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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445250

RESUMO

The combined impact of an increasing demand for liver transplantation and a growing incidence of nonalcoholic liver disease has provided the impetus for the development of innovative strategies to preserve steatotic livers. A natural oxygen carrier, HEMO2life®, which contains M101 that is extracted from a marine invertebrate, has been used for static cold storage (SCS) and has shown superior results in organ preservation. A total of 36 livers were procured from obese Zucker rats and randomly divided into three groups, i.e., control, SCS-24H and SCS-24H + M101 (M101 at 1 g/L), mimicking the gold standard of organ preservation. Ex situ machine perfusion for 2 h was used to evaluate the quality of the livers. Perfusates were sampled for functional assessment, biochemical analysis and subsequent biopsies were performed for assessment of ischemia-reperfusion markers. Transaminases, GDH and lactate levels at the end of reperfusion were significantly lower in the group preserved with M101 (p < 0.05). Protection from reactive oxygen species (low MDA and higher production of NO2-NO3) and less inflammation (HMGB1) were also observed in this group (p < 0.05). Bcl-1 and caspase-3 were higher in the SCS-24H group (p < 0.05) and presented more histological damage than those preserved with HEMO2life®. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the addition of HEMO2life® to the preservation solution significantly protects steatotic livers during SCS by decreasing reperfusion injury and improving graft function.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transaminases/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445392

RESUMO

Oral cancer is a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. The oral cavity contains biofilms as dental plaques that harbour both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial antigens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), respectively. LPS and LTA are known to stimulate cancer cell growth, and the bioactive phytochemical capsaicin has been reported to reverse this effect. Here, we tested the efficacy of oral cancer chemotherapy treatment with capsaicin in the presence of LPS, LTA or the combination of both antigens. LPS and LTA were administered to Cal 27 oral cancer cells prior to and/or concurrently with capsaicin, and the treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. We found that while capsaicin inhibits oral cancer cell proliferation and metabolism (MT Glo assay) and increases cell death (Trypan blue exclusion assay and Caspase 3/7 expression), its anti-cancer effect was significantly reduced on cells that are either primed or exposed to the bacterial antigens. Capsaicin treatment significantly increased oral cancer cells' suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 gene expression. This increase was reversed in the presence of bacterial antigens during treatment. Our data establish a rationale for clinical consideration of bacterial antigens that may interfere with the treatment efficacy of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/efeitos adversos , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/efeitos adversos
3.
Life Sci ; 283: 119849, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343539

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin frequently complicates treatment outcome. Aberrantly activated calcium/calmodulin pathway can eventually trigger signaling cascades that mediate cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that trifluoperazine, a strong calmodulin antagonist, may alleviate this morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heart failure and cardiotoxicity were assessed via echocardiography, PCR, immunohistochemistry, histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy. Whereas liver and kidney structural and functional alterations were evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that combination treatment with trifluoperazine could overcome doxorubicin-induced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Moreover, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathological examination showed that trifluoperazine mitigated doxorubicin-induced cardiac atrophy, inflammation and myofibril degeneration. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the marked restoration of the left ventricular ultrastructures by trifluoperazine pretreatment. In addition, Masson's trichrome staining revealed that trifluoperazine could significantly inhibit doxorubicin-induced left ventricular remodeling by fibrosis. Of note, doxorubicin induced the expression of myocardial nuclear NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 which were markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, suggesting that cardioprotection conferred by trifluoperazine involved, at least in part, suppression of NF-κB and apoptosis. Furthermore, biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that trifluoperazine improved doxorubicin-induced renal and hepatic impairments both functionally and structurally. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present in vivo study is the first to provide evidences underscoring the protective effects of trifluoperazine that may pave the way for repurposing this calmodulin antagonist in ameliorating organ toxicity by doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Cardiotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Cardiotoxinas/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21823, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396581

