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3.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 137, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveitis in the pediatric population is uncommon, accounting for 2 to 14% of all uveitis cases, yet resulting in significant ocular morbidity. A number of studies have focused on patterns and complications of uveitis in the pediatric age group (≤ 16 years). In this report, we studied children with uveitis syndromes focusing on demographics, anatomic distribution, etiologies, treatment, and complications. We additionally divided subjects into two age groups to look into any differential characteristics pertaining to the younger age group and the role of amblyopia as a cause of visual loss. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 80 eyes of 49 uveitis patients aged ≤16 years. Subjects were categorized by age of onset into visually immature (≤8 years) and visually mature group (> 8 years). Data compared between the two age groups included demographics, disease characteristics, visual outcomes and complications. RESULTS: Idiopathic uveitis was the most common diagnosis (51%). Anterior uveitis complications (posterior synechiae and band keratopathy) were more common in the younger group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 respectively) while posterior uveitis manifestations (vitreous haze and vasculitis) were more common in the older age group (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001 respectively). Amblyopia was the most common cause of vision loss in the visually immature versus cataract in the visually mature. CONCLUSION: Anterior uveitis and its complications were more common in visually immature group in our cohort. Amblyopia was identified as the main cause of visual loss in the younger population.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/etiologia , Catarata/etiologia , Doenças da Córnea/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Catarata/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças da Córnea/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Uveíte/complicações , Uveíte/fisiopatologia
4.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(10): 2065-2077, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227898

RESUMO

The magnitude of cataract pathology is indeed significant as it is the principal cause of blindness worldwide. Also, the prominence of this concept escalates with the current aging population. The burden of the disease is more tangible in developing countries than developed ones. Regarding this concern, there is a gap in classifying the pathogenesis of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced cataracts and explaining the possible cellular and subcellular pathways. In this review, we aim to revisit the effect of UV radiation on cataracts categorizing the cellular pathways involved. This may help for better pharmaceutical treatment alternatives and their wide-reaching availability. Also, in the last section, we provide an overview of the protecting agents utilized as UV shields. Further studies are required to enlighten new treatment modalities for UV radiation-induced pathologies in human lens.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Humanos
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 114: 108794, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947017

RESUMO

Glycine is a proteinogenic amino acid that serves as a precursor for several proteins. The anti-cataract effects of lysine and other amino acid mixtures in animal models have been reported. Normal rats were administered saline and formed the normal control group (group I). Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin and were the diabetic control group (group II). Rats were administered glycine (250 mg and 500 mg/kg of body weight) formed groups III and IV, respectively. Diabetic rats were administered sorbinil and were served as positive control (group V). The body weight changes, serum glucose, plasma insulin, total protein, glutathione (GSH) content, and mRNA and protein levels of aldose reductase were determined. Glycine treatment increased body weight gain, reduced blood glucose, and increased plasma insulin levels compared to diabetic control rats, and also increased GSH content and decreased mRNA and protein levels of aldose reductase compared to their respective controls. In summary, glycine supplementation effectively inhibited aldose reductase enzyme activity in experimental diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Catarata/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catarata/sangue , Catarata/etiologia , Catarata/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Ratos
7.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(3): 381-384, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828014

RESUMO

Approximately 20% of diabetic patients develop diabetic cataracts. As lens proteins are known to be only slightly metabolized during the lifetime, cataracts are difficult to recover from once they have progressed. Therefore, the daily intake of natural compounds would be an important strategy for the prevention of diabetic cataracts. Aphanothece sacrum Okada (Asa) is a freshwater blue-green algae endemic to Japan. It has been eaten since the Edo period in Kyushu. In this study, the inhibitory effects of Asa on the pathogenesis of diabetic cataracts were evaluated. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of Asa on the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), an oxidation-dependent advanced glycation end-product, were also measured. After 3-month administration, the CML contents in the lens were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using an internal standard of CML or lysine. Asa significantly inhibited the progression of cataractogenesis and accumulation of CML in diabetic lens compared with the normal diet group. These results suggested that daily intake of Asa reduces oxidative stress and prevents the pathogenesis of cataracts.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Catarata/prevenção & controle , Cianobactérias , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Catarata/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Cristalino/metabolismo , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análise , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Estreptozocina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Redox Biol ; 22: 101157, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844644

