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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013708, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen is frequently administered to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including ARDS secondary to viral illness such as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). An up-to-date understanding of how best to target this therapy (e.g. arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) or peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) aim) in these patients is urgently required. OBJECTIVES: To address how oxygen therapy should be targeted in adults with ARDS (particularly ARDS secondary to COVID-19 or other respiratory viruses) and requiring mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, and the impact oxygen therapy has on mortality, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, requirement for renal replacement therapy, and quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to 15 May 2020 for ongoing or completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SELECTION CRITERIA: Two review authors independently assessed all records in accordance with standard Cochrane methodology for study selection. We included RCTs comparing supplemental oxygen administration (i.e. different target PaO2 or SpO2 ranges) in adults with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. We excluded studies exploring oxygen administration in patients with different underlying diagnoses or those receiving non-invasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or oxygen via facemask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author performed data extraction, which a second review author checked. We assessed risk of bias in included studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We used the GRADE approach to judge the certainty of the evidence for the following outcomes; mortality at longest follow-up, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, and requirement for renal replacement therapy. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one completed RCT evaluating oxygen targets in patients with ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. The study randomized 205 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to either conservative (PaO2 55 to 70 mmHg, or SpO2 88% to 92%) or liberal (PaO2 90 to 105 mmHg, or SpO2 ≥ 96%) oxygen therapy for seven days. Overall risk of bias was high (due to lack of blinding, small numbers of participants, and the trial stopping prematurely), and we assessed the certainty of the evidence as very low. The available data suggested that mortality at 90 days may be higher in those participants receiving a lower oxygen target (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.27). There was no evidence of a difference between the lower and higher target groups in mean number of days ventilated (14.0, 95% CI 10.0 to 18.0 versus 14.5, 95% CI 11.8 to 17.1); number of days of catecholamine use (8.0, 95% CI 5.5 to 10.5 versus 7.2, 95% CI 5.9 to 8.4); or participants receiving renal replacement therapy (13.7%, 95% CI 5.8% to 21.6% versus 12.0%, 95% CI 5.0% to 19.1%). Quality of life was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are very uncertain as to whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial in patients with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. We identified only one RCT with a total of 205 participants exploring this question, and rated the risk of bias as high and the certainty of the findings as very low. Further well-conducted studies are urgently needed to increase the certainty of the findings reported here. This review should be updated when more evidence is available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Viés , Catecolaminas/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Conservador , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Autoimagem , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Am Heart J ; 225: 55-59, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474205

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with high mortality. In the absence of data to support coronary revascularization beyond the infarct artery and selection of circulatory support devices or medications, clinical practice may vary substantially. METHODS: We distributed a survey to interventional cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons through relevant professional societies to determine contemporary coronary revascularization and circulatory support strategies for MI with CS and multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD). RESULTS: A total of 143 participants completed the survey between 1/2019 and 8/2019. Overall, 55.2% of participants reported that the standard approach to coronary revascularization was single vessel PCI of the infarct related artery (IRA) with staged PCI of non-culprit lesions. Single vessel PCI of the IRA only (28.0%), emergency multi-vessel PCI (11.9%), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (4.9%) were standard approaches at some centers. A plurality of survey respondents (46.9%) believed initial PCI with staged CABG for multi-vessel CAD would be associated with the most favorable outcomes. A minority of respondents believed PCI-only strategies (23.1%) and CABG alone (6.3%) provided optimal care, and 23.1% were unsure of the best strategy. After PCI for CS, Impella (76.9%), intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) (12.8%), and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (7.7%) were preferred. After CABG, IABP (34.3%), Impella (32.2%), and ECMO (28%) were preferred. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates substantial heterogeneity in clinical care in CS. There is evidence of provider uncertainty and clinical equipoise regarding the optimal management of patients with MI, multi-vessel CAD, and CS. SHORT ABSTRACT: We sought to determine contemporary practice patterns of coronary revascularization and circulatory support in patients with MI, multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiogenic shock. A survey was distributed to interventional cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons through relevant professional societies. Survey respondents identified substantial heterogeneity in clinical care and evidence of provider uncertainty and clinical equipoise regarding the optimal management of patients with MI, multi-vessel CAD, and CS.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Catecolaminas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Revascularização Miocárdica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365077

