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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD008294, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pine bark (Pinus spp.) extract is rich in bioflavonoids, predominantly proanthocyanidins, which are antioxidants. Commercially-available extract supplements are marketed for preventing or treating various chronic conditions associated with oxidative stress. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of pine bark extract supplements for treating chronic disorders. SEARCH METHODS: We searched three databases and three trial registries; latest search: 30 September 2019. We contacted the manufacturers of pine bark extracts to identify additional studies and hand-searched bibliographies of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pine bark extract supplements in adults or children with any chronic disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible, we pooled data in meta-analyses. We used GRADE to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were participant- and investigator-reported clinical outcomes directly related to each disorder and all-cause mortality. We also assessed adverse events and biomarkers of oxidative stress. MAIN RESULTS: This review included 27 RCTs (22 parallel and five cross-over designs; 1641 participants) evaluating pine bark extract supplements across 10 chronic disorders: asthma (two studies; 86 participants); attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (one study; 61 participants), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors (seven studies; 338 participants), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (two studies; 60 participants), diabetes mellitus (DM) (six studies; 339 participants), erectile dysfunction (three studies; 277 participants), female sexual dysfunction (one study; 83 participants), osteoarthritis (three studies; 293 participants), osteopenia (one study; 44 participants) and traumatic brain injury (one study; 60 participants). Two studies exclusively recruited children; the remainder recruited adults. Trials lasted between four weeks and six months. Placebo was the control in 24 studies. Overall risk of bias was low for four, high for one and unclear for 22 studies. In adults with asthma, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted/forced vital capacity (FVC) (mean difference (MD) 7.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19 to 12.21; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases change in FEV1 % predicted (MD 7.00, 95% CI 0.10 to 13.90; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), improves asthma symptoms (risk ratio (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.58; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the number of people able to stop using albuterol inhalers (RR 6.00, 95% CI 1.97 to 18.25; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In children with ADHD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases inattention and hyperactivity assessed by parent- and teacher-rating scales (narrative synthesis; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the change in visual-motoric coordination and concentration (MD 3.37, 95% CI 2.41 to 4.33; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases diastolic blood pressure (MD -3.00 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.51 to -1.49; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence); increases HDL cholesterol (MD 0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.11; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases LDL cholesterol (MD -0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.00; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVI, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases pain scores (MD -0.59, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.16; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases the disappearance of pain (RR 25.0, 95% CI 1.58 to 395.48; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases physician-judged treatment efficacy (RR 4.75, 95% CI 1.97 to 11.48; 1 study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In type 2 DM, we do not know whether pine bark extract leads to a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose (MD 1.0 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.09; one study; 48 participants;very low-certainty evidence) or decreases HbA1c (MD -0.90 %, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.02; 1 study; 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In a mixed group of participants with type 1 and type 2 DM we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases HbA1c (MD -0.20 %, 95% CI -1.83 to 1.43; one study; 67 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In men with erectile dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract supplements increase International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores (not pooled; two studies; 147 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In women with sexual dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases satisfaction as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index (MD 5.10, 95% CI 3.49 to 6.71; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or leads to a greater reduction of pain scores (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.69 to 5.91; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In adults with osteoarthritis of the knee, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases composite Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores (MD -730.00, 95% CI -1011.95 to -448.05; one study; 37 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (MD -18.30, 95% CI -25.14 to -11.46; one study; 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We do not know whether pine bark extract increases bone alkaline phosphatase in post-menopausal women with osteopenia (MD 1.16 ug/L, 95% CI -2.37 to 4.69; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In individuals with traumatic brain injury, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases cognitive failure scores (MD -2.24, 95% CI -11.17 to 6.69; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or post-concussion symptoms (MD -0.76, 95% CI -5.39 to 3.87; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For most comparisons, studies did not report outcomes of hospital admissions or serious adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Small sample sizes, limited numbers of RCTs per condition, variation in outcome measures, and poor reporting of the included RCTs mean no definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy or safety of pine bark extract supplements are possible.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Pinus , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461230, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709311