RESUMO

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), thus leading to the formation of cataracts. We studied the role of tripartite motif 69 (TRIM69) in cataract formation. The expression of TRIM69 protein was down-regulated in both human cataract capsule tissues and HLECs treated with UVB, whereas the expression of p53 protein exhibited an opposite trend. Ectopic expression of TRIM69 in HLECs significantly suppressed UVB-induced apoptosis and ROS production, whereas knockdown of TRIM69 promoted apoptosis and ROS production. TRIM69 can interact with p53 and induce its ubiquitination. The effects of TRIM69 overexpression in UVB-induced cell apoptosis and ROS production was clearly weakened by p53 overexpression, thus suggesting a role for p53 in TRIM69 functions. Furthermore, inhibition of ROS mitigated the effects of UVB irradiation on ROS production, cell apoptosis, forkhead box protein 3a (Foxo3a) phosphorylation, and TRIM69 expression. Additionally, Foxo3a overexpression significantly enhanced TRIM69 promoter activity, whereas Foxo3a knockdown had the opposite effect. In conclusion, we provide the first demonstration that Foxo3a is a potential transcription factor for TRIM69, and TRIM69 induces p53 ubiquitination. These results suggest that the Foxo3a/TRIM69/p53 regulatory network may be involved in cataract formation.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Catarata/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Catarata/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
11.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 201: 63-71, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading (LOCS III) for the characterization of radiation-induced cataract, and to correlate the proton beam projection onto the lens with cataract location and grade as defined by the LOCS III. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Fifty-two consecutive patients with cataract following proton therapy were included. All cataracts were graded using LOCS III. Relationships between proton beam and cataract subtypes, as well as between dose, proportion of lens irradiated, and extent of cataracts, were assessed. RESULTS: Tumor diameter, volume, stage, and equatorial tumor location were associated with extent of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC) that were diagnosed at a median (interquartile range) 36 months (22;83) after treatment. In multivariate analysis, the tumor volume (P < .01) and an equatorial tumor location (P = .01) were risk factors for extensive PSC. Lens irradiation was avoided in 10 patients. In the remaining 42 patients (81%), the extent of PSC significantly correlated with the dose to the lens receiving 10, 26, and 47 Gy (P = .03, P = .03, and P = .04, respectively), the dose to the lens periphery receiving 10 and 26 Gy (P = .02 and P = .02, respectively), and the dose to the ciliary body receiving 10 and 26 Gy (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively). Nuclear color significantly correlated with the dose to the ciliary body receiving 10 Gy (P = .03) and 26 Gy (P = .02). After adjustment of the results on tumor volume and tumor location, the volume of lens receiving 10 Gy (P = .04) and 26 Gy (P = .03) remained significantly associated with the extent of PSC. CONCLUSIONS: Proton dose correlated with the occurrence of PSC and nuclear color cataracts as defined by LOCS III grading. Better characterization of cataracts with the LOCS III after irradiation may help to further fill gaps in the current understanding of the mechanisms of radiation-induced cataracts.


Assuntos
Catarata/classificação , Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/classificação , Neoplasias Uveais/radioterapia , Idoso , Catarata/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
12.
Nitric Oxide ; 86: 54-62, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797972

RESUMO

Under normal conditions, connexin (Cx) hemichannels have a low open probability, which can increase under pathological conditions. Since hemichannels are permeable to relatively large molecules, their exacerbated activity has been linked to cell damage. Cx46 is highly expressed in the lens and its mutations have been associated to cataract formation, but it is unknown whether Cx46 has a role in non-genetic cataract formation (i.e. aging and diabetes). Nitric oxide (NO) is a key element in non-genetic cataract formation and Cx46 hemichannels have been shown to be sensitive to NO. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of NO on Cx46 are unknown, but are likely to result from Cx46 S-nitrosation (also known as S-nitrosylation). In this work, we found that lens opacity was correlated with Cx46 S-nitrosation in an animal model of cataract. Consistent with this result, a NO donor increased Cx46 S-nitrosation and hemichannel opening in HLE-B3 cells (cell line derived from human lens epithelial cells). Mutagenesis studies point to the cysteine located in the fourth transmembrane helix (TM4; human C212, rat C218) as the NO sensor. Electrophysiological studies performed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that rat Cx46 hemichannels are sensitive to different NO donors, and that the presence of C218 is necessary to observe the NO donors' effects. Unexpectedly, gap junctions formed by Cx46 were insensitive to NO or the reducing agent dithiothreitol. We propose that increased hemichannel opening and/or changes in their electrophysiological properties of human Cx46 due to S-nitrosation of the cysteine in TM4 could be an important factor in cataract formation.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Conexinas/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Conexinas/química , Cricetulus , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Nitrosação , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Alinhamento de Sequência , Xenopus laevis , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Environ Int ; 125: 542-553, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. Here, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of disability-adjusted life years of cataracts from occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation on the development of cataract (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework and conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. DATA SOURCES: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND CRITERIA: We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in WHO and/or ILO Member States, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative studies on the prevalence of relevant levels of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and of the total working time spent outdoors from 1960 to 2018, stratified by sex, age, country and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of any occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (i.e. ≥30 Jm-2/day of occupational solar UV exposure at the surface of the eye) on the prevalence or incidence of cataract, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. <30 Jm-2/day of occupational solar UV exposure at the surface of the eye). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration: CRD42018098897.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(6): 596-602, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine visual acuity, refraction and ocular status before, during and after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients underwent 40 standard protocol HBOT treatments. In all subjects, refraction and best corrected visual acuity were measured at baseline and after ten, 20, 30 and 40 treatments, and at a 12-week follow-up. A subgroup (n = 19) were given additional examinations at baseline, after 40 treatments and at follow-up including measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, fundus morphology, blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP). Lens colour and opalescence were graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). RESULTS: Myopic shifts [≥0.5 dioptre (D) spherical equivalent (SE)] occurred in 45 (77.6%) eyes. Median refractive changes of -0.75 D SE (right eye; p < 0.001) and -0.66 D SE (left eye; p < 0.001) were observed between pretreatment and treatment end (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Refraction returned to baseline at follow-up, except for a small persisting change towards myopia, median -0.25 D SE (left eye; p = 0.01). Using the LOCS III, median increases in lens nuclear colour, of 0.6 (right eye; p < 0.001) and 0.7 (left eye; p < 0.001), and opalescence of 0.7 (both eyes; p = 0.01) were found at the last examination. Small reductions were noted in CCT of -6.00 µm (right eye; p = 0.03) and -4.00 µm (left eye; p = 0.03), and IOP of -1.50 mmHg (left eye; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The transient myopic shift may have been due to lenticular refractive index changes. Reduced lens transparency is a potential consequence of HBOT.


