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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20922, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590803

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to its high mortality and morbidity, is an important research topic. Apoptosis plays a pathogenic role in a series of neurological disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to acute neurological lesions.In this study, we analyzed the association between apoptosis and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), to examine the potential of apoptosis as a biomarker for a TBI outcome. Patients with severe TBI were recruited at the Department of Neurosurgery, Wujin Hospital Affiliated with Jiangsu University, between January 2018 and December 2019. As a control group, healthy subjects were recruited. The concentrations of caspase-3, cytochrome c, sFas, and caspase-9 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The association between the GOS and the clinical variables age, sex, initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), initial computed tomography (CT) findings, and apoptotic factors was determined using logistic regression. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and thus the sensitivity and specificity of each risk factor, were obtained.The levels of caspase-3, cytochrome c, sFas, and caspase-9 in the TBI group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < .05). The logistic regression results showed that ICP and caspase-3 were significant predictors of outcome at 6 months post-TBI (P < .05). The AUC was 0.925 and 0.888 for ICP and caspase-3, respectively. However, the AUC for their combined prediction was 0.978, with a specificity and sensitivity of 96.0% and 95.2%, respectively, showing that the combined prediction was more reliable than that of the 2 separate factors.We demonstrated that caspase-3, cytochrome C, sFas, and caspase-9 were significantly increased in the CSF of patients following severe TBI. Furthermore, we found that ICP and caspase-3 were more reliable for outcome prediction in combination, rather than separately.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Caspase 3/análise , Caspase 3/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Caspase 9/análise , Caspase 9/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Citocromos c/análise , Citocromos c/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Receptor fas/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126889, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388256

RESUMO

Pyrimethanil is a broad-spectrum fungicide commonly used in the prevention and treatment of Botrytis cinerea. However, little information is available in the literature to show the toxicity of Pyrimethanil to cardiac development. In this study, we used an experimental animal model to explore the developmental and cardiac toxicity of Pyrimethanil in aquatic vertebrates; we exposed zebrafish embryos to Pyrimethanil at concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 mg/L from 5.5 to 72 h post fertilisation. We found that Pyrimethanil caused a decrease in the hatching rate, heart rate, and survival rate of zebrafish embryos. Pyrimethanil exposure also resulted in pericardial and yolk sac edema, spinal deformity, and heart loop failure. Moreover, Pyrimethanil increased reactive oxygen stress levels and heightened the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Alterations were induced in the transcription of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax, Bcl2, Casp 9, and Casp6l1) and heart development-related genes (Tbx2b, Gata4, Myh6, Vmhc, Nppa, Bmp2b, Bpm 4, and Bpm 10). Our data showed that the activation of Wnt signalling by BML-284 could partially rescue the malformed phenotype caused by Pyrimethanil. Our results provide new evidence for Pyrimethanil's toxicity and the danger of its residues in the environment and agricultural products.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Cardiotoxicidade , Caspase 9 , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1418-1422, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281356

RESUMO

Polyphyllin D is a steroid saponin monomer in Polyphyllin, with antibacterial, analgesic, sedative, anti-tumor and other pharmacological effects, but is rarely reported in pancreatic cancer. This study detected apoptosis-relevant indicators, in order to explore the effect of polyphyllin D on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells and relevant mechanisms of action. After pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells were treated with polyphyllin D(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 µg·µL~(-1)) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, CCK-8 method was used to detect the effect of polyphyllin D on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP). The apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of cytochrome C(Cyto C), Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. The results indicated that compared with the control group, polyphyllin D could inhibit the proliferative activity of Panc-1 cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that polyphyllin D could block the cells in S and G_2/M phase in a concentration manner, the MMP of the cells was significantly reduced, and the apoptosis rate increased with the concentration of polyphyllin D. Western blot results showed that polyphyllin D could concentration-dependently up-regulate the protein expression levels of Bax, Cyto C, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, and down-regulate the protein expression level of Bcl-2. The above findings suggested that polyphyllin D could effectively inhibit the proliferation of Panc-1 cells, and its mechanism may be related to the blocking of cell growth cycle and the apoptosis induced by mitochondrial pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 323: 109075, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229109