RESUMO

Two isomeric biphenyl neolignans, magnolol and honokiol, are considered as constituents responsible for the healing effect of magnolia bark, a traditional Oriental medicine. To survey the increasing number of dietary supplements that contain magnolia bark or its extract, an affordable quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry method was developed. The methanol extracts were analyzed on the silica gel plates after manual sample application using n-hexane - ethyl acetate - ethanol (16:3:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. For quantitation, the chromatograms were scanned in the absorbance mode at the wavelength λ = 290 nm. The limits of detection and quantitation were 90 and 280 ng/zone for magnolol and 70 and 200 ng/zone for honokiol, respectively. None of the two targeted neolignans were detected in two of the six analyzed supplements. In the other four samples, the measured amounts were between 0.95-114.69 mg g-1 for magnolol and 4.88-84.86 mg g-1 for honokiol. Moreover, separations of these two neolignans on the TLC and high-performance TLC (HPTLC) layers were compared and HPTLC was combined with antioxidant (DPPH) and antibacterial (Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri) assays and mass spectrometry (MS), using the elution-based interface. Both magnolol and honokiol exhibited effects in all bioactivity assays. The HPTLC-MS tests confirmed purity of neolignan zones in the extracts of dietary supplements and supported tentative identification of the alkaloid piperine and the isoflavone daidzein as additional bioactive components of the investigated dietary supplements. Using the same mobile phase in the orthogonal directions 2D-HPTLC-MS experiments proved degradation, i.e., instability of magnolol and honokiol on the silica gel adsorbent.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lignanas/análise , Densitometria , Limite de Detecção , Magnolia/química , Magnolia/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127598, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693258

RESUMO

Cork boiling wastewaters (CBW) are strongly coloured complex aqueous solutions with high organic load of biorecalcitrant and toxic nature. The feasibility and efficiency of a CBW treatment process combining ozonation as pre- and post-treatment of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSFCW) was assessed. Over an extended monitoring period of 390 days, two lab-scale HSFCW units were tested; one planted with P. australis (CWP) and one unplanted-control (CWC) operated at average organic loads rates (OLR) of 5 and 10 g COD/m2/d. CWP always outperformed the control unit. The ozonation trials were run at pH values of 8.15-8.21 and 5.39-5.45 (without adjustment) at ozone to COD ratios of 0.25-0.29 and 0.24-0.59 when implemented as pre- and post-treatment, respectively. Average removals (calculated through mass balance basis) were 78-88%, 86-91%, 71-89% and 43-89% for COD, BOD5, Total Phenols (TPh) and colour when ozonation was implemented as post-treatment. For ozonation as pre-treatment, respective figures were 77-80%, 79-92%, 78-85% and 19-73%. Regardless of the treatment scheme and OLR, ozonation was very effective in biodegradability increase (i.e., BOD5/COD) from 0.18 to 0.42 when applied as pre-treatment, and decolourization after the HSFCW increased from 21% to 91% (post-treatment) with respective ozone consumed yields of 67-69% and 72-85%. The best results were obtained for the scheme CWP + Ozonation at OLR of 5.33 g COD/m2/d with COD reductions from 1950 mg/L to 81-88 mg/L in the effluent and TPh from 125 mg/L to 5-6 mg/L at limited ozone amounts of 0.21-0.45 g O3/m2/d.


Assuntos
Ozônio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Estudos de Viabilidade , Oxirredução , Casca de Planta/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/química
4.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115229, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712481

RESUMO

Particulate air pollution in cities comprises a variety of harmful compounds, including fine iron rich particles, which can persist in the air for long time, increasing the adverse exposure of humans and living things to them. We studied street tree (among other species, Cordyline australis, Fraxinus excelsior and F. pensylvanica) barks as biological collectors of these ubiquitous airborne particles in cities. Properties were determined by the environmental magnetism method, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed by geostatistical methods. Trapped particles are characterized as low-coercivity (mean ± s.d. value of remanent coercivity Hcr = 37.0 ± 2.4 mT) magnetite-like minerals produced by a common pollution source identified as traffic derived emissions. Most of these Fe rich particles are inhalable (PM2.5), as determined by the anhysteretic ratio χARM/χ (0.1-1 µm) and scanning electron microscopy (<1 µm), and host a variety of potentially toxic elements (Cr, Mo, Ni, and V). Contents of magnetic particles vary in the study area as observed by magnetic proxies for pollution, such as mass specific magnetic susceptibility χ (18.4-218 × 10-8 m3 kg-1) and in situ magnetic susceptibility κis (0.2-20.2 × 10-5 SI). The last parameter allows us doing in situ magnetic biomonitoring, being convenient because of species preservation, measurement time, and fast data processing for producing prediction maps of magnetic particle pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Material Particulado/análise , Casca de Planta/química
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110758, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497991