Assuntos
Catarata/prevenção & controle , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Cristalino/fisiopatologia , Miopia/terapia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Catarata/etiologia , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 29(1): 23-27, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609478

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION:: To report visual outcomes and risk factors of pediatric traumatic cataracts in a tertiary care referral center in northern India. METHODS:: We analyzed medical records of traumatic cataracts in the pediatric age group (1-15 years) operated for cataract surgery with or without posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation with or without primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy between 2004 and 2012. Causative agents, types of trauma, demographic factors, surgical interventions, complications, and visual acuity were recorded and compared among different groups. RESULTS:: A total of 147 children were documented to have undergone cataract surgery for traumatic cataract in the study period, male-to-female ratio being approximately 5:1. Mean age was 7.67 ± 3.30 years (range, 1-15 years). Type of primary insult was penetrating injury in 100 (68%) patients and blunt trauma in 47 (32%) patients. Mean interval between injury and cataract surgery in penetrating injury cases was 3.84 ± 7.05 months and in the blunt injury cases was 6.28 ± 11.13 months. Preoperatively, only 110 patients were cooperative for visual acuity. Out of them, none had vision better than 6/18 and only 21 patients (19.9%) had vision of ≥6/60. Visual acuity of 6/18 or better (was considered good visual outcome) was achieved by 87.9%, 97.3%, and 97.9% at 1, 6, and 36 months, postoperatively. Eyes which underwent primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy during cataract surgery showed statistically better visual outcome than those without it. CONCLUSION:: Phacoaspiration with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation along with primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy and timely introduction of amblyopia therapy helped in gaining good visual outcome in pediatric traumatic cataract patients irrespective of the age of presentation and the type of injury.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/etiologia , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Cristalino/lesões , Facoemulsificação , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vitrectomia
18.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 12(1): 26-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478501

RESUMO

The main effect of ionizing radiation on the eyes is the onset of posterior cortical and subcapsular cataracts. Recent studies have raised questions about the mechanism of ocular damage and the threshold dose for the onset of such effects. Currently, operators may be exposed to ionizing radiation during surgical procedures. It has been estimated that urologists can be exposed to an annual dose close to or above 20 mSv/year. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of cataracts in a group of professional radiological operators to verify their possible association with the radiation dose to the crystalline lens and the tasks performed. The records of 73 health workers exposed to ionizing radiation were reviewed. The average annual dose to the crystalline lens, the number of years of exposure, and the presence of radiation-compatible opacities were assessed for all operators. Lenticular opacities were observed in 16.4% of subjects. The presence of alterations was associated with exposure doses below 10 mSv and > 10 years' experience in fluoroscopically guided procedures. Based on our results, protection of the crystalline lens against exposure to ionizing radiation by means of goggles is recommended. In addition, examination of the lens via slit lamp examination is recommended for all operators involved in interventional procedures with the current levels of radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Corpo Clínico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Risco
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1916: 311-318, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535708

RESUMO

This chapter describes the use of lenses obtained from rats as a model of cataractogenesis. At the molecular level, this is visualized as reduced activity of oxidative reductive enzymes such as aldose reductase and increased proteolysis of lens structural proteins including vimentin. In this chapter, protocols for assessment of these two pathways are presented. Specifically, this analysis shows a comparison of aldose reductase activity and vimentin cleavage in male and female rat lenses. This is because female rats are more susceptible to cataract formation compared to males.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/química , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Cristalinas/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Aldeído Redutase/genética , Animais , Catarata/etiologia , Catarata/genética , Cristalinas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/química , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos , Vimentina/química , Vimentina/genética
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