RESUMO

The use of orchids in herbal medicine has a very long history. Dendrobium species are known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenanthrens, bibenzyls, fluorenones and sesquiterpenes, and alkaloids and are responsible for their wide variety of medicinal properties. For decades, bibenzyls, which are the main bioactive components derived from Dendrobium species, have been subjected to extensive investigation as likely candidates for cancer treatment. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative from the orchid Dendrobium loddigesii on human melanoma cells. In A375 cells compound moscatilin showed a clear dose-response relationship in the range of 6.25-50 µM concentrations. In addition, we demonstrated an apoptotic response after treatment of cancer cells with this bibenzyl compound at 6.25 and 12.5 µM concentrations that probably involves PTEN activity, inhibition of Hsp70 expression and reactive oxygen species production. Alternatively, the inhibition of the caspase cascade at higher concentrations, 25 and 50 µM, correlated with additional reactive oxygen species increase, probably switched the mode of moscatilin-induced cell death from apoptosis to necrosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Benzil/uso terapêutico , Dendrobium/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Compostos de Benzil/química , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0223208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302311

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage in Wistar rats. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated by flat mount analysis and flow cytometry. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: negative control, NMDA80 (i.e., 80 nmoles NMDA intravitreally injected), NMDA80 + 10ng EPO, NMDA80 + 50ng EPO, and NMDA80 + 250ng EPO. The NMDA80 + 50ng EPO treatment group was used to evaluate various administrated points (pre-/co-/post- administration of NMDA80). Meanwhile, the transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay of RGCs, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and the apoptotic signal transduction pathways of µ-calpain, Bax, and caspase 9 were assessed simultaneously using an immunohistochemical method (IHC). When EPO was co-administered with NMDA80, attenuated cell death occurred through the downregulation of the apoptotic indicators: µ-calpain was activated first (peak at ~18hrs), followed by Bax and caspase 9 (peak at ~40hrs). Furthermore, the images of retinal cross sections have clearly demonstrated that thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) was significantly recovered at 40 hours after receiving intravitreal injection with NMDA80 and 50ng EPO. Exogenous EPO may protect RGCs and bipolar cell axon terminals in IPL by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate NMDA-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Eritropoetina/farmacologia , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 9/genética , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/agonistas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19848, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332640

RESUMO

Xiakemycin A (XKA), a new antibiotic in the pyranonaphthoquinone family, shows antitumor activity. However, the type of cell death induced by XKA remains elusive. In this study, we aim to investigate the type of death induced by XKA in hepatic cancer.The apoptotic features, such as chromatic agglutination, reactive oxygen species generation and membrane potential of mitochondria, in HepG2 cells treated by XKA were measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells treated with XKA was determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining and Western blot analysis, respectively.XKA had a significant dose-dependent elevation of chromatic agglutination, reactive oxygen species generation, Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, decrease of membrane potential. Meanwhile, in apoptotic HepG2 cells induced by XKA, robust increment was noticed in p53 expression, cleavage of PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9.XKA showed potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Such phenomenon may be related to activation of the apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/fisiologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Propídio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Nat Immunol ; 21(5): 546-554, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231300

RESUMO

High-dose radiation activates caspases in tumor cells to produce abundant DNA fragments for DNA sensing in antigen-presenting cells, but the intrinsic DNA sensing in tumor cells after radiation is rather limited. Here we demonstrate that irradiated tumor cells hijack caspase 9 signaling to suppress intrinsic DNA sensing. Instead of apoptotic genomic DNA, tumor-derived mitochondrial DNA triggers intrinsic DNA sensing. Specifically, loss of mitochondrial DNA sensing in Casp9-/- tumors abolishes the enhanced therapeutic effect of radiation. We demonstrated that combining emricasan, a pan-caspase inhibitor, with radiation generates synergistic therapeutic effects. Moreover, loss of CASP9 signaling in tumor cells led to adaptive resistance by upregulating programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and resulted in tumor relapse. Additional anti-PD-L1 blockade can further overcome this acquired immune resistance. Therefore, combining radiation with a caspase inhibitor and anti-PD-L1 can effectively control tumors by sequentially blocking both intrinsic and extrinsic inhibitory signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Inibidores de Caspase/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Caspase 9/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transplante de Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
8.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(7): 794-803, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149475

