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2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 13-17, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze postoperative complications of totally implantable central venous port system (TIPCVP) deployment and develop methods of their prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 43 patients who underwent TIPCVP implantation through right-sided jugular access and 3 patients with migration of the catheter transferred to the Domodedovo Central City Hospital. RESULTS: There were four perioperative and one early postoperative complication. None of the complications was the reason for removal of TIPCVP. Pinch-off syndrome occurred in two patients who were operated in other hospitals and a catheter was inserted through the right subclavian vein. CONCLUSION: Injury of the carotid artery and pneumothorax can be avoided by ultrasound navigation during internal jugular vein puncture. Catheterization of the internal jugular vein is useful to avoid pinch-off syndrome. Migration of the catheter is successfully cured by endovascular methods.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Pneumotórax/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Migração de Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/terapia , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Jugulares/lesões , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Veia Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
3.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(4): 170-180, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184481

RESUMO

Introducción: Los catéteres centrales de inserción periférica se han convertido en una prioridad en los neonatos que necesitan terapia intravenosa de larga duración, pero su uso no está exento de riesgos. Objetivo: Describir la aparición de eventos adversos en neonatos portadores de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica y determinar factores de riesgo asociados a ellos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo transversal en el que se incluyeron la totalidad de neonatos portadores de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica desde el 1 de octubre de 2014 hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2015. Se registraron los eventos adversos y variables sociodemográficas y clínicas relacionadas con los neonatos y los catéteres analizados. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 116 neonatos y 140 catéteres. Se registraron eventos adversos en el 16,4% de ellos: bacteriemia asociada al catéter (5,7%), obstrucción (5,7%), extravasación (2,1%) y flebitis (2,1%). Los factores asociados a bacteriemia con el odds de prevalencia corresponde a neonatos: < 27 semanas de gestación (OR = 1,2; p = 0,02), con peso < 1.000 g (OR = 6,7; p = 0,02), portadores de catéter > 1 semana (OR = 9,8; p = 0,02) y con perfusión de antibióticos por catéter (OR = 1,3; p < 0,01). La flebitis se asocia con la inserción del catéter en miembros inferiores y cabeza (OR = 1,1; p = 0,03). Los factores asociados a bacteriemia con odds de prevalencia ajustada corresponde a neonatos de peso extremo (OR = 6,38; p = 0,03) y portadores del catéter > 7 días (OR = 9,41; p = 0,04). Conclusiones: La evaluación periódica de eventos adversos relacionados con catéteres es de gran utilidad para elaborar planes de mejora. Esto permitirá extremar la seguridad en los RN más vulnerables, en especial los neonatos con extremo bajo peso que precisan tratamientos muy prolongados


Background: Peripherally inserted central catheters have become a priority in infants who require long-term intravenous therapy, but their use involves certain risks. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the occurrence of adverse events in newborns with peripherally inserted central catheters and to determine the risk factors associated with them. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed and performed. All neonates with peripherally inserted central catheters from October 1st, 2014 to September 30 th, 2015 were included. The adverse events and sociodemographic and clinical variables related to neonates and analyzed catheters were recorded. Results: A total of 140 catheters were placed in 116 infants. All of them were analyzed. Adverse events occurred in 16.4%: catheter-associated bacteraemia (5.7%), obstruction (5.7%), extravasation (2.1%) and phlebitis (2.1%), < 27 weeks of pregnancy (OR = 1.2, P = .02), birth weight < 1000 g (OR = 6.7, P = .02), with catheters in situ for longer than one week (OR = 9.8, P = .02) and with perfusion of antibiotics per catheter (OR = 1.3, P < .01). Phlebitis is associated with the insertion of the catheter in LL and head (OR = 1.1, P = .03). Factors associated with bacteraemia risk with adjusted prevalence odds ratio are extremely low birth weight neonates (OR = 6.38; P = .03) and with a catheter in situ for longer than one week (OR = 9.41; P = .04). Conclusions: The periodic evaluation of catheter-related adverse events is very useful to prepare improvement plans. This will maximize safety for the most vulnerable newborns, especially those of extremely low birth weight that require very long treatments


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Flebite/prevenção & controle , Intervalos de Confiança
4.
Presse Med ; 48(10): 1141-1145, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669005