RESUMO

The physiological actions of orally ingested peptides on the brain remain poorly understood. This study examined the effects of 39 orally administered synthetic Tyr-containing dipeptides on the enhancement of brain norepinephrine metabolism in mice by comparing the concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG). Although Tyr-Tyr administration increased blood and cerebral cortex (Cx) Tyr concentrations the most, Tyr-Trp increased Cx MHPG concentration the most. The oral administration of Tyr-Trp ameliorated a short-term memory deficit of a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35. Gene expression profiling of mouse brain using a microarray indicated that Tyr-Trp administration led to a wide variety of changes in mRNA levels, including the upregulation of genes encoding molecules involved in catecholamine metabolism. A comparative metabolome analysis of the Cx of mice given Tyr-Trp or Tyr-Tyr demonstrated that Tyr-Trp administration yielded higher concentrations of Trp and kynurenine pathway metabolites than Tyr-Tyr administration, as well as higher L-dopa levels, which is the initial product of catecholamine metabolism. Catecholamines were not significantly increased in the Cx of the Tyr-Tyr group compared with the Tyr-Trp group, despite a marked increase in Tyr. Presumably, Tyr-Trp administration enhances catecholamine synthesis and metabolism via the upregulation of genes involved in Tyr and Trp metabolism as well as metabolites of Tyr and Trp. These findings strongly suggest that orally ingested Tyr-Trp modulates the brain metabolome involved in catecholamine metabolism and contributes to higher brain function.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metoxi-Hidroxifenilglicol/análise , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos adversos , Animais , Catecolaminas/biossíntese , Córtex Cerebral/química , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 1183-1195, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles enhance the survival of fat grafts and the browning of white adipose tissue. We evaluated whether supplementation with adipose-derived stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles promotes the survival and browning of fat grafts. METHODS: Extracellular vesicles derived from adipose-derived stem cells were injected into fat grafts of C57BL/6 mice once per week until postgraft week 12. The grafts were collected and weighed after postgraft weeks 2, 4, and 12. The histological morphology, neovascularization, and the proportion of M2 macrophages of grafts were evaluated. The ability of extracellular vesicles to promote macrophage polarization and catecholamine secretion was detected. Whether the inducement of browning adipose differentiation is extracellular vesicles or the paracrine effect of M2 macrophages polarized by extracellular vesicles was also verified. RESULTS: Grafts treated by extracellular vesicles derived from adipose-derived stem cells showed enhanced beige adipose regeneration with increased neovascularization, M2 macrophage proportion, and norepinephrine secretion at postgraft week 4. Increased retention and decreased fibrosis and necrosis were noted at postgraft week 12. The extracellular vesicles uptake by macrophages promoted M2 type polarization and catecholamine secretion while suppressing M1 type polarization. Of note, browning adipose differentiation with enhanced energy expenditure could be promoted only by the conditioned medium from extracellular vesicle-polarized M2 macrophages but not by extracellular vesicles themselves. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with extracellular vesicles derived from adipose-derived stem cells increases fat graft survival and browning by which extracellular vesicles-polarized M2 macrophages secrete catecholamines to promote beige adipose regeneration.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Bege/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/transplante , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Regeneração , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int Heart J ; 61(2): 316-324, 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173711