RESUMO

The continued use of pesticides is one of the requirements of modern agriculture. Investigations have shown that pesticides can alter gene methylation and expression and subsequently may lead to abortion or birth of embryos with teratogenic disorders. In present study, 30 female NMRI mouse were divided in three experimental groups which in the CPF group, intraperitoneal chlorpyrifos was injected, in the sham group, DMSO was injected, and the control group without injection. The mice were mated and utinized 10 days' post gestation. The number of embryos in each fertilized female, maternal weight, and liver fibrosis was evaluated. The apoptosis pathway genes (caspase3, caspase9) and protein expressions (pro-caspase3, caspase3) of the embryos were evaluated with qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The DNA methylation of caspase3 and caspase9 were also assessed. The number of embryos and obtained maternal weight from the CPF group was significantly lower than other two groups. The mRNA expression of Caspase3 and Caspase9 were significantly higher in the CPF group. The protein expression evaluation confirmed the results achieved at the mRNA level. The percentage of Caspase9 DNA methylation in embryos collected from the CPF group was higher compared to the others. It can be considered that consumption of chlorpyrifos toxin can alter the DNA methylation and increase the expression of apoptotic genes. Therefore, continuous use of chlopyrifos may affect pregnancy by increasing the apoptosis pathway in the developing embryos which may lead to abortion or teratogenic disorders in newborn infants.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Organogênese/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 9/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Teratogênios/toxicidade
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(5): 599-608, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904905

RESUMO

Extensive application of amorphous silica nanoparticles (Si NPs) and ubiquitous cadmium (Cd) may increase their chances of coexposure to humans. Studies on combined effects of Si NPs and Cd in human cells are very limited. We investigated the potential mechanism of toxicity caused by coexposure of amorphous Si NPs and Cd in human liver (HepG2) cells. Results showed that Si NPs were not toxic to HepG2. However, Cd induced significant toxicity in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, we observed that a noncytotoxic concentration of Si NPs potentiated the cytotoxicity of Cd in HepG2 cells. We further noticed that coexposure of Si NPs and Cd augmented oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of oxidants (reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid peroxidation) and depletion of antioxidants (glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme activity). Coexposure of Si NPs and Cd also augmented mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells indicated by altered regulation of apoptotic genes (p53, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9) along with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interaction data indicated that Si NPs facilitate the cellular uptake of Cd due to its strong adsorption on the surface of Si NPs. Hence, Si NPs increased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Cd in HepG2 cells. This study warrants further research to explore the potential mechanisms of combined toxicity of Si NPs and Cd in animal models.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e920265, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Viburnum grandiflorum is a medicinal herb known for its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, but its anti-cancer properties against lung cancer cells have not been previously investigated. The present study elucidated the antitumor effect and associated mechanism of methanol extract of Viburnum grandiflorum extract (VGE) against lung cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The viability of H1650, HCC827, and H1299 cells was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were determined by flow cytometry using annexin-V/PI and JC-1 stains, respectively. The Lipofectamine Plus reagent (Invitrogen) was used for transfection of caspase-9 plasmid to H1650 and H1299 cells. RESULTS The results showed decreased H1650, HCC827, and H1299 cell viability by VGE, which occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The VGE treatment significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in H1650 (P<0.05) and H1299 (P<0.02) cells at 48 and 72 h. Treatment of H1650 and H1299 cells with 10 µM of VGE significantly enhanced the number of cells in sub-G1 phase. The VGE treatment cleaved pro-caspase-8/-9 and-3 in H1650 and HCC827 cells at 72 h. The VGE treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells reduced Mcl-1 protein expression. Treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells with VGE markedly decreased the level of p-Akt. However, dominant-negative caspase-9 (caspase-9 dN) plasmid transfection prevented the viability-inhibitory effect of VGE on H1650 and HCC827 cells. Treatment of H1650 and HCC827 cells with VGE increased levels of cytochrome c in the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS VGE inhibited lung carcinoma cell viability by apoptosis activation through a caspase-dependent pathway. Therefore, VGE is a potent anti-cancer agent against lung cancer cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viburnum/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753352

