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1.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol ; 170: 107-119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847536

RESUMO

Aptazymes are synthetic molecules composed of an aptamer domain and a catalytic active nucleic acid unit, which may be a ribozyme or a DNAzyme. In these constructs the aptamer domain serves as a molecular switch that can regulate the catalytic activity of the ribozyme or DNAzyme subunit. This regulation is triggered by binding of the aptamers target molecule, which causes significant structural changes in the aptamer and thus in the entire aptazyme. Therefore, aptazymes function similar to allosteric enzymes, whose catalytic activity is regulated by binding of ligands (effectors) to allosteric sites due to alteration of the three-dimensional structure of the active site of the enzyme. In case of aptazymes, the allosteric site is composed of an aptamer. Aptazymes can be designed for different applications and have already been used in analytical assays as well as for the regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , DNA Catalítico , RNA Catalítico , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Catálise , DNA Catalítico/química , DNA Catalítico/metabolismo , Ligantes , Ligação Proteica , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo
2.
Chem Rec ; 19(9): 2044-2057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483089

RESUMO

This review covers the characteristics of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils by focusing on the fundamental factors that determine bio-oil upgradability. The abundant works on the subject of bio-oil production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied to establish the essential attributes of the bio-oils for assessment of the oil stability and upgradability. Bio-oils from catalytic pyrolysis processes relating to catalysts of different compositions and structures are discussed. A general relationship between the higher heating value and the oxygen content in the catalytic pyrolysis oils exists, but this relationship does not apply to the thermal pyrolysis oil. Reporting bio-oil yield is meaningful only when the oxygen content of the oil is measured because the pyrolytic oil stability is mainly determined by the oxygen content. Isoenergy plot that associates bio-oil yield with oxygen content is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Catálise , Oxigênio/química , Plantas/química , Pirólise
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122080, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487617

RESUMO

In this work, thermal behavior and pyrolysis products of pine sawdust after treated by different microwave pretreatment condition had been studied. Surface structure of samples getting collapsed after microwave pretreatment and the characteristics of thermal decomposition with CaO addition under four kinds heating rates was investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis process was carried and the products composition were detected both on Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Under the condition of 567 W power treatments for 3 min, the yield of phenols rose from 3.64% to 18.21% and the ketones decreased from 55.80% to 40.27%. The activation energy was calculated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. After microwave pretreatment, the activation energy of pine sawdust reach the maximum increase 7.26% at 329 W for 3 min, which meant that microwave pretreatment had little positive effect on promoting the pyrolysis reaction.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Pinus , Catálise , Pirólise , Madeira
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122009, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493730

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrated the immobilization of bacterial feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Butyrivibrio sp. XPD2006, Lactobacillus crispatus, Butyrivibrio sp. AE2015, Ruminococcus albus, Cellulosilyticum ruminicola and Clostridium cellulovorans on SBA-15 and their ability to synthesize butyl ferulate (BFA). The BFae2 from Butyrivibrio sp. XPD2006 showed the best catalytic efficiency. High BFA yield was produced when the immobilization of BFae2 took place with a high protein loading and narrow pore sized SBA-15, suggesting alteration of enzyme behavior due to the crowding environment in SBA-15. Grafting of SBA-15 with octyl moieties led to shrinking pore size and resulted in 2.5-fold increment of BFA activity compared to the free enzyme and 70%mol BFA was achieved. The BFae2 encapsulated in hydrophobic-modified SBA-15 endured up to seven reaction cycles while the BFA activity remained above 60%. This is the first report showing the superior performance of hydrophobic-modified surface to entrap FAE to produce fatty phenolic esters.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico , Dióxido de Silício , Catálise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
5.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 27, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559502

RESUMO

The photocatalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid has recently emerged as an outstanding alternative to the traditional thermal catalysts widely applied in this reaction. The utilization of photocatalytic processes for the production of hydrogen is an appealing strategy that perfectly matches with the idea of a green and sustainable future energy scenario. However, it sounds easier than it is, and great efforts have been needed to design and develop highly efficient photocatalysts for the production of hydrogen from formic acid. In this work, some of the most representative strategies adopted for this application are reviewed, paying particular attention to systems based on TiO2, CdS and C3N4.