RESUMO

Some patients require iteratives intravenous administrations on a central catheter, for example in oncology or infectiology, which represents a challenge for ambulatory treatment. Interventional radiology could provide solutions with the implant and monitoring of PICC-lines and ports. These are implanted in sterile environment and under imaging guidance in an interventional radiology room by an operator and with a paramedical team that need to be experienced. This development focus on the interest of one method with respect to the other, as well as the differents ways to do, the complications that could arise and the monitoring of these devices.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Radiologia Intervencionista , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 857, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are necessary for critically ill patients, including those with hematological malignancies. However, CVC insertion is associated with inevitable risks for various adverse events. Whether ultrasound guidance decreases the risk of catheter-related infection remains unclear. METHODS: We observed 395 consecutive CVC insertions between April 2009 and January 2013 in our hematological oncology unit. Because the routine use of ultrasound guidance upon CVC insertion was adopted based on our hospital guidelines implemented after 2012, the research period was divided into before December 2011 (early term) and after January 2012 (late term). RESULTS: Underlying diseases included hematological malignancies and immunological disorders. In total, 235 and 160 cases were included in the early- and late term groups, respectively. The median insertion duration was 26 days (range, 2-126 days) and 18 days (range, 2-104 days) in the early- and late term groups, respectively. The internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins were the sites of 22.6, 40.2, and 25.7% of the insertions in the early term group and 32.3, 16.9, and 25.4% of the insertions in the late term group, respectively. The frequency of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) was 1.98/1000 catheter days and 2.17/1000 catheter days in the early- and late term groups, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the detected causative pathogens of CRBSI did not differ between the two term groups; gram-positive cocci, gram-positive bacilli, and gram-negative bacilli were the causative pathogens in 68.9, 11.5, and 14.8% of the cases in the early term group and in 68.2, 11.4, and 18.2% of the cases in the late term group, respectively. In the multivariate analysis to determine the risk of CRBSI, only age was detected as an independent contributing factor; the indwelling catheter duration was detected as a marginal factor. A significant reduction in mechanical complications was associated with the use of ultrasound guidance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided CVC insertion did not decrease the incidence of CRBSI. The only identified risk factor for CRBSI was age in our cohort. However, we found that the introduction of ultrasound-guided insertion triggered an overall change in safety management with or without the physicians' intent.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Br J Nurs ; 28(19): S10-S18, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647744

RESUMO

Central vascular access device (CVAD)-related sheaths, sometimes described as 'fibrin sheaths', may result in minor or significant sequelae, from persistent withdrawal occlusion (PWO) to infective sheaths associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The authors studied 179 patients who underwent isotope scans, where isotope was infused via the CVAD. Isotope was found to bind to the sheaths around the catheters of some patients. The amount of uptake was taken to be an extent to which a sheath had developed around the CVAD. The degree of uptake of isotope was categorised into three groups: low uptake, moderate uptake and high uptake. Patients were then followed up from the date the CVAD was inserted to 12 months after the date of the isotope scan, until the device was removed or to the date the patient died, to identify incidence of infection, thrombosis and PWO. PWO incidence in all levels of uptake was around 5-7%. Bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence for low uptake was 7% (9/130), moderate uptake 10% (3/30) and for patients with significant uptake 16% (3/19). Thrombosis for no uptake was less than 1% (1/130), moderate uptake 7% (2/30), and significant uptake had no incidence of thrombosis. Total complications: no uptake 15%, moderate uptake 23% and significant uptake 21%. This single-centre study showed that patients with isotope-highlighted sheaths experienced higher incidence of infective, thrombotic and total complications.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Fibrina , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012248, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infection is a frequent adverse event in patient care; it can lead to longer stays in the intensive care unit (ICU), additional medical complications, permanent disability or death. Whilst all hospital-based patients are susceptible to infections, prevalence is particularly high in the ICU, where people who are critically ill have suppressed immunity and are subject to increased invasive monitoring. People who are mechanically-ventilated are at infection risk due to tracheostomy and reintubation and use of multiple central venous catheters, where lines and tubes may act as vectors for the transmission of bacteria and may increase bloodstream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Chlorhexidine is a low-cost product, widely used as a disinfectant and antiseptic, which may be used to bathe people who are critically ill with the aim of killing bacteria and reducing the spread of hospital-acquired infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chlorhexidine bathing on the number of hospital-acquired infections in people who are critically ill. SEARCH METHODS: In December 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trial registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and checked reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared chlorhexidine bathing with soap-and-water bathing of patients in the ICU. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and undertook risk of bias and GRADE assessment of the certainty of the evidence . MAIN RESULTS: We included eight studies in this review. Four RCTs included a total of 1537 individually randomised participants, and four cluster-randomised cross-over studies included 23 randomised ICUs with 22,935 participants. We identified one study awaiting classification, for which we were unable to assess eligibility.The studies compared bathing using 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated washcloths or dilute solutions of 4% chlorhexidine versus soap-and-water bathing or bathing with non-antimicrobial washcloths.Eight studies reported data for participants who had a hospital-acquired infection during the ICU stay. We are uncertain whether using chlorhexidine for bathing of critically ill people reduces the rate of hospital-acquired infection, because the certainty of the evidence is very low (rate difference 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 3.29; 21,924 participants). Six studies reported mortality (in hospital, in the ICU, and at 48 hours). We cannot be sure whether using chlorhexidine for bathing of critically-ill people reduces mortality, because the certainty of the evidence is very low (odds ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99; 15,798 participants). Six studies reported length of stay in the ICU. We noted that individual studies found no evidence of a difference in length of stay; we did not conduct meta-analysis because data were skewed. It is not clear whether using chlorhexidine for bathing of critically ill people reduced length of stay in the ICU, because the certainty of the evidence is very low. Seven studies reported skin reactions as an adverse event, and five of these reported skin reactions which were thought to be attributable to the bathing solution. Data in these studies were reported inconsistently and we were unable to conduct meta-analysis; we cannot tell whether using chlorhexidine for bathing of critically ill people reduced adverse events, because the certainty of the evidence is very low.We used the GRADE approach to downgrade the certainty of the evidence of each outcome to very low. For all outcomes, we downgraded evidence because of study limitations (most studies had a high risk of performance bias, and we noted high risks of other bias in some studies). We downgraded evidence due to indirectness, because some participants in studies may have had hospital-acquired infections before recruitment. We noted that one small study had a large influence on the effect for hospital-acquired infections, and we assessed decisions made in analysis of some cluster-randomised cross-over studies on the effect for hospital-acquired infections and for mortality; we downgraded the evidence for these outcomes due to inconsistency. We also downgraded the evidence on length of stay in the ICU, because of imprecision. Data for adverse events were limited by few events and so we downgraded for imprecision. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to the very low-certainty evidence available, it is not clear whether bathing with chlorhexidine reduces hospital-acquired infections, mortality, or length of stay in the ICU, or whether the use of chlorhexidine results in more skin reactions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Banhos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/prevenção & controle
8.
J Infus Nurs ; 42(5): 254-259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464834