RESUMO

This study attempts to identify the influence of various aspects of human activities in three medium-sized Central European cities (Cottbus, Germany; Nitra, Slovakia and Slupsk, Poland) on air contamination. For comparison purposes, bark of Pinus sylvestris L. was collected from polluted and non-polluted urban areas. Nine elements: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and S were determined using microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and elementary analyzer. Results of the study showed significant differences between the cities in term of elements content in pine bark. The differences reflected well specific character of the cities and various effects of human activity. Study revealed that elements spatial variability among the cities is driven by the factor loadings character and reflects various emission sources and their impact range.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Pinus sylvestris/química , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Humanos , Pinus , Casca de Planta/química , Polônia , Eslováquia , Enxofre/análise
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525918

RESUMO

Environmentally available sodium tends to decrease with increasing elevation, and sodium resources in these sodium-poor environments are critical for the survival of herbivores. Eucalypt leaves in the subalpine Monaro region of NSW, Australia contain much less sodium than eucalypt leaves at lower elevations, and subalpine koalas obtain this much needed resource by eating the bark from some Eucalyptus mannifera trees. To better understand the availability of salty-barked trees, we searched for evidence of koala bark chewing at 100 randomly generated locations in the region. We found 318 E. mannifera trees with koala chew marks. We also analysed sodium concentrations in the bark of three unchewed E. mannifera trees from each site to determine whether there were trees with high bark sodium content that had not yet been utilized by koalas. Although 90% of unchewed trees had sodium concentrations less than 225.4 mg.kg-1 DM, some unchewed trees contained high sodium concentrations (up to 1213.1 mg.kg-1 DM). From the random survey, we can extrapolate that 11% of trees in this area have bark sodium above 300 mg.kg-1 DM, which is based on the concentration of bark sodium observed in at least moderately chewed trees. We would expect to find 0.24 of these trees per 200 m2, or 720,000 salty-barked trees in the 30 km by 20 km study area. Bark chewing by koalas is widespread in the area, and trees with salty bark are more common than initially thought. We discuss correlations with the occurrence of salty-barked trees and other landscape attributes; however, questions remain about why some E. mannifera trees have much more bark sodium than others. Studies such as this one should be expanded to identify sodium resources and their availability for other herbivorous species, since many are predicted to move to higher elevations in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/química , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/análise , Phascolarctidae/fisiologia , Sódio/análise , Altitude , Animais , Austrália , Mudança Climática , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Densidade Demográfica
7.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(12): 1233-1241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574076

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the feasibility of using natural Lagerstroemia speciosa bark (NLSB) and chemically modified Lagerstroemia speciosa bark (CLSB) in removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solution in fixed bed column process. The effect of influent flow rate, bed depth and inlet Cr(VI) ion concentration on the Cr(VI) removal capacity of NLSB and CLSB was investigated. The column exhaustion time increased with increase in bed depth and reverse trend was obtained with increase in flow rate and influent Cr(VI) ion concentration. The Bohart-Adams, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson dynamic models were applied at various studied experimental conditions to predict the breakthrough curve behavior and to determine the characteristics fixed bed column parameters that are very crucial in scale up of the column process for its industrial scale application. Both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models showed very good agreement with the column data and explained the mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption by NLSB and CLSB in column process. The high Cr(VI) adsorption capacity and regeneration efficiency of NLSB and CLSB in column suggest its applicability in removal of Cr(VI) present in industrial effluents.


Assuntos
Lagerstroemia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo , Íons , Casca de Planta/química
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25727-25739, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350844

RESUMO

The Ocotea puberula bark powder (OPBP) was evaluated as an effective adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (CV) from colored effluents. OPBP was characterized and presented a surface with large cavities, organized as a honeycomb. The main functional groups of OPBP were O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O-C. The adsorption of CV on OPBP was favorable at pH 9 with a dosage of 0.75 g L-1. The Avrami model was the most suitable to represent the adsorption kinetic profile, being the estimated equilibrium concentration value of 3.37 mg L-1 for an initial concentration of 50 mg L-1 (CV removal of 93.3%). The equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The data were better described by the Langmuir isotherm, reaching a maximum adsorption capacity of 444.34 mg g-1 at 328 K. The Gibbs free energy ranged from - 26.3554 to - 27.8055 kJ mol-1, and the enthalpy variation was - 11.1519 kJ mol-1. The external mass transfer was the rate-limiting step, with Biot numbers ranging from 0.0011 to 0.25. Lastly, OPBP application for the treatment of two different simulated effluents was effective, achieving a removal percentage of 90%.