RESUMO

Exercise training exerts protective effects against diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training could attenuate diabetic renal injury via regulating endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production. First, C57BL/6 mice were allocated into the control, diabetes, exercise, and diabetes + exercise groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Treadmill exercise continued for four weeks. Second, mice was allocated into the control, diabetes, H2 S and diabetes + H2 S groups. H2 S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was intraperitoneally injected once daily for four weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice exhibited glomerular hypertrophy, tissue fibrosis and increased urine albumin levels, urine protein- and albumin-to-creatinine ratios, which were relieved by exercise training. Diabetic renal injury was associated with apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the enhanced caspase-3 activity, the increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling -positive cells and the reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, all of which were attenuated by exercise training. Exercise training enhanced renal sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in diabetic mice, accompanied by an inhibition of the p53-#ediated pro-apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, exercise training restored the STZ-mediated downregulation of cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and the reduced renal H2 S production. NaHS treatment restored SIRT1 expression, inhibited the p53-mediated pro-apoptotic pathway and attenuated diabetes-associated apoptosis and renal injury. In high glucose-treated MPC5 podocytes, NaHS treatment inhibited the p53-mediated pro-apoptotic pathway and podocyte apoptosis in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Collectively, exercise training upregulated CBS/CSE expression and enhanced the endogenous H2 S production in renal tissues, thereby contributing to the modulation of the SIRT1/p53 apoptosis pathway and improvement of diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Podócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Nature ; 596(7871): 262-267, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349263

RESUMO

Regulated cell death is an integral part of life, and has broad effects on organism development and homeostasis1. Malfunctions within the regulated cell death process, including the clearance of dying cells, can manifest in diverse pathologies throughout various tissues including the gastrointestinal tract2. A long appreciated, yet elusively defined relationship exists between cell death and gastrointestinal pathologies with an underlying microbial component3-6, but the direct effect of dying mammalian cells on bacterial growth is unclear. Here we advance a concept that several Enterobacteriaceae, including patient-derived clinical isolates, have an efficient growth strategy to exploit soluble factors that are released from dying gut epithelial cells. Mammalian nutrients released after caspase-3/7-dependent apoptosis boosts the growth of multiple Enterobacteriaceae and is observed using primary mouse colonic tissue, mouse and human cell lines, several apoptotic triggers, and in conventional as well as germ-free mice in vivo. The mammalian cell death nutrients induce a core transcriptional response in pathogenic Salmonella, and we identify the pyruvate formate-lyase-encoding pflB gene as a key driver of bacterial colonization in three contexts: a foodborne infection model, a TNF- and A20-dependent cell death model, and a chemotherapy-induced mucositis model. These findings introduce a new layer to the complex host-pathogen interaction, in which death-induced nutrient release acts as a source of fuel for intestinal bacteria, with implications for gut inflammation and cytotoxic chemotherapy treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111663, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243605

RESUMO

Isolongifolanone is a high value-added sustainable natural product. Recent studies have demonstrated that isolongifolanone possesses anticancer activities. In this study, a series of novel pyrazole ring-containing isolongifolanone derivatives was designed, synthesized, and their anti-proliferative activities in three cancer cell lines were evaluated. Among them, compound 3b exhibited strongest antiproliferative ability on MCF-7 cancer cells and induced the generation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial depolarization. More importantly, compound 3b still maintained antitumor activity in MCF-7 3D culture systems. The study on molecular mechanism suggested that compound 3b induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 and PARP, also via decreasing of Bcl-2 and increasing of Bax and p53. Moreover, compound 3b down-regulated the level of CDK2, a crucial cyclin-dependent kinase which is necessary for the progression of the cells out of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Docking results showed that compound 3b could bind well with CDK2 by forming hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues (LYS89 and HIS84). These results suggested that compound 3b could be taken as a lead compound for anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111684, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243632

