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2.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4496488, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721903

RESUMO

When managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, radiological imaging complements clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of chest radiography findings in detecting COVID-19, describe those findings, and assess the association of positive chest radiography findings with clinical and laboratory findings. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted involving all primary health care corporation-registered patients (2485 patients) enrolled over a 1-month period during the peak of the 2020 pandemic wave in Qatar. These patients had reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and underwent chest radiography within 72 hours of the swab test. A positive result on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity of chest radiography was calculated. The airspace opacities were mostly distributed in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and most of the patients had bilateral involvement. Pleural effusion was detected in some cases. The risk of having positive chest X-ray findings increased with age, Southeast Asian nationality, fever, or a history of fever and diarrhoea. Patients with cardiac disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were at a higher risk of having positive chest X-ray findings. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum albumin, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and serum C-reactive protein, hepatic enzymes, and total bilirubin with an increase in the radiographic severity score.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Albumina Sérica , Raios X , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684580

RESUMO

The association between nuts intake and cognitive function is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual nuts consumption and cognition among Qatari adults. Data from 1000 participants aged >20 years who attended Qatar Biobank (QBB) were used. Nuts consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples were measured for magnesium, lipids and glucose. Mean reaction time (MRT) was used as an indicator of cognitive function. Linear regression was used to assess the association. A total of 21.1% of the participants reported consuming nuts ≥4-6 times/week (high consumption) while 40.2% reported consuming ≤1 time/month (low consumption). The mean MRT was 715.6 milliseconds (SD 204.1). An inverse association was found between nuts consumption and MRT. Compared to those with a low consumption, high consumption of nuts had a regression coefficient of -36.9 (95% CI -68.1 to -5.8) after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The inverse association between nuts and MRT was mainly seen among those >50 years. There was an interaction between nuts consumption and hypertension. The association between nuts consumption and MRT was not mediated by hypertension, diabetes, or serum magnesium. Habitual higher consumption of nuts is positively associated with cognitive function, especially among old adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Nozes , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Catar/epidemiologia , Tempo de Reação
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal fetal growth can be associated with factors during pregnancy and at postpartum. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and feto-maternal outcomes associated with small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) infants. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective study on 14,641 singleton live births registered in the PEARL-Peristat Study between April 2017 and March 2018 in Qatar. We estimated the incidence and examined the risk factors and outcomes using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: SGA and LGA incidence rates were 6.0% and 15.6%, respectively. In-hospital mortality among SGA and LGA infants was 2.5% and 0.3%, respectively, while for NICU admission or death in labor room and operation theatre was 28.9% and 14.9% respectively. Preterm babies were more likely to be born SGA (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.45-3.57) but male infants (aRR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.4-0.81), those born to parous (aRR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93), or overweight (aRR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97) mothers were less likely to be born SGA. On the other hand, males (aRR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.49-2.19), infants born to parous mothers (aRR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.63-2.82), or to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (aRR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.66), or pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (aRR 2.58; 95% CI, 1.8-3.47) were significantly more likely to be LGA. SGA infants were at high risk of in-hospital mortality (aRR, 226.56; 95% CI, 3.47-318.22), neonatal intensive care unit admission or death in labor room or operation theatre (aRR, 2.14 (1.36-3.22). CONCLUSION: Monitoring should be coordinated to alleviate the risks of inappropriate fetal growth and the associated adverse consequences.