RESUMO

Organelle-targeting agents are promising in both fundamental and applied biomedicine research, but such materials are very limited. As a curved 2D carbon material, corannulene (Cor) displays an uneven intramolecular electron distribution, producing a large dipole moment that can favor the electrostatic interaction. Based on the large negative mitochondrial membrane potential and the presence of a connection structure between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we hypothesized that Cor could simultaneously target both mitochondria and ER. Such hypothesis was well validated by using the fluorescence tag-labelled Cor. The co-localization analysis in a model cell line (PC3) revealed a preferred accumulation of Cor in both organelles, as evidenced by a large Pearson correlation coefficient. The large dipole also empowered Cor the ability of controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light irradiation. This feature plus mitochondria targeting of Cor induced depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and caspase 9/3 activation. The triggered ROS generation in ER caused the calcium dumping in the cytosol, as revealed by a calcium-specific fluorescence probe. A significant degree of apoptosis was induced by Cor as a result of the interplay of dual mitochondria/ER targeting and triggered organelle-specific ROS delivery. This study demonstrated the subcellular targeting ability of Cor for potential ROS-based therapy, and implied that the dipole could be a valuable parameter for efficient design and tailored screening of organelle-targeting materials for various biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia
12.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111720, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841988

RESUMO

It has been widely reported that ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is the main extrinsic etiological agent that causes skin photodamage. UV-B exposure mediated photodamage (photo-aging/photo-carcinogenesis) to human skin is caused due to several physiological events at tissue, cellular and molecular levels that lead to impairment of skin function and integrity. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of Trigonelline (TG) against UV-B induced photo-damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (Hs68 cells) and Balb/C mice. We exposed human skin fibroblasts and Balb/C mice to UV-B radiation and evaluated various parameters of cellular damage, including, oxidative stress, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels, apoptotic and ER-stress marker proteins. We found that UV-B irradiation induced ROS generation lead to the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium and increased the expression of ER stress protein markers (phosphorylated elf2α, CHOP, ATF4) as well as apoptotic protein markers (Bcl2, Bax and caspase-9) in a dose and time dependent manner in Hs68 cells. We then determined the effect of TG treatment on UV-B -induced cell death in Hs68 cells and observed that cells exposed to UV-B radiation and treated with TG had a significantly higher survival rate compared to cells exposed to UV-B radiation alone. TG treatment successfully reduced oxidative stress; restored Ca2+ homeostasis and re-established the ER function and prevented apoptotic cell death process. Our results suggest that TG can be used as a potential therapeutic/cosmeceutic agent in preventing skin photo-damage.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Caspase 9/genética , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Iniciação 1 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 1 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111749, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884347

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is mainly widespread gastrointestinal malignancy,which reports for 8% of overallcases in carcinogenesis and 10% of yearly fatality, is 4thprimary cause of cancer associated death global. The plan of the present research was to develop ethanolic extract of Vitex negundo-loaded gold nanoparticles (VN-AuNPs) and to appraise the various characteristic methods likes UV-vis spectroscopy, SAED, FTIR, XRD and HR-TEM. Additionally, the anticancer effect of VN-AuNPs on AGS cells were analysed by cell viability, apoptotic morphological changes by TUNEL, AO/EtBr and Hoechst staining, alterations of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and production reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the status of apoptosis gene such as caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bax and caspase-9 expressions was analysed by using western and RT-PCR techniques. Synthesized AuNPs established by UV absorption peak of the highest at 538 and crystal nature of AuNPs was additionallyverifiedwith SAED and XRD. TEM images were illustrates size and morphological division of NPs. FTIR examinationscompletedalkene, carbodiimide and aliphatic primary amines of biomolecules werepresent in synthesized VN-AuNPs. Additionally, AuNPs were stimulatedapoptosis throughthe cytotoxicity effect,changes of MMP, generation of ROS, nuclear and apoptotic morphological alterationsvia TUNEL, AO/EtBr and Hoechst assay. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms also provoked apoptosis through modulating pro (caspase-3, Bax, Bid, caspase-9) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) mediators by western blotting and gene expression in AGS cells. This production of AuNPs from VN was eco-friendly, large-scaled up and easy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Vitex/química , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/genética , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Verde , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Vitex/metabolismo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112256, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586690