RESUMO

PPARγ regulate the expression of genes involved in peripheral insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, PPARγ agonists, such as pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, are used in the treatment of various diseases, e.g. diabetes (type II), atherosclerosis, inflammatory skin disease, and some types of cancers. PPARγ agonists have also been found to reduce oxidative-stress (OS) and OS-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 4-thiazolidinone-based derivatives Les-2194, Les-3377, and Les-3640 on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-15), lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (CACO-2), and skin fibroblast (BJ) cell lines. After 24 h of exposure, Les-2194 caused an increase in ROS production in the SCC-15 and CACO-2 cell lines; however, no changes in caspase-3 activity and metabolic activity were observed. Nevertheless, the Ki67 level was significantly decreased. Les-3377 was able to increase ROS production in all tested cell lines, but no impact on metabolic activity and caspase-3 activity were noticed. In turn, Les-3640 was able to induce ROS overproduction in BJ, SCC-15, and CACO-2 and did not affect metabolic activity. However, an increase in caspase-3 activity was observed at the 10 µM concentration in all tested cell lines. All tested compounds were able to influence CAT and SOD1 expression and decreased (Les-2194 in the BJ cells) or increased (Les-3640 in the SCC-15 and CACO-2 cells) PPARγ expression.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208987

RESUMO

Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is recognized as a highly thrombogenic tumor; thus, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) such as tinzaparin is routinely used for PC patients. On the basis of combinatorial therapy approaches to treat highly malignant and refractory cancers such as PC, we hypothesized that tinzaparin can augment the effectiveness of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs and induce efficient antitumor activity. PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 were incubated alone or in combination with tinzaparin, nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine. In vivo evaluation of these compounds was performed in a NOD/SCID mouse using a model injected with PANC-1. Tinzaparin enhances the anti-tumor effects of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in mtKRAS PC cell lines via apoptosis in in vitro experiments. The triple combination power acts through the induction of apoptosis, reduction of the proliferative potential and angiogenesis; hence, contributing to a decrease in tumor volume observed in vivo. The triple regimen provided an extra 24.3% tumor reduction compared to the double combination (gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel). Combinatorial strategies can create novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of patients with PC, achieving a better clinical outcome and prolonged survival. Further prospective randomized research is needed and the investigation of various concentrations of tinzaparin above 150 UI/Kg, would potentially provide a valuable synergistic effect to the conventional therapeutic compounds.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tinzaparina/administração & dosagem , Albuminas/farmacologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Tinzaparina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299103

RESUMO

In recent years, escitalopram (ESC) has been suggested to have different mechanisms of action beyond its well known selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of escitalopram on oxidative stress, apoptosis, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), and oligodendrocytes number in the brain of chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressed rats. The animals were randomised in four groups (8 in each group): control, stress, stress + ESC 5 and stress + ESC 5/10. ESC was administered for 42 days in a fixed dose (5 mg/kg b.w.) or in an up-titration regimen (21 days ESC 5 mg/kg b.w. then 21 days ESC 10 mg/kg b.w.). Sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were also performed. ESC improved the percentage of sucrose preference, locomotion and anxiety. ESC5/10 reduced the oxidative damage in the hippocampus and improved the antioxidant defence in the hippocampus and frontal lobe. ESC5/10 lowered caspase 3 activity in the hippocampus. Escitalopram had a modulatory effect on BDNF and the number of oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus and frontal lobe and also improved the MeCP2 expressions. The results confirm the multiple pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and suggest that escitalopram exerts an antidepressant effect via different intricate mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citalopram/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298938

RESUMO

The expression of 5-HT (serotonin) receptors (sr) was analyzed in the spinal cord and ganglia of 15 human conceptuses (5-10-weeks), and in the 9-week fetus with spina bifida. We used immunohistochemical method to detect sr-positive, apoptotic (caspase-3) and proliferating (Ki-67) cells, double immunofluorescence for co-localization with protein gene peptide (pgp) 9.5 and GFAP, as well as semiquantification and statistical measurements. Following the neurulation process, moderate (sr1 and sr2) and mild (sr3) expression characterized neuroblasts in the spinal cord and ganglia. During further development, sr1 expression gradually increased in the motoneurons, autonomic and sensory neurons, while sr2 and sr3 increased strongly in floor and roof plates. In the ganglia, sr3 expression increased during limited developmental period, while sr1 and sr2 increased throughout the investigated period. Co-expression of sr/pgp 9.5 characterized developing neurons, while sr/GFAP co-localized in the roof plate. In the spinal cord and ganglia of malformed fetus, weaker sr1 and sr2 and stronger sr3 expression accompanied morphological abnormalities. Anomalous roof plate morphology showed an excess of apoptotic and proliferating cells and increased sr3 expression. Our results indicate a human-species specific sr expression pattern, and the importance of sr1 in neuronal differentiation, and sr2 and sr3 in the control of the roof plate morphogenesis in normal and disturbed development.