Assuntos
Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055181, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study attempts the first in a series of investigations into the misuse of alcohol and substances in Qatar. This study explores the emergency presentations of alcohol and substance abuse to all the state funded emergency departments (EDs) in the country which serve around 90% of the population over a 22-month period. Due to legal penalties for alcohol and substance use, and lack of subsidised community-based facilities, ED presentations are a good starting point to explore this burden. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective population-based, cross-sectional study, analysing electronic patient records of all state funded EDs spanning a period of 22 months, from 1 January 2019 to 31 October 2020 was carried out. The study included all eligible individuals aged 18 or over. Primary reason/diagnosis for presentation containing any of the alcohol or substance use key words were included in the study using composite data capture forms by trained clinicians. RESULTS: An overwhelming majority (95.5%) of the total 1495 cases presenting to the EDs with substance abuse were using alcohol. Only 2.1% of the cases were females. Those of Asian (non-Arab) constituted 70% of this group. Qatari citizens presented with highest proportion of substance abuse other than alcohol (23%). Overall, 2.26% of all presentations to the EDs were related to alcohol and substance abuse and this amounted to 3 ED visits per 10 000 of population per year. 56.6% of the cases presented over the weekend. Less than 1% were referred to psychiatry and no other meaningful rehabilitative interventions were offered to others. CONCLUSION: As Qatar moves towards establishing community-based rehabilitative resources for alcohol and substances abuse, the findings from this study will help in shaping these developments. These can include ED-based routine screening for alcohol abuse and referral to rehabilitation services without fear of legal penalties.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The risk factors for breakthrough infections among healthcare workers (HCW) after completion of a full course of vaccination are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine the risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs at a national healthcare system in Qatar. METHODS: We identified all HCWs at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar between December 20, 2020 and May 18, 2021 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR infection >14 days after the second vaccine dose. For each case thus identified, we identified one control with a negative test after December 20, 2020, matched on age, sex, nationality, job family and date of SARS-CoV-2 testing. We excluded those with a prior positive test and temporary workers. We used Cox regression analysis to determine factors associated with breakthrough infection. RESULTS: Among 22,247 fully vaccinated HCW, we identified 164 HCW who had breakthrough infection and matched them to 164 controls to determine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection. In the breakthrough infection group the nursing and midwifery job family constituted the largest group, spouse was identified as the most common positive contact followed by a patient. Exposure to a confirmed case, presence of symptoms and all other job families except Allied Health Professionals when compared with nursing and Midwifery staff independently predicted infection. CONCLUSION: Presence of symptoms and contact with a confirmed case are major risk factors for breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, and these groups should be prioritized for screening even after full vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 150, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611759

RESUMO

The incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture is essential to formulate a national fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). In this epidemiological study, the incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture in Qatar was comparable to that in regional countries, and lower than that in North America and European countries. PURPOSE: Estimate the annual incidence rate (IR) of osteoporotic hip fractures (OHF) in Qatar from January 2017 to December 2019. METHODS: Hamad Medical Corporation is a government-based tertiary medical institute. Hip fractures were captured by using the International Classification of Diseases-10 hip fracture codes. The patient records were reviewed retrospectively to identify fracture mechanisms. The observed census in 2017 and the estimated censuses of 2018 and 2019 were used to calculate the age-sex-specific annual IR of OHF in the population aged ≥ 40 years. The world population in 2010 was used to calculate the age-adjusted standardized IR in the population aged ≥ 50 years. RESULTS: In total, 458 hip fractures were identified; 75 (16.4%) were due to high-energy trauma, and 9 (2%) were pathological hip fractures. The total number of OHF was 374 (81.7%). OHF was slightly higher in men (215, 57.5%). The median age (IQR) of the patients was 69 years (56-78 years). In 2017, 2018, and 2019, the age-adjusted standardized IR of OHF per 100,000 with the corresponding 95% CI was 141.7 (141.1-142.2), 140.8 (140.2-141.3), and 162.7 (162.0-163.2) for the whole Qatar population; 154.2 (153.6-154.7), 105.2 (104.7-105.7), and 176.6 (175.9-177.1) for Qataris; and 134.8 (134.3-135.4), 183.9 (183.3-184.6), and 160.4 (159.8-161.0) for non-Qataris, respectively. CONCLUSION: The annual age-adjusted standardized IR of OHF per 100,000 inhabitants aged ≥ 50 years in Qatar was comparable to that in regional countries, and lower than that in North America and European countries.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 65, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692390