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a traditional Chinese medicine reported to have a variety of pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer activity. G. lucidum spore oil (GLSO) is a lipid substance extracted from sporoderm-broken spore of G. lucidum. However, the effect of GLSO on breast cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of GLSO on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to investigate the mechanistic basis for the anticancer effect of GLSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, in vitro MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with GLSO (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 µL/mL). The protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-8 were examined using western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), caspases-3, -8, -9 and Bax were examined using qRT-PCR. Second, in vivo the anticancer properties of GLSO were assessed by H&E, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry in BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. In addition, the levels of caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling pathway proteins in tumor tissue were evaluated by immunoblotting. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with caspase inhibitors to measure cell viability, the protein levels were examined with western blotting. RESULTS: The results in vitro showed that GLSO up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells, but had no effect on the expression of caspase-8. Moreover, the growth of tumors in vivo was significantly suppressed in the GLSO-treated group. The results of Western blot were consistent with in vitro. In vitro, co-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with caspase inhibitors reduced the inhibitory effect of GLSO on cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: GLSO inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and tumors in vivo by inducing apoptosis, which may be achieved through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Óleos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Óleos/uso terapêutico , Esporos Fúngicos/química
15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 185: 110610, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711736

RESUMO

Cancer gene therapy based on p53 tumor suppressor gene supplementation emerges as one of the most challenging and promising strategies. The development of a suitable gene delivery system is imperative to ensure the feasibility and viability of cancer gene therapy in a clinical setting. The conception of delivery systems based on cell- penetrating peptides may deeply contribute for the evolution of therapy efficacy. In this context, the present work explores the p53 encoding plasmid DNA (pDNA) condensation ability of RALA peptide to produce a suitable intracellular delivery platform. These carriers, formed at several nitrogen to phosphate groups (N/P) ratio, were characterized in terms of morphology, size, surface charges, loading and complexation capacity and the fine structure has been analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed intracellular localization of nanoparticles, resulting in enhanced sustained pDNA uptake. Moreover, in vitro transfection of HeLa cells mediated by RALA/pDNA vectors allows for gene release and p53 protein expression. From these progresses, apoptosis in cancer cells has been investigated. It was found that N/P ratio strongly tailors gene transfection efficiency and, thus, it can be fine-tuned for desired degree of both protein expression and apoptosis. The great asset of the proposed system relies precisely on the use of N/P ratio as a tailoring parameter that can not only modulate vector´s properties but also the extent of pDNA delivery, protein expression and, consequently, the efficacy of p53 mediated cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Nitrogênio/química , Peptídeos/genética , Fosfatos/química , Plasmídeos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , DNA/genética , Fibroblastos/citologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transfecção , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6555-6565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Honokiol is a biphenolic component of the bark of Magnolia, and has been shown to exert several activities, including anti-depressant, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, anti-thrombotic, anti-angiogenesis, anti-anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-tumor activities of honokiol and its synergistic effect with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) cells were investigated. RESULTS: Honokiol significantly suppressed the proliferation of UCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, honokiol inhibited the tumorigenesis of UCC cells in vitro. In addition, honokiol induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused apoptosis of UCC cells through the intrinsic pathway. Importantly, we demonstrated that honokiol potentiated the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, and displayed a synergistic effect with 5-FU in UCC cells. CONCLUSION: Honokiol causes growth inhibition, tumorigenesis suppression, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and importantly has a synergistic effect with 5-FU in human UCC cells. Therefore, this agent displays a therapeutic potential for treating human UCC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1253289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885769