Assuntos
Ocotea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Violeta Genciana , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Casca de Planta/química , Termodinâmica
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(10): 1125-1136, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449848

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo anticancer effects of daucosterol which was earlier reported to possess in vitro anticancer effects. Breast tumor was induced in 30 rats using the environmental carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) while 6 control rats received olive oil (NOR). Animals with palpable tumors were randomized into five groups (n = 6) each as follows: negative control group treated with the vehicle (DMBA); positive control group treated with 5 mg/kg BW doxorubicin (DOXO + DMBA); three groups treated with daucosterol at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg BW (DAU + DMBA). Treatment lasted 28 days afterward, tumor (mass, volume, cancer antigen [CA] 15-3 level and histoarchitecture), hematological and toxicological parameters were examined. The tumor volume gradually increased in the DMBA group during the 28 days, with a tumor volume gain of ∼390 cm3 . Daucosterol at all doses reduced tumor volume (∼133.7 cm3 at 10 mg/kg) as well as protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), and CA 15-3 levels compared to DMBA rats. Tumor sections in daucosterol-treated rats showed a lower proliferation of mammary ducts with mild (5 and 10 mg/kg) to moderate (2.5 mg/kg) inflammatory responses. Moreover, it exhibited an antioxidant effect, evidenced by a significant and dose-dependent decreased in MDA levels, as well as an increase in catalase activity compared to the DMBA group. Daucosterol showed for the first time in vivo antitumor effects that corroborate its previous in vitro effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Capparaceae/química , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno/toxicidade , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sitosteroides/isolamento & purificação , Sitosteroides/uso terapêutico
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298276

RESUMO

In recent years, chronic degenerative diseases such as certain types of cancers, are becoming an evident issue. DNA damage has been for long recognized as a causal factor for cancer development because mutations or chromosomal aberrations affect oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes leading cells to malignant transformation and to the subsequent cancerous growth. Medicinal plants are often used for the prevention or treatment of various diseases with great scientific interest. Among the medicinal plants distributed in the Mediterranean region, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. has been used in traditional medicine for its remarkable curative properties. However, in spite of this popularity, little works have been performed on the activity so that further studies should be performed to investigate in depth the antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activities of the plant. Thus, the present study was aimed to the evaluation of the potential antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative properties of leaves and stem bark extracts of this well-known tree. Antimutagenic activity was evaluated by Salmonella mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antigenotoxic potential was assessed by umu test in the strain of S. typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Antiproliferative activity was studied on human hepatoblastoma (HepG-2) and on breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity observed on cancer cells was compared with that on the human normal-like fibroblasts (TelCOFS02MA) and the selectivity index was calculated to understand if extracts were able to exert selective toxicity towards cancer cells. Moreover, phenolic compounds are plant substances with a large spectrum of biochemical activities with antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. Based on the strong evidence of biological activities of phenolic compounds, the study was focused on the determination of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts assessed by LC/MS. The ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem barks showed significant from moderate to strong antimutagenic and antigenotoxic effects. In addition, selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells was shown by ethanolic leaves extract and aqueous/chloroform leaves and stem bark extracts. The latter showed high levels of total phenolic contents among all the other extracts. Identified phenylethanoids (calceolariosides, verbascoside) and secoiridoids (oleuropein and ligstroside) could be responsible for the demonstrated broad spectrum of healthy properties.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Fraxinus/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21816-21825, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281060

RESUMO

The use of certain types of plants to determine the accumulation of HMs (heavy metals) has yielded quite consistent results in the research fields. Many researches have focused on particular types of HMs due to their common presence in the air (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr to name a few). However, it is equally as important to shed light on other types of HMs and the scale of their existence in our atmosphere, hence this paper. Blue spruce (Picea pungens) tree organs were used in an experiment to calculate the recent concentration of HMs. The research concentrates on Ca, Cu, and Li elements in the washed and unwashed needles, branches, and barks, and these organs were evaluated depending on the organ age. The study results showed that the concentration of the elements subjected to the research changed depending on the organ, washing status and organ age, and that the lowest concentrations of Ca and Cu elements were obtained in the barks in general. In relation to the organ age, it was found that there was an increase in the concentration of Ca with age, and that the concentration of Li element was inversely proportional to age.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Picea , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agulhas , Casca de Planta/química
12.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325742

