure C. corticale specific IgG, which is not commercially available so far, spores and mycelial material from ITS-sequenced strains of C. corticale was prepared and analyzed. These biochemically characterized extracts of spore and mycelial antigens were biotinylated and coupled to Streptavidin-ImmunoCAPs. To validate these diagnostic test tools the first step is to measure the concentration of C. corticale specific IgG in sera of healthy non-exposed and healthy exposed subjects to establish cut-off values. Suitable participants were recruited and the individual exposure to C. corticale and symptoms experienced during or after working with infected maple trees were recorded using questionnaires. Finally, diagnostic tools for serological testing in suspected cases of HP by C. corticale were created and evaluated. The following article provides recommendations for the treatment and disposal of infected damaged wood and for occupational health protection procedures. Secondly, the diagnosis of HP induced by exposure to C. corticale as an occupational disease is described including the verification of newly developed serological test tools for antigens of C. corticale.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Madeira , Humanos , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Árvores/microbiologia , Madeira/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233184

RESUMO

Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) bark is a commonly used remedy to treat gastrointestinal disorders, throat and skin infections, hemorrhages, and dysentery. It has also been previously reported that its methanol extracts possess antibacterial activity, which can be related to the richness of Quercus spp. extracts in phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and tannins. However, there is no information on the antifungal (including oomycete) properties of the bark from Q. ilex or its subspecies (ilex and ballota). In this work, we report the characterization of the aqueous ammonia extract of its bark by FTIR and GC-MS and the results of in vitro and ex situ inhibition tests against three phytopathogens. The main phytochemical components identified were inositols (19.5%), trans-squalene (13%), 4-butoxy-1-butanol (11.4%), gulopyranose (9.6%), lyxose (6.5%), 2,4-dimethyl-benzo[H]quinoline (5.1%), catechol (4.5%), and methoxyphenols (4.2%). The efficacy of the extract in controlling forest phytopathogens was tested in vitro against Fusarium circinatum (responsible for pitch canker of Pinus spp.), Cryphonectria parasitica (which causes chestnut blight), and Phytophthora cinnamomi (which causes 'root and crown rot' in a variety of hosts, including Castanea, conifers, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Juglans, Quercus, etc.), obtaining EC90 values of 322, 295, and 75 µg·mL-1, respectively, much lower than those attained for a commercial strobilurin fungicide (azoxystrobin). The extract was further tested ex situ against P. cinnamomi on artificially inoculated, excised stems of 'Garnem' almond rootstock, attaining complete protection at a dose of 782 µg·mL-1. The results suggest that holm oak bark extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds against invasive forest pathogens, including the oomycete that is causing its decline, the so-called 'seca' in Spain.


Assuntos
Ballota , Fungicidas Industriais , Phytophthora , Quercus , Quinolinas , 1-Butanol , Amônia , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Catecóis , Flavonoides , Florestas , Metanol , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Esqualeno , Estrobilurinas , Taninos
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 72(10)2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251742

RESUMO

Two reddish-coloured bacterial strains (HMF7604T and HMF7620T) were isolated from bark of birch tree (Betula platyphylla) together with two strains (designed as HMF7603 and HMF7618). Cells were observed to be Gram-stain-negative, oval- to short rod-shaped and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the four isolates belonged to the genus Deinococcus, family Deinococcaceae. They had the highest similarities (95.4-95.6 %) to Deinococcus multiflagellatus ID1504T, with which they formed a clade in phylogenetic trees. Menaquinone-8 was the only respiratory quinone. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), C15 : 1 ω6c, C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. Strain HMF7604T contained two unidentified phosphoglycolipids, nine unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified aminolipid, three unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified polar lipids, while strain HMF7620T contained one unidentified phosphoglycolipid, four unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains HMF7604T and HMF7620T were 65.6 and 65.7 mol%, respectively. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between the two isolates and their close relative D. multiflagellatus were 81.1-95.3 and 24.5-61.6 %, respectively. Based on the results of phenotypic and phylogenetic characterizations, the four isolates are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the names Deinococcus betulae sp. nov. and Deinococcus arboris sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are HMF7604T (=KCTC 43354T=NBRC 115489T) and HMF7620T (=KCTC 43051T=NBRC 113959T).