RESUMO

Little is known about the risk of angioedema with low-dose alteplase administration in the treatment of thrombotically occluded central vascular access devices (CVADs). To identify potential cases, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database was searched. Between March 15, 2001, and August 15, 2018, there were 568 low-dose alteplase reports. Of these, 11 appear to be related to complications associated with a device or device occlusion that resulted in an angioedema-like reaction. This suggests that angioedema is a potential complication of alteplase when used for declotting CVADs-a complication that nurses should know how to recognize and treat.


Assuntos
Angioedema/tratamento farmacológico , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/efeitos adversos , Angioedema/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos
9.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(4): 258-264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major complication of hemodialysis. The risk of infection among hemodialysis patients is usually associated with the dialysis procedure itself, specifically the means of vascular access. OBJECTIVES: Estimate the rate of BSI and assess factors possibly associated with BSI. DESIGN: Analytical retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Hemodialysis unit in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients (18-60 years old) who had hemodialysis as first renal replacement therapy in the 20-month period from January 2014 to August 2016 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were used in a multivariate logistic regression to assess factors that might be associated with BSI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of BSI and associated factors among chronic hemodialysis outpatients. SAMPLE SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS: 160 outpatients on hemodialysis, median (IQR) age 47.7 (37.0-56.0) years, males (60.6%). RESULTS: The rate of BSI was 0.4 per 100 patient-months. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that patients who had central venous catheters had the highest risk for BSI (odds ratio: 10.088; 95% CI= 2.595-39.215; P=.001) compared with arteriovenous fistulas. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 54.6% of cases, with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus the most frequent isolate (18.2%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacteriaceae (15.2%, each). CONCLUSIONS: The type of vascular access type is the main risk factor associated with BSI in hemodialysis patients. The arteriovenous fistula, which has a lower infection rate compared to the catheter, is the best available option for hemodialysis patients. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective, single center and relatively small sample size. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
10.
Br J Nurs ; 28(14): S4-S14, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the literature on the patient experience of living with a central venous access device (CVAD) is growing, but remains sparse. It suggests that patients accept having a CVAD as it should reduce episodes of repeated cannulations. However, a recent doctoral study found the reality did not live up to this hope. AIM: the study objective was to uncover the global, cross-disease experience of patients with CVADs. METHOD: an online survey was sent to an international sample of people living with CVADs. FINDINGS: 74 people from eight countries responded. Respondents corroborated the PhD findings: painful cannulation attempts continued after CVAD insertion because of a lack of clinical knowledge. Participants lost trust in clinicians and feared complications due to poor practice. CONCLUSION: clinicians often lack the necessary skills to care and maintain CVADs. This leads to a negative patient experience.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Competência Clínica/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Nurs ; 28(14): S22-S27, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348703