RESUMO

(1) Background: Viral respiratory infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year. Human coronavirus and several picornaviruses are responsible for worldwide epidemic outbreaks, thus representing a heavy burden to their hosts. In the absence of specific treatments for human viral infections, natural products offer an alternative in terms of innovative drug therapies. (2) Methods: We analyzed the antiviral properties of the leaves and stem bark of the mulberry tree (Morus spp.). We compared the antiviral activity of Morus spp. on enveloped and nonenveloped viral pathogens, such as human coronavirus (HCoV 229E) and different members of the Picornaviridae family-human poliovirus 1, human parechovirus 1 and 3, and human echovirus 11. The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. We also evaluated the antiviral activities of kuwanon G against HCoV-229E. (3) Results: Our results showed that several extracts reduced the viral titer and cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Leaves' water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves' water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses. (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the antiviral activities of Morus spp. offer promising applications in antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picornaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química
13.
J Biotechnol ; 313: 11-17, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126268

RESUMO

TLC-Bioautography is a fast and effective method for assessing the inhibitory effect of compounds present in plant extracts against microbial species. However, this method has a hidden, currently underutilized potential for evaluating the presence of inhibitory compounds against selected enzymes. The aim of this work was to design a functional TLC-Bioautography method for the evaluation of protease inhibitors present in plant extracts. The method is based on the hydrolysis of Nα-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BApNA) by α-chymotrypsin as a representative serine protease to produce coloured para-nitroaniline (pNA). Derivatization of pNA with both sodium nitrite and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine (NPED) leads to the formation of a pink azo dye. This step improves the resolution of active compounds on the chromatogram, which appear as light spots on a pink background. The developed method was tested for the analysis of protease inhibitors in different plant materials such as grape pomace from Vitis vinifera, Picea abies bark, Hippophae rhamnoides berries, Hordeum sativum bran, Triticum aestivum bran and Avena sativa bran. Plant extracts, which could not be analysed by a commonly used spectrophotometric method due to interference, were assessed by this method.


Assuntos
Quimotripsina/antagonistas & inibidores , Hippophae/química , Picea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Benzoilarginina Nitroanilida/metabolismo , Cromatografia , Frutas/química , Hidrólise , Casca de Planta/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4807, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020626

RESUMO

Periplocae Cortex, named Xiang-Jia-Pi in China, has been widely used to treat autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. However, the in vivo substances of Periplocae Cortex remain unknown yet. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for profiling the chemical components and related metabolites of Periplocae Cortex. A total of 98 constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in Periplocae Cortex: 42 C21 steroidal glycosides, 10 cardiac glycosides, 23 organic acids, 4 aldehydes, 7 triterpenes, and 12 other types. Among them, 18 components were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. In addition, 176 related xenobiotics (34 prototypes and 142 metabolites) were screened out and characterized in rats' biosamples (plasma, urine, bile, and feces) after the oral administration of Periplocae Cortex. Moreover, the metabolic fate of periplocoside S-4a, a C21 steroidal glycoside, was proposed for the first time. In summary, phase II reactions (methylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation), phase I reactions (hydrolysis reactions, oxygenation, and reduction), and their combinations were the predominant metabolic reactions of Periplocae Cortex in rat. It is the first report to reveal the in vivo substances and metabolism feature of Periplocae Cortex. This study also provided meaningful information for further pharmacodynamics study of Periplocae Cortex, as well as its quality control research.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Periploca/química , Administração Oral , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/química , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Masculino , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126041, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028162