Assuntos
Formiatos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Catálise , Hidrogenação , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(66): 9865-9868, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364624

RESUMO

Au hydrogel with a well-defined nanowire network was rationally designed through one-step dopamine-induced self-assembly. Due to the porous nanostructure along with the polydopamine induced accumulation and interfacial electron transfer effects, the resulting Au hydrogel nanozyme exhibits enhanced glucose oxidase-like activity and peroxidase-like activity, with a biomimetic cascade catalysis.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Dopamina/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Ouro/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Peroxidase/química , Catálise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxirredução
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121839, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376673

RESUMO

Inorganic salt treatment is a novel, high-yield, and environmentally friendly approach for the production of xylo-oligosaccharides from Sugarcane bagasse with degree of polymerization of 2-5. A xylo-oligosaccharides yield of 53.79% was obtained with 0.1 M MgCl2 treatment at 180 °C/10 min, and 41.89% with 0.1 M FeCl2 treatment at 140 °C/30 min. The xylo-oligosaccharides yield from the co-catalysis of 0.05 M FeCl2 + 0.05 M MgCl2 reached 54.68% (29.34% xylobiose and 20.94% xylotriose) at 140 °C/30 min. The co-catalysis not only effectively improved the xylobiose and xylotriose contents but also increased the total yield of xylo-oligosaccharides under mild reaction conditions. Additionally, the glucose yield observed from the solid residue after inorganic salt treatment was 71.62% by enzymatic hydrolysis. Mg2+ and Fe2+ are essential for good human health without separation from the system, therefore, the inorganic salt treatment can be potentially applied in the co-production of xylo-oligosaccharides and glucose.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Cloreto de Magnésio/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Saccharum/química , Catálise , Glucose/química , Hidrólise , Polimerização
8.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 22, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444578

RESUMO

A methodology for photocatalytic reactor modeling applied to advanced oxidation processes for chemical pollution abatement is presented herein. Three distinct reactor configurations typically employed in the field of air and water purification-wall reactors, slurry reactors, and fixed-bed reactors-are considered to illustrate the suggested approach. Initially, different mechanistically derived kinetic expressions to represent the photocatalytic rate of pollutant degradation are reviewed, indicating the main assumptions made by the authors in the published contributions. These kinetic expressions are needed to solve the mass balances of the reactant species in the photocatalytic reactors. As is well known, at least one of the steps of the reaction mechanism requires evaluation of the rate of electron-hole generation, which depends on the photon absorption rate: a volumetric property for reactions with the catalyst particles in aqueous suspension or a surface property for systems with a fixed catalyst deposited on an inert support. Subsequently, the different techniques for evaluating the optical properties of slurry and immobilized systems, and the numerical methods applied to calculate the photon absorption rate, are described. The experimental and theoretical results of pollutant degradation in each reactor type are then presented and analyzed. Finally, the definition, calculation, and relevance of different efficiency parameters are briefly reviewed. Using these illustrative examples, we emphasize the need for a systematic and rigorous approach for photocatalytic reactor modeling in order to overcome the inherent drawbacks of photocatalysis and to improve the overall efficiency of the process.


Assuntos
Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Catálise , Ácido Clofíbrico/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Fótons , Titânio/química
9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(8): 733-771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366825

RESUMO

Transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) catalysts supported on solid material represent one of the most important subjects in organic synthesis due to their reliable carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond-forming cross-coupling reactions. Therefore methodologically and conceptually novel immobilization methods for nonprecious transition-metal NPs are currently required for the development of organic, inorganic, green, materials, and medicinal chemistry. We discovered a self-assembled Au-supported Pd NPs catalyst (SAPd(0)) and applied it as a catalyst to Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, Buchwald-Hartwig reaction, Carbon(sp2 and sp3)-Hydrogen bond functionalization, double carbonylation, removal of the allyl protecting groups of allyl esters, and redox switching. SAPd(0) comprises approximately 10 layers of self-assembled Pd(0) NPs, whose size is less than 5 nm on the surface of a sulfur-modified Au. The Pd NPs are wrapped in a sulfated p-xylene polymer matrix. We thought that the self-assembled Au-supported Pd NPs could be made by in situ metal NP and nanospace simultaneous organization (PSSO). This methodology involves 4 kinds of simultaneous procedures: i) reduction of a higher valence metal salt, ii) growth of metal NPs with appropriate size, iii) growth of a matrix with appropriate pores, and iv) wrapping of the metal NPs by matrix nanopores. This methodology is different from previously reported metal NPs-immobilizing methods, which use solid supports with preformed pores or coordination sites. We also applied the in situ PSSO method to prepare various immobilized transition-metal NPs, including base metals. For example, the in situ PSSO method can be applicable to easily prepare Ni, Ru, and Fe NPs with good recyclability and low metal leaching for use in organic synthesis.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Elementos de Transição/química , Catálise , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Orgânicos/química
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121885, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377049