Assuntos
Feto/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Gânglios/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Disrafismo Espinal/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328190

RESUMO

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) apoptosis is the initial stage of adult pulmonary hypertension (PH), which involves high pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, the mechanism regulating PMVEC apoptosis and its involvement in the early stages of neonatal hypoxic PH (HPH) pathogenesis are currently unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on hypoxia­induced apoptosis in PMVECs. PMVECs isolated from neonatal Sprague­Dawley rats were transfected with lentivirus with or without HSP70, or treated with the synthetic HSP70 inhibitor N­formyl­3,4­methylenedioxy­benzylidene-g-butyrolactam under hypoxic conditions (5% O2) for 24, 48 or 72 h. PMVEC apoptosis was evaluated by performing flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays. The expression levels of HSP70, hypoxia­inducible factor­1α (HIF­1α) and apoptosis­associated proteins were determined by conducting reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting. Following 24, 48 or 72 h of hypoxia, the apoptotic rates of PMVECs were significantly elevated compared with cells under normoxic conditions. The MMP was significantly reduced, whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF­1α, cytochrome c (cyt C), caspase­3 and HSP70 were enhanced by hypoxia compared with those under normoxic conditions. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of B­cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl­2) were significantly downregulated in the hypoxia group compared with those in the normoxia group. In hypoxic PMVECs, HSP70 overexpression decreased the apoptotic rate and the expression levels of cyt C, downregulated the expression levels of caspase­3 and HIF­1α, and increased the MMP and the expression levels of Bcl­2. HSP70 inhibition resulted in the opposite outcomes compared with those of HSP70 overexpression. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that HSP70 may inhibit mitochondrial pathway­mediated apoptosis in isolated neonatal rat PMVECs in early­stage hypoxia, which may be associated with HSP70­mediated HIF­1α downregulation. Overall, HSP70 may be protective against neonatal HPH through the HSP70/HIF­1α pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Microvasos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Microvasos/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203307

RESUMO

Free radical generation and oxidative stress push forward an immense influence on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Maclura tricuspidata fruit (MT) contains many biologically active substances, including compounds with antioxidant properties. The current study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of MT fruit on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with MT, and cell damage was induced by H2O2. First, the chemical composition and free radical scavenging properties of MT were analyzed. MT attenuated oxidative stress-induced damage in cells based on the assessment of cell viability. The H2O2-induced toxicity caused by ROS production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was ameliorated by MT pretreatment. MT also promoted an increase in the expression of genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). MT pretreatment was associated with an increase in the expression of neuronal genes downregulated by H2O2. Mechanistically, MT dramatically suppressed H2O2-induced Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, apoptotic factor caspase-3 activation, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (JNK, ERK, and p38), and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, thereby preventing H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. These results indicate that MT has protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells and can be used to prevent and protect against neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Maclura/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208040

RESUMO

(1) Background: The pro-resolving lipid mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has already shown protective effects in animal models of diabetic retinopathy. This study aimed to investigate the retinal levels of RvD1 in aged (24 months) and younger (3 months) Balb/c mice, along with the activation of macro- and microglia, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. (2) Methods: Retinas from male and female mice were used for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (3) Results: Endogenous retinal levels of RvD1 were reduced in aged mice. While RvD1 levels were similar in younger males and females, they were markedly decreased in aged males but less reduced in aged females. Both aged males and females showed a significant increase in retinal microglia activation compared to younger mice, with a more marked reactivity in aged males than in aged females. The same trend was shown by astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and nitrosative stress, in line with the microglia and Müller cell hypertrophy evidenced in aged retinas by electron microscopy. (4) Conclusions: Aged mice had sex-related differences in neuroinflammation and apoptosis and low retinal levels of endogenous RvD1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Retina/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/ultraestrutura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206484