RESUMO

The study was aimed at investigating the effects of L-cystathionine on vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and its mechanisms. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the study. Apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells was induced by homocysteine. Apoptosis, mitochondrial superoxide anion, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were examined. Expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 was tested and BTSA1, a Bax agonist, and HUVEC Bax overexpression was used in the study. Results showed that homocysteine obviously induced the apoptosis of HUVECs, and this effect was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with L-cystathionine. Furthermore, L-cystathionine decreased the production of mitochondrial superoxide anion and the expression of Bax and restrained its translocation to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, suppressed the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, and downregulated activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. However, BTSA1, a Bax agonist, or Bax overexpression successfully abolished the inhibitory effect of L-cystathionine on Hcy-induced MPTP opening, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, and HUVEC apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicated that L-cystathionine could protect against homocysteine-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of HUVECs.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistationina/farmacologia , Homocisteína/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7298539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772936

RESUMO

Dihydrochalcone derivatives are active compounds that have been purified from the Thai medicinal plant Cyathostemma argenteum. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of two dihydrochalcone derivatives on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell proliferation and to study the relevant mechanisms involved. The two dihydrochalcone derivatives are 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',4-dimethoxy-5'-(2″-hydroxybenzyl)dihydrochalcone (compound 1) and calomelanone (2',6'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone, compound 2), both of which induced cytotoxicity toward both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay. Treatment with both derivatives induced apoptosis as determined by annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide employing flow cytometry. The reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (staining with 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide, DiOC6, employing a flow cytometer) was established in the compound 1-treated cells. Compound 1 induced caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities in both cell lines, as has been determined by specific colorimetric substrates and a spectrophotometric microplate reader which indicated the involvement of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Calcium ion levels in mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments increased in compound 1-treated cells as detected by Rhod-2AM and Fluo-3AM intensity, respectively, indicating the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Compound 1 induced cell cycle arrest via enhanced atm and atr expressions and by upregulating proapoptotic proteins, namely, Bim, Bad, and tBid. Moreover, compound 1 significantly inhibited the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, compound 1 induced MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell apoptosis via intrinsic, extrinsic, and ER stress pathways, whereas it ameliorated the EGFR/MAPK pathway in the MCF-7 cell line. Consequently, it is believed that compound 1 could be effectively developed for cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Chalconas/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chalconas/química , Combinação de Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
19.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730794

RESUMO

Three new prenyloxy chromanone derivatives, aucherine A-C (6, 7 and 9) as well as six known prenylated phloroglucinols (1-5 and 8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum aucheri Jaub. Et Spach. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of spectral techniques (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The new compounds were tested on а panel of human tumor cell line using MTT assay. All tested compounds exerted moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 19.6 to 57.8 µM. The influence of the new compounds on some key signaling molecules (procaspase-9 and Bcl-xL), implicated in the regulation of programmed cell death was assessed by Western blot analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cromonas/farmacologia , Hypericum/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose , Bulgária , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Floroglucinol/isolamento & purificação , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Prenilação , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671764

RESUMO

Inflammation is a key mediator in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). Benzoinum, a resin secreted from the bark of Styrax tonkinensis, has been widely used as a form of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical settings to enhance cardiovascular function, but the active components of the resin responsible for those pharmaceutical effects remain unclear. To better clarify these components, a new phenylpropane derivative termed stybenpropol A was isolated from benzoinum and characterized via comprehensive spectra a nalysis. We further assessed how this phenylpropane derivative affected treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results revealed that stybenpropol A reduced soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression by ELISA, inhibited apoptosis, and accelerated nitric oxide (NO) release in TNF-α-treated HUVECs. We further found that stybenpropol A decreased VCAM-1, ICAM-1, Bax, and caspase-9 protein levels, and increased the protein levels of Bcl-2, IKK-ß, and IκB-α. This study identified a new, natural phenylpropane derivative of benzoinum, and is the first to reveal its cytoprotective effects in the context of TNF-α-treated HUVECs via regulation of the NF-κB and caspase-9 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzoína/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/química , Benzoína/química , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8 , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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