RESUMO

Lignin is the most abundant, renewable aromatic resource on earth and holds great potential for the production of value-added chemicals. The efficient valorization of lignin requires to deal with several formidable challenges, especially to prevent it from re-condensation reactions during its depolymerization. Recently, a strategy involving the activation of lignin side chains by selective oxidation of the benzylic alcohol in ß-O-4 linkages to facilitate lignin degradation to aromatic monomers has become very popular. This strategy provides great advantages for lignin selective degradation to high yields of aromatics under mild conditions, but requires an additional pre-oxidation step. The purpose of this review is to provide the latest cutting-edge innovations of this novel approach. Various catalytic systems, including those using chemo-catalytic methods, physio-chemo catalytic methods, and/or bio-catalytic methods, for the oxidative activation of lignin side chains are summarized. By analyzing the current situation of lignin depolymerization, certain promising directions are emphasized.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Catálise , Oxirredução , Polimerização
11.
J Cosmet Sci ; 70(3): 137-147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398102

RESUMO

The antimicrobial properties of natural limonene and the compounds obtained after isomerization of limonene (α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, and p-cymene) were studied. The following microorganisms were selected for the tests: Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli K12 (ACCT 25922), Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (ACCT 49461), yeast fungi Candida albicans, and fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, Trichoderma viride, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. During the studies, terpinolene showed the highest activity, and therefore, this compound was chosen for the preparation of therapeutic creams (content of terpinolene: 0.5 and 2 wt%). The obtained creams were active in the microbiological tests even at the lowest content of terpinolene. The mixture of products obtained after the isomerization of limonene also showed antimicrobial activity. Probably, in the future, this mixture of products can be used as a potential and relatively inexpensive ingredient in therapeutic and protective creams that can be applied for the relief of skin lesions and in the treatment of acne or atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Limoneno/química , Catálise , Isomerismo , Monoterpenos , Dióxido de Silício , Terpenos
13.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1439-1450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409157

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease found in more than 90 countries. The drugs available to treat this disease have nonspecific action and high toxicity. In order to develop novel therapeutic alternatives to fight this ailment, pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHF-TS) have been targeted, once Leishmania is auxotrophic for folates. Although PTR1 and DHFR-TS from other protozoan parasites have been studied, their homologs in Leishmania chagasi have been poorly characterized. Hence, this work describes the optimal conditions to express the recombinant LcPTR1 and LcDHFR-TS enzymes, as well as balanced assay conditions for screening. Last but not the least, we show that 2,4 diaminopyrimidine derivatives are low-micromolar competitive inhibitors of both enzymes (LcPTR1 Ki = 1.50-2.30 µM and LcDHFR Ki = 0.28-3.00 µM) with poor selectivity index. On the other hand, compound 5 (2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivative) is a selective LcPTR1 inhibitor (Ki = 0.47 µM, selectivity index = 20).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/enzimologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Timidilato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catálise , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Clonagem Molecular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Timidilato Sintase/isolamento & purificação , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(12): 2345-2356, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411589

RESUMO

Heterogeneous Fenton oxidation has become a very important wastewater-treatment method and its catalyst is crucial for good treatment effect. In order to improve the catalytic properties, the Cu and Mn elements were doped for CuxMnxFe3-2xO4/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CuxMnxFe3-2xO4/MWCNTs) nanocomposites (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) by co-precipitation method. The structure, morphology and surface properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), N2-physisorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CuxMnxFe3-2xO4/MWCNTs nanocomposites were used as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for p-nitrophenol (p-NP) degradation. The catalytic performances of the Cu and/or Mn doped nanocomposites have remarkable improvement compared with Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite, especially for both Cu and Mn doped catalyst. For CuxMnxFe3-2xO4/MWCNTs nanocomposites, the catalytic performance increases with increasing x value and reaches a maximum at 0.075 of x value. At optimal condition, the p-NP conversion rate reaches 96.4% in 10 min for Cu0.075Mn0.075Fe2.85O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite. However, the mentioned rate for Fe3O4/MWCNTs catalyst is only 14.5%. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in 120 min for Cu0.075Mn0.075Fe2.85O4/MWCNTs and Fe3O4/MWCNTs catalysts are 82.7% and 67.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the p-NP conversion and COD removal rates of Cu0.075Mn0.075Fe2.85O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite still keep at 94.4% and 70.3% after five-time reuse, respectively. This catalyst shows good reusability for p-NP degradation and is very easy to recover from the treated water.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nitrofenóis
15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(17): 11382-11388, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402664