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents an important clinical challenge, as it does not respond to endocrine therapies or other available targeting agents. FOXM1, an oncogenic transcriptional factor, has reported to be upregulated and associated with poor clinical outcomes in TNBC patients. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of FDI-6, a FOXM1 inhibitor, as well as its molecular mechanisms, in TNBC cells. Two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HS578T, were used in this study. The anti-cancer activities of FDI-6 were evaluated using various 2D cell culture assays, including Sulforhodamine B (SRB), wound healing, and transwell invasion assays together with 3D spheroid assays, mimicking real tumour structural properties. After treatment with FDI-6, the TNBC cells displayed a significant inhibition in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Increased apoptosis was also observed in the treated cells. In addition, we found that FDI-6 lead to the downregulation of FOXM1 and its key oncogenic targets, including CyclinB1, Snail, and Slug. Interestingly, we also found that the FDI-6/Doxorubicin combination significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity and apoptotic properties, suggesting that FDI-6 might improve chemotherapy treatment efficacy and reduce unwanted side effects. Altogether, FDI-6 exhibited promising anti-tumour activities and could be developed as a newly effective treatment for TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Tiofenos/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
16.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3343-3348, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Previously, we reported that blueberry extract constrains the growth of CC. Raspberry is a widely consumed fruit that exhibits antitumor properties against several cancer types but little is known about its direct effect on CC. This study was designed to investigate the potential antitumor effect of raspberry extract (RE) on CC cells and to elucidate the possible mechanisms behind it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic survival assay and caspase-3 activity kits were used to evaluate the effects of RE on cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis of a widely used CC cell line, HeLa. Possible molecular mechanisms were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The percentage of colonies and optic density value of HeLa cells decreased in the presence of RE in comparison to controls. Relative caspase-3 activity in cancer cells increased in the presence of RE in comparison to controls. The antitumor effect displayed on HeLa cells by RE was associated with the increased expression of antiproliferative molecule P53 and the increased expression of pro-apoptotic molecule tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS). CONCLUSION: RE displays anticancer activity against CC HeLa cells. The mechanism behind this is by up-regulation of anti-proliferative molecule P53 and pro-apoptotic molecule FAS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Receptor fas/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 283: 119842, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298038

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischemic stroke occurs when there is a sudden blockage of cerebral blood flow. This condition is a major cause of mortality, especially in low-income countries, and its incidence is dramatically increasing. Therapeutic strategies against stroke are therefore required. The present study explored the effects of dihydrocapsaicin on neuronal loss, brain infarct volume, and antioxidants in a rat model of permanent occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats received dihydrocapsaicin intraperitoneally for 7 days after permanent occlusion of their right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). Then, the brain infarct volume, neuronal density, and antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in the cortex and hippocampus were determined at the end of the study. KEY FINDING: Dihydrocapsaicin treatment was found to significantly improve neuronal density, decrease infarct volume, reduce MDA elevation, improve CAT and SOD activities, decrease the density ratio of Bax and caspase-3, and increase the density ratio of Bcl-XL to ß-actin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that dihydrocapsaicin effectively mitigates cerebral ischemia-induced pathological changes in vivo, partly via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
18.
Toxicology ; 458: 152835, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126166