RESUMO

The mechanisms of urgently presenting acute heart failure (AHF) are not clear. We evaluated the serum catecholamine values of AHF patients immediately after admission. A total of 1,475 AHF patients were screened, and 484 who were admitted from their homes and in whom serum catecholamine could be evaluated immediately after admission were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the time interval from the onset of symptoms to admission (OA): < 3 hours (early-OA group; n = 283), 3-24 hours (middle-OA group; n = 142), and ≥24 hours (late-OA group; n = 59). In the early-OA group, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher, orthopnea was more frequent, the pH value was significantly decreased, and the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was required significantly more often than in the other groups. The serum noradrenaline level was significantly increased in the early-OA group (1.96 [1.02-3.60] ng/mL) than in the middle-OA (1.49 [0.73-3.41] ng/mL) and late-OA (1.40 [0.91-2.42] ng/mL) groups, and the adrenaline level was significantly increased in the early-OA group (0.36 [0.13-1.17] ng/mL) than in the late-OA (0.22 [0.09-0.52] ng/mL) group. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated the early-OA group was independently associated with the SBP > 140 mmHg (odds ratio [OR]: 2.219, 95% CI: 1.375-3.581), midnight/early morning admission (OR: 3.158, 95% CI: 2.048-4.868), and high serum catecholamine value (adrenaline > 0.96 ng/mL, noradrenaline > 3.39 ng/mL, and dopamine > 0.21 ng/mL) (OR 2.091, 95% CI: 1.161-3.767). In conclusion, urgently presented AHF might be induced by an endogenous catecholamine surge, which causes an excessive rise in blood pressure leading to increased after-overload and volume-shift lung congestion.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
S D Med ; 73(2): 78-80, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135056

RESUMO

Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy (CIC) and pheochromocytoma are both rare entities, and their exact incidence and prevalence are unknown. Pheochromocytoma has been implicated as one of the causes of CIC or Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) by means of case reports and retrospective reviews. However, the evaluation of any patient with TTS and pheochromocytoma is often faced with multiple challenges due to its rarity and atypical presentations, which subsequently leads to delay in diagnosis. Here, we present a case of a 51-year old female who had three distinct episodes of TTS and now presented in a hypertensive emergency with angina, palpitations, headache, nausea, and vomiting. She was treated for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) but coronary angiogram revealed patent coronary arteries. Due to the paroxysmal nature of her hypertensive emergencies and variable blood pressure response, pheochromocytoma was suspected. On further evaluation, she was found to have elevated metanephrines and a 6.3 cm left adrenal mass on CT scan. This case emphasizes the importance of considering or identifying pheochromocytoma as an underlying primary etiology for recurrent episodes of TTS and related concerns such as choice of anti-hypertensive agents.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Catecolaminas , Feocromocitoma , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Catecolaminas/efeitos adversos , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/induzido quimicamente , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 95, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant vasoactive drugs are often required to maintain adequate perfusion pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) receiving hemodynamic support with an axial flow pump (Impella CP). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of equipotent dosages of epinephrine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine on cardiac work and end-organ perfusion in a porcine model of profound ischemic CS supported with an Impella CP. METHODS: CS was induced in 10 pigs by stepwise intracoronary injection of polyvinyl microspheres. Hemodynamic support with Impella CP was initiated followed by blinded crossover to vasoactive treatment with norepinephrine (0.10 µg/kg/min), epinephrine (0.10 µg/kg/min), or dopamine (10 µg/kg/min) for 30 min each. At the end of the study, phenylephrine (10 µg/kg/min) was administered for 20 min. The primary outcome was cardiac workload, a product of pressure-volume area (PVA) and heart rate (HR), measured using the conductance catheter technique. End-organ perfusion was assessed by measuring venous oxygen saturation from the pulmonary artery (SvO2), jugular bulb, and renal vein. Treatment effects were evaluated using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: All catecholamines significantly increased LV stroke work and cardiac work, dopamine to the greatest extend by 341.8 × 103 (mmHg × mL)/min [95% CI (174.1, 509.5), p < 0.0001], and SvO2 significantly improved during all catecholamines. Phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor, caused a significant increase in cardiac work by 437.8 × 103 (mmHg × mL)/min [95% CI (297.9, 577.6), p < 0.0001] due to increase in potential energy (p = 0.001), but no significant change in LV stroke work. Also, phenylephrine tended to decrease SvO2 (p = 0.063) and increased arterial lactate levels (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Catecholamines increased end-organ perfusion at the expense of increased cardiac work, most by dopamine. However, phenylephrine increased cardiac work with no increase in end-organ perfusion.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração Auxiliar , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Animais , Catecolaminas/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Norepinefrina , Fenilefrina , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Suínos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084218