RESUMO

Background: There are few studies on the impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), where the burden of risk factors and context is somewhat different from Western countries where much of the evidence is derived. Objective: To evaluate patient engagement in, and outcomes associated with, participation in Qatar's first and only CR program, from inception. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study of patients referred to Heart Hospital's CR program from January 2013-September, 2018. The program offered 3 sessions/week over 6-12 weeks, depending on patient risk. An initial assessment was performed, and outcomes (i.e., functional capacity, risk factors, and psychosocial well-being (quality of life [SF-36] and depressive symptoms) were re-assessed post-program in those who did not drop-out. Session attendance was recorded. Results: 682 patients enrolled; they attended 77.6% of prescribed sessions; 554 (81.2%) completed the program and post-assessment. Improvements in functional capacity were statistically and clinically meaningful (METs 9.3 ± 3.3 pre and 11.1 ± 3.7 post; p < 0.001). There were significant improvements in body mass index (28.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2 pre and 28.2 ± 5.4 post; p < 0.001), waist circumference (102.8 ± 13.0 cm pre and 101.8 ± 13.2 post; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL 1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/L pre and 1.6 ± 0.8 post; p = < 0.001), total cholesterol (3.6 ± 1.1 mmol/L pre and 3.3 ± 0.8 post; p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (SBP 128.5 ± 17.7 mmHg pre and 123.7 ± 14.8 post; p < 0.001), hemoglobin A1c (6.8 ± 1.6% pre and 6.5 ± 1.3 post; p < 0.001) and depressive symptoms (Cardiac Depression Scale score 78.3 ± 23.9 pre and 66.3 ± 21.3 post; p < 0.001). Improvements on 7 of the 8 quality of life domains were also observed (all p < .05; e.g., physical functioning 68.2 ± 24.0 pre and 74.9 ± 24.4 post). Conclusion: The new Qatari CR program is very engaging to patients, and resulted in clinically significant risk factors (LDL, SBP, and cholesterol) as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life improvements, which likely translate to reduced morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490180

RESUMO

Background: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming more popular worldwide, especially among youth. Studies report that university students have inadequate knowledge as well as misconceptions about the health risks of e-cigarettes, which may lead to their use even in populations where smoking prevalence is relatively low. At this age, the influence of peers is also significant. Understanding attitudes of university students toward the use of e-cigarettes is important for effective tobacco prevention interventions. In this study, we assess the prevalence of e-cigarette use among students in Qatar's largest national university, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of harm in relation to e-cigarettes. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Qatar University students using a self-administered online questionnaire. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted as well as bivariate analyses to check the association of e-cigarette use with variables of interest. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess determinants of e-cigarette use among students. Results: One hundred ninety-nine students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of e-cigarette use among students was 14%, with no significant difference by gender (16.2% in males and 12.8% in females). In bivariate analyses, significantly fewer e-cigarette users believed that e-cigarettes cause disease compared to non-users. 67.9% of e-cigarette users compared to 37.6% of non-users believed that e-cigarettes were less harmful than traditional cigarettes, and 78.6% of users compared to 40.4% of non-users believed that their use could be helpful in preventing smoking traditional cigarettes. Bivariate associations between e-cigarette use and knowledge items were significant (p < 0.05) as well as having a smoker among siblings or friends. In the multivariate analysis, only having a friend who was a smoker remained significant after controlling for other variables (OR = 7.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study found that university students have knowledge gaps and misconceptions with regard to the harms associated with e-cigarettes use, especially among users. A comprehensive smoking prevention policy, educational interventions, and quit support are needed to enhance awareness among university students about the health effects associated with e-cigarettes use. Such interventions should also take into account the influence of peers on smoking practices.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Universidades
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a surge in the use of virtual communication tools for delivering clinical services for many non-urgent medical needs allowing telehealth or telemedicine, to become an almost inevitable part of the patient care. However, most of patients with vascular disease may require face-to-face interaction and are at risk of worse outcomes if not managed in timely manner. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the utilization of telemedicine services in the outpatient vascular surgery clinics in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data on all vascular outpatient encounters during 2019 and 2020 was conducted and compared to reflect the pattern of practice prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The study showed that 61% of the total patient encounters in 2020 were reported through teleconsultation. Females were the majority of patients who sought the virtual vascular care. Consultations for the new cases decreased from 29% to 26% whereas, the follow-up cases increased from 71% to 74% in 2020 (p = 0.001). The number of procedures performed in the vascular outpatient clinics decreased by 46% in 2020 when compared to 2019. This decrease in procedures was more evident in the duration from February 2020 to April 2020 in which the procedures decreased by 97%. The proportion of procedures represented 22.6% of the total encounters in 2019 and 10.5% of the encounters during 2020, (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Teleconsultation, along with supporting practice guidelines, can be used to maximize the efficiency of care in vascular surgery patients during the pandemic and beyond. Adoption of the 'hybrid care' which combines both virtual and in-person services as an ongoing practice requires evidence obtained through audits and studies on patients and healthcare providers levels. It is essential to establish a clear practice that ensures patient's needs.