RESUMO

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are pernicious mycotoxins widely co-existing in the environment. However, nephrotoxicity and underlying mechanism induced by AFM1 coupled with OTA still remain to be explored. In this study, CD-1 mice were treated with 3.5 mg/kg b.w. AFM1, OTA, and AFM1 + OTA for 35 days, and UPLC-MS-based metabolomics method was effectuated to investigate metabolomic profiles of mice kidney. Subsequent experiments on human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells were performed to dig out the causal connections between distinguished differential metabolites and nephrotoxicity. Compared with DMSO vehicle group, all three toxin treatments (AFM1 and OTA alone, and in combination) significantly reduced final body weight, and remarkably elevated the concentration of serum creatinine (SCr) and caused abnormal histological phenotypes (shown by histopathological slices). OTA, AFM1 + OTA but not AFM1 reduced the relative weight index of kidney. These phenotypic results indicated that AFM1 and OTA were both toxic to the body, and it seemed that OTA exhibited a notable impairment to kidney while AFM1 had similar but limited effect compared with OTA. Further metabolomics analysis showed that when AFM1 and OTA were combined together, OTA exerted dominant effect on the alteration of metabolic processes. There were few differences in the number of changed metabolites between OTA and AFM1 + OTA group. Among the differentially expressed metabolites affected by OTA, and AFM1 + OTA, lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) were identified as the main type with significant upregulation, in which LysoPC (16:0) accounted for the most prime proportion. Western blotting results of HK-2 cells showed that single OTA and AFM1 + OTA increased the apoptotic protein expressions of Bax, caspase 3 and PARP, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2; while AFM1 only raised the expression of caspase 3. LysoPC (16:0) but not LysoPC (18:1) lifted the protein level of caspase 3 and PARP in HK-2 cells, and reduced the level of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study is the first effort trying to assess nephrotoxicity of AFM1 with OTA, and we guessed that OTA had a more pronounced toxicity to kidney in contrast to AFM1. No obvious synergism between AFM1 and OTA was found to contribute to the occurrence or development of nephropathy. LysoPC (16:0) might be the pivotal metabolite in response to single OTA and combined AFM1 + OTA engendering renal injury.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Proteômica
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 813-820, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186122

RESUMO

The stability of IFN-γ as a therapeutic protein can play a key role on its anticancer effects. Herein, we explored the thermodynamic parameters and conformational stability of IFN-γ in the presence of calycosin, the main active compound of Radix astragali, by different biophysical and theoretical analysis. Afterwards, the improved anticancer effects of IFN-γ-calycosin interaction relative to IFN-γ alone were assessed on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line by MTT and caspase assays. ITC data indicated that upon interaction of calycosin with IFN-γ the binding and thermodynamic parameters were as follows: Kd = 1.9 µM, ΔG° = -32.45 kJ/mol, ΔH° = -11.91 kJ/mol, and TΔS° = 20.54 kJ/mol. ANS/synchronous fluorescence, CD and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies indicated that the interaction between calycosin and IFN-γ caused the folding of the IFN-γ backbone in to a more packed structure with enhanced α-helix content and higher melting temperature (Tm) value. The spectroscopic outcomes were then verified by molecular docking and molecular dynamic analysis. It was also shown that after incubation of the IFN-γ samples at 50 °C for 60 min in the presence of calycosin (5 µM), the IFN-γ-calycosin system showed a significant antiproliferative effects against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells through caspase-9/3 activation and this anticancer effect was more pronounced than free IFN-γ. This data may provide useful information about the development of IFN-γ-based therapeutic platforms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interferon gama/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Dobramento de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109553, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126102

RESUMO

A hypoxic environment of rapidly growing tumor cells makes them resistant to antitumor drugs. Mimicking hypoxia with iron chelator deferoxamine, suppressed cell death induced by widely used anticancer drugs doxorubicin or cisplatin. Deferoxamine decreased the number of dead (detached) cells, the size of SubG1 population, the release of cytochrome c, and the processing of caspase-3 in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with cisplatin or doxorubicin. Deferoxamine-mediated suppression of apoptosis correlated with the level of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax, Bid, and Puma, which stimulate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and cytochrome c release. Here we show that one of the reasons for apoptosis suppression is downregulation of p53 expression under hypoxic conditions, and, as a result, attenuation of the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Indeed, p53 knock-out did not affect the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor but made undetectable the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Modelos Biológicos , Hipóxia Tumoral , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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