RESUMO

Catecholamines have long been associated with cognitive control and value-based decision-making. More recently, we have shown that catecholamines also modulate value-based decision-making about whether or not to engage in cognitive control. Yet it is unclear whether catecholamines influence these decisions by altering the subjective value of control. Thus, we tested whether tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor altered the subjective value of performing a demanding working memory task among healthy older adults (60-75 years). Contrary to our prediction, tyrosine administration did not significantly increase the subjective value of conducting an N-back task for reward, as a main effect. Instead, in line with our previous study, exploratory analyses indicated that drug effects varied as a function of participants' trait impulsivity scores. Specifically, tyrosine increased the subjective value of conducting an N-back task in low impulsive participants, while reducing its value in more impulsive participants. One implication of these findings is that the over-the-counter tyrosine supplements may be accompanied by an undermining effect on the motivation to perform demanding cognitive tasks, at least in certain older adults. Taken together, these findings indicate that catecholamines can alter cognitive control by modulating motivation (rather than just the ability) to exert cognitive control.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Cognição/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Idoso , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tirosina/farmacologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004941

RESUMO

Despite the development of an off-line packed fiber solid phase extraction procedure (PFSPE) for urinary catecholamines, automation remains a challenge. Here, we propose an on-line PFSPE-HPLC procedure for automated sample processing and analysis of urinary catecholamines, with good recovery and precision, to avoid manual operation errors. The on-line PFSPE-HPLC procedure has been thoroughly optimized concerning the gradient, valve switch timing, the effects of complexing reagent and buffer solution, and the stability of the nanofibers. Validation of the developed on-line PFSPE-HPLC protocol in urine yielded satisfactory accuracies of 99.6-104.2%, precision below 7.0%, as well as a linear range from 1 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The developed protocol is herein presented as a potential technology for automated sample pretreatment for the determination of urinary catecholamines.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Automação Laboratorial , Catecolaminas/química , Catecolaminas/isolamento & purificação , Éteres de Coroa/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Nanofibras/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e920231, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare acute cardiac event with varied manifestations characterized by abrupt onset of transient regional dysfunction in a characteristic pattern. A reverse Takotsubo pattern is also well recognized but can also be seen in non-Takotsubo cardiomyopathies. CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman with history of migraines and palpitations presented with nausea, vomiting, pleuritic chest pain, and dyspnea. On initial presentation her vitals were stable and her physical exam was unremarkable. Lab test results were significant for an elevated troponin and D-dimer. An initial CXR was unremarkable. The differential was concerning for pulmonary embolism. Prior to getting a CTA to establish diagnosis, she quickly decompensated. She was emergently intubated due to hypoxia and altered mental status. A repeat CXR showed acute pulmonary edema and repeat lab work showed increasing troponin and creatinine. EKG showed lateral ST depressions the lateral leads and ST elevations in aVL. ECHO showed akinesia of ½ to 2/3rd of proximal LV with a hyperdynamic functioning distal 1/3 LV and an estimated LVEF of 31%, a pattern consistent with reverse Takotsubo. She quickly developed multi-organ failure and, despite aggressive measures, underwent a PEA arrest and was unable to be successfully resuscitated. The autopsy showed hemorrhagic rupture of pheochromocytoma and bilateral thromboemboli of the main pulmonary arteries. CONCLUSIONS Reverse Takotsubo variant pattern can be seen in non-Takotsubo cardiomyopathies, and in our patient was noted in the presence of pheochromocytoma and pulmonary embolism. In this scenario, the presence of both would have significantly affected management, if she had not decompensated so quickly.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Feocromocitoma/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812837

RESUMO

A novel analytical methodology for the extraction and determination of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and their metabolites DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol and DL-3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid by LC-MS is developed and validated for its application to human and animal urine and hair samples. The method is based on the preliminary extraction of the analytes by a magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. This is followed by a <9 min chromatographic separation of the target compounds in an Onyx Monolithic C18 column using a mixture of 0.01% (v/v) heptafluorobutyric acid in water and methanol at 500 µL min-1 flow rate. Detection limits within range from 0.055 to 0.093 µg mL-1, and precision values of the response and retention times of analytes were >90%. Accuracy values comprised the range 79.5-109.5% when the analytes were extracted from deer urine samples using the selected MMWCNT-poly(STY-DVB) sorbent. This methodology was applied to real red deer urine and hair samples, and concentrations within range from 0.05 to 0.5 µg mL-1 for norepinephrine and from 1.0 to 44.5 µg mL-1 for its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol were calculated. Analyses of red deer hair resulted in high amounts of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (0.9-266.9 µg mL-1).