Assuntos
Consulta Remota , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18182, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521903

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality as well as severe economic and societal disruptions. Despite scientific progress, true infection severity, factoring both diagnosed and undiagnosed infections, remains poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 age-stratified and overall morbidity and mortality rates based on analysis of extensive epidemiological data for the pervasive epidemic in Qatar, a country where < 9% of the population are ≥ 50 years. We show that SARS-CoV-2 severity and fatality demonstrate a striking age dependence with low values for those aged < 50 years, but rapidly growing rates for those ≥ 50 years. Age dependence was particularly pronounced for infection criticality rate and infection fatality rate. With Qatar's young population, overall SARS-CoV-2 severity and fatality were not high with < 4 infections in every 1000 being severe or critical and < 2 in every 10,000 being fatal. Only 13 infections in every 1000 received any hospitalization in acute-care-unit beds and < 2 in every 1000 were hospitalized in intensive-care-unit beds. However, we show that these rates would have been much higher if Qatar's population had the demographic structure of Europe or the United States. Epidemic expansion in nations with young populations may lead to considerably lower disease burden than currently believed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211039714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, primary and secondary healthcare workers (HCWs) have faced unprecedented stress, jeopardizing their mental well-being. AIMS: To compare risk perception and psychological distress between primary and secondary HCWs. METHOD: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted with HCWs in Qatar from April 5 to July 5, 2020. Psychological distress and risk perception were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a perceived COVID-19 risk questionnaire, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 4417 participating HCWs, 3421 (90.3%) felt that their job increased their risk of COVID-19 exposure, 3759 (90.9%) accepted this as part of their job, and 3440 worried that this also increased the risk of exposure to their families. Moreover, 2911 (84.8%) believed that their employer would look after their needs if they contracted COVID-19. Moderate to severe psychological distress was present in 1346 (30.5%) HCWs. Primary HCWs were less likely to experience moderate to severe psychological distress than secondary HCWs (adjusted OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.29-0.77, P = .003). Secondary HCWs who worked in COVID-19 designated areas had greater psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs' exposure to outbreaks has various psychological effects, which may have long-term consequences and affect their decision-making capacity. Strategies to enhance the mental well-being of HCWs exposed to COVID-19 should be introduced immediately.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Catar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16587, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400735

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised huge concerns about the prospect of a major health disaster that would result in a huge number of deaths. This anxiety was largely fueled by the fact that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the disease, was so far unknown, and therefore an accurate prediction of the number of deaths was particularly difficult. However, this prediction is of the utmost importance for public health authorities to make the most reliable decisions and establish the necessary precautions to protect people's lives. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting the number of deaths from COVID-19. This approach requires modeling the number of infected cases using a generalized logistic function and using this function for inferring the number of deaths. An estimate of the parameters of the proposed model is obtained using a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) that requires iteratively solving a quadratic programming problem. In addition to the total number of deaths and number of infected cases, the model enables the estimation of the infection fatality rate (IFR). Furthermore, using some mild assumptions, we derive estimates of the number of active cases. The proposed approach was empirically assessed on official data provided by the State of Qatar. The results of our computational study show a good accuracy of the predicted number of deaths.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Previsões/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Catar/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2320, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the association between coping strategies, resilience, optimism and different mental health outcomes like stress, anxiety, and depression among the medical residents' during the COVID-19 pandemic, with consideration of different factors like seniority, frontliner, gender, and coping style. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to all medical residents in Qatar. Depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed by the DASS-21. Professional quality of life was measured by the ProQOL scale. The coping mechanisms were assessed with the Brief-COPE, and resilience was measured by the Brief Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The most commonly used coping strategies were acceptance, religion, and active coping. The avoidant coping style scores were higher among junior residents (p = .032) and non-COVID-19 frontliners (p = .039). Optimism LOT-R score was higher in senior than in junior residents (p < .001). Lower avoidant coping scores, higher optimism, and higher resilience were associated with lower stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: It seems that avoidant coping styles can exacerbate depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms in medical residents amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Strategies promoting optimism, resilience, and approach coping styles can decrease the mental health burden of the pandemic on medical residents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Catar/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(7): 707-717, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369586