RESUMO

In the present work, laboratory column experiments were carried out to study the effect of pine bark amendment (at doses of 0, 12, 48 and 96 Mg ha-1) on the transport of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine -SDZ-, sulfamethazine -SMT-, and sulfachloropyridazine -SCP-) through two crop soils. All three sulfonamides showed high mobility in the unamend soils, with absence of retention in most cases. However, some differences were detected regarding the degree of interactions between sulfonamides and soils, being higher for soil 1, which was attributed to its higher organic carbon content. For both soils, interactions with the antibiotics studied followed the sequence SDZ < SMT < SCP, indicating an increase as a function of the hydrophobicity of sulfonamides. Pine bark amendment significantly increased the retention of the three sulfonamides in both soils. Specifically, in the case of soil 1, the incorporation of the highest dose of pine bark (96 Mg ha-1) caused that retention increased from 0% to 70.3% for SDZ, from 2.7% to 71.3% for SMT, and from 0% to 85.4% for SCP. This effect of pine bark is mainly attributed to its high organic carbon content (48.6%), including substances with potential to interact and retain antibiotics, as well as to its acidic pH (4.5). Therefore, pine bark amendment would be an effective alternative to reduce the transport of sulfonamides in soils and, thus, decrease risks of passing to other environmental compartments, as well as harmful effects on the environment and public health.


Assuntos
Casca de Planta/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Pinus/metabolismo , Solo/química , Sulfacloropiridazina/química , Sulfadiazina/química , Sulfametazina/química , Sulfanilamida
16.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(3): 342-355, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006225

RESUMO

R. vomitoria (RV), a plant used locally in the management of psychotic disorders, adversely affects the brain functionally and structurally. Such adverse reports, as well as the potential of G. latifolium (GL) to mitigate same warranted this investigation on the combined actions of RV and GL on the amygdala. Twenty-four male CD-1 mice weighing 22-27 g were divided into four groups (n = 6): Control (20 ml/kg body weight, b.w., distilled water); RV (200 mg/kg b.w.), GL (200 mg/kg b.w.), and RV (200 mg/kg b.w.) and GL (200 mg/kg b.w.) combination orally, and for 14 days. On day 15, the elevated-plus maze test was carried out and the animals sacrificed, and processed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Neurobehavioural results showed significant decrease (p[Formula: see text] 0.001) in stretch-attend posture, time spent in closed arms, grooming frequency, protected head-dip, as well as significantly (p [Formula: see text] 0.01) increased time spent in the open arms and unprotected head-dips of the RV group. The combined RV and GL groups showed no such differences in these parameters. Histologically, the amygdala showed hypertrophied cells, with pyknotic and karyorrhectic nuclei, and reduced expression of Nissl substance in the RV group, while the combined RV and GL group showed less degenerative features. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression (GFAP) was increased in the RV group, while the combined RV and GL group showed reduced expression. In conclusion, RV root bark extract has adverse effects on the microstructure of murines' amygdala and their behaviour, which may be ameliorated by GL.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/ultraestrutura , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/química , Rauwolfia/química , Animais , Apocynaceae/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1620: 460977, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093903