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cervos , Cabelo/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Animais , Catecolaminas/química , Catecolaminas/urina , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Poliestirenos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816411

RESUMO

The dermal adipocytes, superficial fascia and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) exist in the interspaces between the dermis and muscular fascia. They are adjacent to each other and traditionally recognized as one SAT. Recently, the dermal adipocyte was redefined as a unique population independent from the SAT. Also, we identified a novel type of adipogenic progenitors in rat superficial fascia. This study aimed to examine cytological and functional characteristics of fascial adipocytes in rats. Superficial fascia had no adipocytes in neonatal rats but gradually appeared numbers of adipocytes in growing rats. Adipogenic progenitors were found to reside in fascia and had strong ability in spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Differentiated fascial adipocytes versus subcutaneous or visceral adipocytes expressed increased adipose triglyceride lipase but decreased beta-adrenoreceptor, perilipin-1 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), thus having high basal lipolysis but low lipolysis response to catecholamines. Phosphorylation of perilipin-1 and HSL and translocation of HSL to lipid droplets were attenuated in response to catecholamines rather than post-adrenoreceptoral lipolytic stimulators. The results suggested that superficial fascia was an origin of adipocytes with distinct developmental, cytological and functional characteristics. We proposed that fascial adipocytes could be considered as a unique population of adipocytes in the body. The fascia origin of adipocytes as an adipogenic model might logically explain fat neogenesis occurred at anatomical locations where originally exist no adipose tissues and thereby no adipose-derived stromal precursors. Also, the special histoanatomical relations and overlaps between the dermis, superficial fascia, SAT, and their adipocytes were discussed.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Lipólise/fisiologia , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Animais , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 104-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707143

RESUMO

Soria, M, Ansón, M, Lou-Bonafonte, JM, Andrés-Otero, MJ, Puente, JJ, and Escanero, J. Fat oxidation rate as a function of plasma lipid and hormone response in endurance athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 104-113, 2020-Plasma lipid changes during incremental exercise are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among fat oxidation rate, plasma lipids, and hormone concentrations in well-trained athletes. Twenty-six trained triathletes completed a graded cycle ergometer test to exhaustion increasing by 0.5 W·kg every 10 minutes. Fat oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry. For each individual, maximal fat oxidation (MFO), the intensity at which MFO occurred (Fatmax), and the intensity at which fat oxidation became negligible (Fatmin) were determined. Blood samples for lipids and hormones analysis were collected at the end of each stage of the graded exercise test. All variables studied except insulin showed an increase at the end of incremental protocol with respect to basal levels. Free fatty acid reached significant increase at 60%VO2max and maximal levels at 70%VO2max. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) decreased and showed lowest levels at 60%VO2max and reaching significant increases after 80%VO2max. High-density lipoprotein reached significant increase at 60%VO2max. Adrenaline and noradrenaline increased until the end of the incremental exercise, and significant differences were from 50%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise intensities are related to plasma lipids levels. In the zone when lipids oxidation is maximal, plasma LDL and TG variation differs from other lipids. These results may have application for the more adequate exercise intensity prescription to maximize the beneficial effects of exercise.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Resistência Física , Adulto , Atletas , Calorimetria Indireta , Catecolaminas/sangue , Ergometria , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio
14.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 1054-1062, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ ischemia-reperfusion injury often induces local and systemic inflammatory responses, which in turn worsen organ injury. These inflammatory responses can be regulated by the central nervous system, particularly by the vagal nerve and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are the key components of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can suppress excessive inflammatory responses and be a potential strategy for prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury of organs including the kidney. METHODS: Vagal nerve activity, plasma acetylcholine, catecholamine and inflammatory mediators, renal tissue injury, and cell death were measured in mice with bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion with or without treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist. RESULTS: Dex significantly increased the discharge frequency of the cervical vagal nerve by up to 142 Hz (mean) (P < .001), and preserved kidney gross morphology and structure and attenuated cell apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion. Furthermore, Dex also significantly increased acetylcholine release to 135.8 pmol/L (median) when compared to that (84.7 pmol/L) in the sham group (P < .001) and reduced the levels of several inflammatory mediators induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. All the effects were abolished by vagotomy, splenectomy, or combinative administration of atipamezole, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Dex provides renoprotection, at least in part, through anti-inflammatory effects of the parasympathetic nervous system activation in addition to its direct actions on α2-adrenergic receptors.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Acetilcolina/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecolaminas/sangue , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
15.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 12: 25-37, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585863