RESUMO

Enzyme-like metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently one type of starring material in the fields of artificial enzymes and analytical sensing. However, there has been little progress in making use of the MOF structures based on the catalytically active metal center with multiple valences. Herein, we report a mixed-valence Ce-MOF (Ce-BPyDC) that can exhibit both oxidase-like and peroxidase-like activities. Ce-BPyDC was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, which preserves the rare coexistence of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) in the MOF structure. The enzymatic studies demonstrated the enzyme-like activities of Ce-BPyDC follow the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and are strongly dependent on temperature, pH, and reaction time. Ce-BPyDC was also revealed to exert high catalytic activity that could transcend horseradish peroxidase and other MOF nanozymes, due to the redox-active Ce(III)/Ce(IV) cycles inside. Furthermore, the simple synthesis, high nanozyme activity, and great stability of Ce-BPyDC motivated us to establish a colorimetric biosensing platform using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a color reagent. Adopting this strategy, we established a visual, sensitive, and selective colorimetric method for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, for which the linear interval and limit of detection were 1-20 and 0.28 µM, respectively. The successful AA detection in real juice samples implies the promising use of such mixed-valence MOF nanozymes in food and biomedical samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cério/química , Colorimetria , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Catálise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 23, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463700

RESUMO

Since the pioneering independent reports of Akiyama and Terada, the use of chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) and derivatives as a versatile tool for asymmetric synthesis with good reactivity, regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity has emerged, forming an important part of the implementation of asymmetric counteranion-directed catalysis reported to date. In these achievements, the combination of metals with CPAs has enabled various catalytic modes beyond the scope of typical acid catalysis, such as relay catalysis, ion-pairing catalysis, and binary acid catalysis. The first-row transition metals (Sc-Zn) are considered to be sustainable transition metals and have received a great deal of attention. These naturally abundant metals display excellent Lewis acidity and function as powerful redox catalysts in synthesis involving both one and two-electron transfers. Hence, in this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the development of asymmetric reactions using a combination of first-row transition metals and CPAs. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms involved in order to understand the interaction of the metal/phosphate and the origins of the asymmetric control of the transformations.


Assuntos
Alcenos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Alcenos/química , Catálise , Estrutura Molecular
17.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 24, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468239

RESUMO

The article provides an overview of the most relevant characterization results of heterogeneous photo-catalytic materials available in the literature. First, we present a summary of the ex situ utilization of physico-chemical characterization techniques. In the majority of current works, pre and post-reaction samples are subjected to ex situ analysis using a multitechnique approach which attempts to render information about the morphological, structural, and electronic properties of relevance to interpret photoactivity. Details of the effects on physico-chemical observables of the nanostructure and the complex chemical nature (considering mono and multiphase materials with presence of several chemical elements) of typical photo-catalysts will be analyzed. Modern studies however emphasize the use of in situ tools in order to establish activity-structure links. To this end, the first point to pay attention to is to consider carefully the interaction between light and matter at the reaction cell where the characterization is carried out. Operando and spectro-kinetic methodologies will be reviewed as they would render valuable and trusting results and thus will pave the way for the future developments in photocatalysis.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Catálise , Cinética , Processos Fotoquímicos
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 126-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461429

RESUMO

This work is dedicated to the removal of free cyanide from aqueous solution through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 catalyzed by copper oxide nanoparticles. Effects of initial molar ratio [H2O2]0/[CN-]0, catalyst dose, temperature, pH and the catalyst stability on cyanide removal have been investigated. The use of copper oxide has improved the reaction rate showing catalytic activity. The cyanide removal efficiency was increased from 60% to 94% by increasing in the dose of catalyst from 0.5 g/L to 5.0 g/L. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 35 °C promotes cyanide removal and the four successive times re-use of catalyst shows good stability. Kinetics of cyanide removal was found to be of pseudo-first-order with respect to cyanide. The rate constants have been determined.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Cianetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121971, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445240

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to identify the optimum thermal conversion of Chlorella vulgaris with neuro-evolutionary approach. A Progressive Depth Swarm-Evolution (PDSE) neuro-evolutionary approach is proposed to model the Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data of catalytic thermal degradation of Chlorella vulgaris. Results showed that the proposed method can generate predictions which are more accurate compared to other conventional approaches (>90% lower in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE)). In addition, Simulated Annealing is proposed to determine the optimal operating conditions for microalgae conversion from multiple trained ANN. The predicted optimum conditions were reaction temperature of 900.0 °C, heating rate of 5.0 °C/min with the presence of HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst to obtain 88.3% of Chlorella vulgaris conversion.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Catálise , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(71): 10563-10566, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417990

RESUMO

Besides delivering plausible prebiotic feedstock molecules and high-energy initiators, extraterrestrial impacts could also affect the process of abiogenesis by altering the early Earth's geological environment in which primitive life was conceived. We show that iron-rich smectites formed by reprocessing of basalts due to the residual post-impact heat could catalyze the synthesis and accumulation of important prebiotic building blocks such as nucleobases, amino acids and urea.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Ferro/química , Meteoroides , Silicatos/química , Aminoácidos/química , Catálise , Terra (Planeta) , Evolução Química , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Origem da Vida , Ureia/química
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