Assuntos
Deinococcus , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Betula , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/análise , Nucleotídeos , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2
18.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296647

RESUMO

The global population is aging, and intervention strategies for anti-aging and the prevention of aging-related diseases have become a topic actively explored today. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important molecule in the metabolic process, and its content in tissues and cells decreases with age. The supplementation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an important intermediate and precursor of NAD+, has increased NAD+ levels, and its safety has been demonstrated in rodents and human studies. However, the high content of NMN in natural plants has not been fully explored as herbal medicines for drug development. Here, we identified that the leaf of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (C. verum) was the highest NMN content among the Plant Extract Library (PEL) with food experience, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). To validate this result, the extraction and quantitative analysis of bark, leaf, root, and stem of fresh C. verum was conducted. The results revealed that the bark had the highest NMN content in C. verum (0.471 mg/100 g). Our study shed light on the prospects of developing natural plants in the context of NMN as drugs for anti-aging and prevention of aging-related diseases. The future should focus on the development and application of C. verum pharmaceutical formulations.


Assuntos
NAD , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida , Humanos , NAD/metabolismo , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Cromatografia Líquida , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293365

RESUMO

The Scandinavian region is home to a unique biome with endemic plant species. The aim of this study was to explore this natural diversity and identify plant extracts providing positive skin barrier effects. Six plant extracts were identified as starting material. Following biochemical screening, two candidates outperformed the rest: Betula alba (BA) and Empetrum nigrum (EN). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that BA and EN upregulated barrier genes, when used individually and in combination. Betula alba increased AQP3 and OCLN protein expression, something niacinamide was incapable of. Additionally, the skin barrier was strengthened, evidenced by inhibition of KLK5 and hyaluronidase and showed strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity through DPPH and COX2 inhibition, respectively. A first split-face clinical study was conducted using the combination of extracts versus placebo. There was a significantly better skin restructuring effect and corneocyte cohesion on the side treated with combined extracts. A second split-face clinical study assessed the combined extracts versus 3% niacinamide. Significant variations in skin hydration and TEWL were observed in favor of the extract treated side. In conclusion, we identified a natural alternative to niacinamide for improving skin barrier health, in Scandinavian plant extracts, which yield strong performance, but at a lower concentration.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Casca de Planta , Antioxidantes , Betula , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(10): 3457-3471, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Casuarina equisetifolia bark is rich in various active metabolites and selected to be studied due to limitation of the synthetic antioxidants that have adverse side effects. The present study aimed to enhance efficiency of the most effective extract by incorporating gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). METHODS: The phytochemical and biological measurements were carried out in total methanolic extract and its successive fractions. Moreover, these measurements were assayed in the most effective extract after incorporating Au-NPs. RESULTS: The study revealed that total methanolic extract exhibited the highest biological and cytotoxic activities as compared to other fractions. Therefore, it is considered as good candidate for nano-extract preparation. The methanolic extract incorporated with Au-NPs showed higher antioxidant, scavenging and cytotoxic activities in addition to higher inhibitory effect against α-amylase activity as compared to native extract itself. To pinpoint active agents in total methanolic extract, the secondary metabolite profiling via HPLC-MS showed that 33 and 17 metabolites were annotated in the extract before and after incorporating Au-NPs, respectively. The median lethal dose (LD50) showed that gold total methanolic nano-extract is safer than total methanolic extract. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that total methanolic C. equisetifolia bark extract is a valuable bioresource to synthesize an eco-friendly Au-NPs with health-enhancing effect as antioxidant, antidiabetic and cytotoxic agents. The present study is considered as the first report on utilization of C. equisetifolia bark in synthesis of Au-NPs by mean of green nanotechnology and investigation of its biological activity in relation to its metabolite fingerprint.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Metanol
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