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is considered to be due to an increase in the catabolism of dopamine by the action of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes which leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Here, in a model of neurotoxicity inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), we tested the effect of hydroxytyrosol (HTy), a potent antioxidant, on generation of ROS. Five minutes after a single intravenous administration of 1.5 mg/Kg of Hty, Wistar rats received an intrastriatal micro-injection of 10 micrograms of MPP+ while control animals received saline solution. Six days later, all animals were treated with apomorphine (1 mg/Kg), subcutaneously and ipsilateral rotations were assessed within an hour. Then, the rats were sacrificed, striatal tissues were removed and their catecholamines and MAO-A and B activities were quantitated. Pretreatment with HTy significantly diminished the number of ipsilateral rotations. This recovery correlated with significant preservation of striatal dopamine and significant inhibition of of the MAO activity. These results are consistent with the inhibitory effect of HTy on the MAO isoforms and form a basis for the neuroprotective mechanism of this phenylpropanoid in MPP+ induced Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catecolaminas , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Exp Neurol ; 323: 113089, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697941

RESUMO

Serotonin axons in the adult rodent brain can regrow and recover their function following several forms of injury including controlled cortical impact (CCI), a neocortical stab wound, or systemic amphetamine toxicity. To assess whether this capacity for regrowth is unique to serotonergic fibers, we used CCI and stab injury models to assess whether fibers from other neuromodulatory systems can also regrow following injury. Using tyrosine-hydoxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry we measured the density of catecholaminergic axons before and at various time points after injury. One week after CCI injury we observed a pronounced loss, across cortical layers, of TH+ axons posterior to the site of injury. One month after CCI injury the same was true of TH+ axons both anterior and posterior to the site of injury. This loss was followed by significant recovery of TH+ fiber density across cortical layers, both anterior and posterior to the site of injury, measured three months after injury. TH+ axon loss and recovery over weeks to months was also observed throughout cortical layers using the stab injury model. Double label immunohistochemistry revealed that nearly all TH+ axons in neocortical layer 1/2 are also dopamine-beta-hyroxylase+ (DBH+; presumed norepinephrine), while TH+ axons in layer 5 are a mixture of DBH+ and dopamine transporter+ types. This suggests that noradrenergic axons can regrow following CCI or stab injury in the adult mouse neocortex and leaves open the question of whether dopaminergic axons can do the same.


Assuntos
Axônios/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125616, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864055

RESUMO

The influence of pesticides on the metabolism of edible plants has not been fully investigated. Moreover, once introduced into the environment, pesticides are degraded to many compounds with undefined bioactivity. In presented work, under experimental conditions, model edible plant (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) was exposed to herbicide stress by application of a herbicide (mesotrione, 2-(4-methanesulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione, MES) or its degradation products (amino-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoic acid, AMBA; 4-(methylsulfonyl)-2-nitrobenzoic acid MNBA; cyclohexane-1,3-dione, CHD). Metabolic profiles of plants were employed to estimate the plant's defence response to MES and its metabolites. The intensity of herbicide stress was determined by measuring the changes in chlorophyll and catecholamines concentration formed in the shikimic acid pathway. Non-target analysis was conducted by LC-MS/MS, determination of catecholamines by LC-FL, chlorophyll by spectrophotometry. The highest phytotoxicity is characterized by MES (2000%-fold increase in the content of herbicide stress marker (normetanephrine) compared to a blank), followed by CHD (500%) combined with 15% increase in chlorophyll concentration. AMBA and MNBA as stress factors caused the increase in the content of catecholamines in the plant (86-160%). Simultaneously, an increase in chlorophyll content was observed (26-50%). Such diversity of the organism's defence response, also visible on metabolic profiles, can be associated with the chemical structure of compounds that are stress factors. MES and CHD, in contrast to AMBA and MNBA, have cyclohexano-1,3-moiety in their structure, which seems to be responsible for herbicidal properties.