RESUMO

This study proposed the developed of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction and determination of condensed tannins from the barks of Red Angico (Anadenanthera macrocarpa), Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba) and Umbu (Spondias tuberosa). The polymer was synthesized using the condensed tannin extracted from the Red Angico bark as the template molecule, as well as, catechin standard solution. Selectivity and characterization tests for the molecularly imprinted polymers and a non-imprinted polymer were performed. The polymers were employed as extraction phase for the solid-phase extraction of condensed tannins from the studied samples. A higher imprinting coefficient was obtained for MIP synthesized from catechin standard solution as template. The intrinsic solid-phase extraction variables were evaluated and optimized. The developed methodology showed inter- and intra-day precisions of 6.7-10.1 and 4.6-8.4, respectively, and recovery values ranging from 101.9 to 105.5. The obtained limits of detection and quantification were 10 mg L-1 and 40 mg L-1, respectively. It is important to highlight that the developed methodology here was applied to common waste and tailings from Brazilian food industry. The results indicate that the polymers were capable to extract tannins from the evaluated samples, reducing method cost and time.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fabaceae/química , Indústria Alimentícia , Impressão Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Polímeros/química , Proantocianidinas/análise
18.
Phytomedicine ; 68: 153181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eleutherococcus senticosus or Siberian ginseng is a medicinal plant containing adaptogenic substances believed to regulate immune responses. Both, the root and stem bark are commonly used in traditional medicines. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study is to chemically characterize E. senticosus root and bark extracts and to compare their effects on functions of human primary macrophages. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was used to characterize chemical constituents of alcoholic extracts from E. senticosus root and bark. The data obtained and available databases were combined for network pharmacology analysis. Involvement of predicted pathways was further functionally confirmed by using monocyte-derived human macrophages and endotoxin-free E. senticosus root and bark extracts. RESULTS: Chemical analysis showed that the root extract contained more syringin, caffeic acid, and isofraxidin than the bark extract. At variance, bark extract contained more sesamin and oleanolic acid. Coniferyl aldehyde and afzelin were below the limit of quantification in both extracts. Network pharmacology analysis indicated that constituents of E. senticosus might affect the immune cell phenotype and signaling pathways involved in cell metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Indeed, both extracts promoted actin polymerization, migration, and phagocytosis of E. coli by macrophages pointing to macrophage polarization towards the M2 phenotype. In addition, treatment with E. senticosus root and bark extracts decreased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and significantly reduced expression of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 by macrophages. Neither extract affected expression of CD11b, CD80, or CD64 by macrophages. In addition, macrophages treated with the bark extract, but not with the root extract, exhibited activated p38 MAPK and NF-κB and released increased, but still moderate, amounts of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-6, anti-inflammatory IL-10, and chemotactic CCL1, which all together point to a M2b-like macrophage polarization. Differently, the root extract increased the IL-4-induced expression of anti-inflammatory CD200R. These changes in monocytes are in agreement with an increased M2a macrophage polarization. CONCLUSION: The ability of E. senticosus root and bark extracts to promote polarization of human macrophages towards anti-inflammatory M2a and M2b phenotypes, respectively, might underlay the immunoregulatory activities and point to potential wound healing promoting effects of this medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Eleutherococcus/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/análise , Dioxóis/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Humanos , Lignanas/análise , Macrófagos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 55, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canarium patentinervium leaves are used by the local indigenous people of Malaysia for wound healing. The current study is undertaken to screen the comprehensive antibacterial activity of the leaves and barks extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from this plant. Bioassay guided fractionation was also undertaken to deeply evaluate the antibacterial activity of the water fraction of the leaves extract. This is to provide preliminary scientific evidence to the ethnopharmacology usage of this plant by investigating antibacterial properties of the plant and its isolated constituents. METHODS: Bio-assay guided fractionation and subsequent isolation of compounds using open column chromatography. The antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative ATCC strain and resistant clinical strains were evaluated using microtiter broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds from the water fraction of the ethanol extract of leaves was elucidated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). RESULTS: The ethanol extract of the leaves and barks showed antimicrobial activity against all four ATCC and eight clinical isolates. The ethanol extract of the leaves and the corresponding water fraction had good activity against MRSA S. aureus. (MIC: 250 µg/ml) and had bactericidal effect on eight of the clinical strains (MSSA,MRSA, oxacillin-resistant CONS, oxacillin-sensitive CONS, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiela species, Kleb pneumoniae ESBL and Candida parapsilosis). Further phytochemical investigation of the water fraction of the crude ethanol extract of leaves afforded compound 7 (hyperin) and compound 8 (cynaroside) that had bactericidal activity against tested bacterial species (MIC 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml). The two compounds were isolated from this genus for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: These results may provide a rational support for the traditional use of Canarium patentinervium Miq. in infections and wound healing, since the antimicrobial compounds isolated were also present in the leaves extract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Burseraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Cromatografia , Malásia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1249-1255, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006232

RESUMO

Graded concentrations (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of the aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis was evaluated for its therapeutic efficacy against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicken. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and steroids. There was significant reduction in oocyst count across the groups in a graded dose manner with 800 mg/kg being the most efficacious dose. There was also weight gain across the treatment groups with immuno-modulatory and erythropoetic activities observed. Also, a significant (p < 0.05) graded dose-dependent reduction in the oocyst count in the treatment groups. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in mean weight gain was also recorded across the experimental groups except the negative control. The haematology also showed a dose-dependent increase in red blood cells, haemoglobin and packed cell volume of the treatment groups. The extract had no significant difference (p > 0.05) on the white blood cells, but a slight decrease in the white blood cells and heterophil counts was observed at 400 mg/kg. Furthermore, the aspartate amino transaminase level showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Fluctuating levels of other serum biochemical parameters such as total protein, albumin and potassium were observed. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the sodium concentration was observed. In addition, oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all the experimental groups in addition to the concomitant increase in reduced gluthathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Conclusively, the aqueous extract of K. senegalensis was effective in the management of coccidiosis thus supporting its folkloric use.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Meliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiostáticos/química , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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