RESUMO

Background: Published data are lacking on response to and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Middle East. What data there are have not been comprehensively analysed. Aims: This study aimed to assess the characteristics of people with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates) and the response to and outcomes of such incidents. Methods: This was a scoping review of published and grey literature on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in GCC countries from 1990 to June 2019. Studies in English and Arabic were eligible for inclusion. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched as well as relevant non-indexed journals. Google searches were also done. References of included studies were scanned for relevant articles. Experts on the subject in the region were consulted. Results: Of 647 citations retrieved, 24 studies were included for data extraction and analysis. No literature was identified for Bahrain. People with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the region were younger, predominantly male and had more comorbidity than reported in other regions of the world. Use of emergency medical services was low across the GCC countries, as was bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge. Conclusions: A coordinated effort to address out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, including the generation of research, is lacking within and among GCC countries. Establishment of lead agencies responsible for developing and coordinating strategies to address out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, such as community response, public education and reporting databases, is recommended.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Catar/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444889

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors increase the likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In Qatar, 24% of the total deaths are attributed to CVDs. Several nutritional disturbances have been linked to high risk of CVD. Many studies have discussed the effects of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) on CMR factors; however, evidence has been controversial. This investigated the association between CMR factors and the status of Zn and Cu, in addition to Zn/Cu ratio. A total of 575 Qatari men and women aged 18 years and older were obtained from Qatar Biobank. Plasma levels of Zn and Cu were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anthropometric data and CMR factors were determined using standard methods. Adjusted associations between trace minerals and CMR were estimated by logistic regression. Partial correlation was performed to test the strength of the associations. Zn was not strongly correlated (p-value ˃ 0.01) or significantly associated with CMR factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cu levels correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) (0.23; p ˂ 0.001), pulse rate (PR) (0.18; p ˂ 0.001), total cholesterol (0.13; p = 0.01), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (0.27; p ˂ 0.001); and negatively with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-0.13; p = 0.01). High plasma Cu significantly decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (0.121; p ˂ 0.001). Furthermore, Zn/Cu ratio positively correlated with waist circumference (0.13; p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (0.13; p ˂ 0.01), and DBP (0.14; p ˂ 0.01); and negatively with BMI (-0.19; p ˂ 0.001), PR (-0.17; p ˂ 0.001), and HDL (-0.27; p ˂ 0.001). High Zn/Cu ratio increased the prevalence of low HDL (4.508; p ˂ 0.001) and MetS (5.570; p ˂ 0.01). These findings suggest that high plasma Cu levels are associated with a protective effect on DBP, HDL and MetS and that high plasma Zn/Cu ratio is associated with the risk of having low HDL and MetS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cobre/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pressão Sanguínea , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1614-1621, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244681

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be a global health concern. The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine was reported to have an efficacy of 94.1% at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 due to infection with 'wild-type' variants in a randomized clinical trial. Here, we assess the real-world effectiveness of this vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, specifically B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.351 (Beta), in Qatar, a population that comprises mainly working-age adults, using a matched test-negative, case-control study design. We show that vaccine effectiveness was negligible for 2 weeks after the first dose, but increased rapidly in the third and fourth weeks immediately before administration of a second dose. Effectiveness against B.1.1.7 infection was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.7-91.5%) ≥14 days after the first dose but before the second dose, and was 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100.0%) ≥14 days after the second dose. Analogous effectiveness against B.1.351 infection was 61.3% after the first dose (95% CI: 56.5-65.5%) and 96.4% after the second dose (95% CI: 91.9-98.7%). Effectiveness against any severe, critical or fatal COVID-19 disease due to any SARS-CoV-2 infection (predominantly B.1.1.7 and B.1.351) was 81.6% (95% CI: 71.0-88.8%) and 95.7% (95% CI: 73.4-99.9%) after the first and second dose, respectively. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is highly effective against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 infections, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, and against any COVID-19 hospitalization and death, even after a single dose.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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