Assuntos
Cicloexanonas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Raphanus/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cicloexanonas/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1093: 61-74, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735216

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been increasingly employed in separation science, including sample preparation. Herein we fabricated the amino bearing core-shell structured COFs nanospheres [Fe3O4@TpBD(NH2)2], and a novel magnetic boronate affinity adsorbent was synthesized by postsynthetic modification of the Fe3O4@TpBD(NH2)2 with 2-formylphenylboronic acid. The magnetic boronate affinity adsorbent possesses fast magnetic response and high binding capacity up to 1037 µmol g-1 for dopamine. Besides, it was used as an adsorbent for extraction of urinary monoamine neurotransmitters at neutral pH. A method for detection of the monoamine neurotransmitters was developed by coupling the magnetic solid phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Under the optimized conditions, a good analytical method was obtained in the linear dynamic range of 2-200 ng mL-1 with R2 between 0.9917 and 0.9966, with low limit of detection (0.31-0.54 ng mL-1) and limit of quantification (1.04-1.80 ng mL-1). The recoveries of the monoamine neurotransmitters were in the range of 86.3-115%, with relative standard deviations of 2.34-10.5% (intra-day) and 2.84-14.4% (inter-day). The method was successfully applied to the determination of the monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine samples. This work is of great importance for preparing functionalized core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework nanospheres, it also demonstrates the feasibility of the functionalized magnetic COFs as adsorbents in sample pretreatment.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/urina , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Catecolaminas/urina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanosferas/química , Neurotransmissores/urina , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2613137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828097

RESUMO

Purpose: There is no consensus for the optimum duration of preoperative administration of phenoxybenzamine (PXB) before adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perioperative hemodynamics and postoperative outcomes are related to the duration of PXB administration. Methods: In total, 102 patients managed preoperatively with single α-receptor blocker phenoxybenzamine were enrolled from 469 consecutive patients diagnosed histologically with pheochromocytoma. The patients received surgical treatment in the Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, between January 2001 and July 2018. All patients were divided into three groups: Group A (<14 d), Group B (14-30 d), and Group C (>30 d). Patient and tumor characteristics, intraoperative hemodynamics, and postoperative outcomes were recorded and compared among the three groups. Results: These patients included 47 men and 55 women, with an average age of 43 years at the time of surgery. Clinical characteristics, except the status of preoperative biochemical tests (24 hr urine fractioned catecholamine or plasma-fractioned catecholamine) (p=0.020), preoperative hemodynamics, and medicine management and surgical approaches, in the three groups were comparable. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the size of the tumor (p=0.034) was an independent risk factor for intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Among the three groups, we found no significant difference in intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative outcomes. Conclusion: The data from the current study indicated that the preoperative management of pheochromocytoma with single α-receptor blocker PXB for more than 2 weeks, after the final dose adjustment, could not further reduce the risk of intraoperative hemodynamic instability or postoperative complications. Thus, our study supports that 14 days would be enough for the duration of preoperative management of pheochromocytoma with single α-receptor blocker PXB in final dose.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Fenoxibenzamina/uso terapêutico , Feocromocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adulto , Catecolaminas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
20.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 89(3)2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850695

RESUMO

A 39-year-old woman underwent heart transplantation (HTx) for advanced heart failure. The donor was a 36-year-old young woman without past medical history. The first day after HTx, T-waves changes were noted. Echocardiography revealed akinesia/dyskinesia of all basal segments of the two ventricles. Coronary catheterization plus biopsy were done 7 days later showing no coronary obstruction, no rejection and complete recovery of wall motion abnormalities on echocardiogram, suggesting biventricular inverted takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This is a case of TTS during the first day after HTx, with completely denervated heart but because of the inotropic drug support it still represents a target for catecholamine-induced cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Medula Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Adulto , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Catecolaminas/sangue , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/fisiopatologia
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