RESUMO

Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are a signification cause of infection. When CRBSI rates are high, the cost to the patient and the organisation can be significant. More than ever before, there is a high demand for vascular access. Advances in treatment often entail extended indwell times for central vascular access devices. The care and maintenance of these devices is crucial in avoiding complications such as infection. Using care bundles in conjunction with other simple interventions, such as passive disinfecting caps, can help reduce CRBSI rates. The published evidence demonstrates that passive disinfecting caps can help reduce infection rates associated with different types of central venous catheters by protecting needlefree connectors from colonisation by pathogens and serving as a clear indicator that the line has been disinfected.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Desinfecção/métodos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350227

RESUMO

A 51-year-old man presented with a swollen left arm and unilateral pulsatile tinnitus 2 weeks after a left upper arm polytetrafluoroethylene graft was created for haemodialysis access. A fistulogram of the left upper arm showed a central venous stenosis and significant retrograde flow up the left internal jugular vein. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was attempted unsuccessfully and fistula ligation was subsequently performed. This led to immediate resolution of the tinnitus. The venous stenosis was likely secondary to a cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillator, which had been removed 1 year previously. Central venous stenosis is a common but often asymptomatic complication of a cardiac device, with the exception of patients with upper extremity arteriovenous fistulas, who frequently develop symptomatic venous hypertension. This generally presents with ipsilateral arm swelling and/or high venous pressures during dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulsatile tinnitus arising in this context.


Assuntos
Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Veias Jugulares/patologia , Ligadura , Zumbido/etiologia , Constrição Patológica/fisiopatologia , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Politetrafluoretileno , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer Treat Res ; 179: 117-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317484

RESUMO

Central venous access devices are a critical instrument in the treatment and supportive care delivery for oncology patients. Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a common complication of central venous access devices in oncology patients. Risk factors for CRT include patient-, device-, and treatment-related risk factors. Treatment of CRT is indicated to reduce symptoms, prevent catheter malfunction, prevent recurrent DVT or thromboembolic pulmonary embolism, and minimize the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome. Minimal prospective data exist on the prevention and treatment of catheter-related thromboses in cancer patients. As such recommendations largely are derived from data in the lower-extremity DVT and PE studies in cancer and non-cancer patients. Based on the available literature, primary pharmacologic prophylaxis against CRT is not recommended in cancer patients. Treatment options for CRT include catheter removal, anticoagulation, catheter-directed thrombolysis, or surgical thrombectomy. Current evidence-based guidelines recommend LMWH as the anticoagulant of choice. However, recent data showing efficacy and safety of DOACs in cancer-related VTE may be extrapolated to treatment of CRT in cancer patients. In patients with CRT, catheter removal should be pursued if continued vascular access is no longer needed, the catheter is dysfunctional, a catheter-associated infection is present, or if CRT symptoms do not resolve with anticoagulation alone. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is reserved for rare severe cases of CRT. Herein we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and general management of CRT in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/terapia , Humanos , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia
14.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32(4): 311-316, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial bacteremia secondary to urinary tract infections (NBS-UTI) occur in 1-4% of episodes and the associated mortality can increase up to 33%. However, very little is known about the epidemiology of these infections. The determination of modifiable risk factors to develop this type of bacteremia could help to control the infection and reduce health costs. METHODS: Cases-control study of NBS-UTI diagnosed at the University Hospital of Canary Islands between 2010-2014. The clinical-epidemiological variables and the intrinsic and extrinsic potential risk factors were collected. Logistic regression was used to study the variables associated with the development of NBS-UTI. RESULTS: A total of 178 episodes were studied, 85 cases and 93 controls. The average stay was significantly greater in the cases; from admission to bacteremia (p <0.003), as well as from discharge to discharge (p <0.005). Hepatic insufficiency (p <0.091), the use of mechanical ventilation (p <0.001), the central venous catheter (p <0.043) and surgery in the episode (p <0.001) behaved as risk factors for the acquisition of NBS-ITU. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive devices, such as central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, that had not previously been studied; as well as the surgery in the episode, which had not been studied either, suppose risk factors. In addition, NBS-ITU causes a significant increase in hospital stay. Therefore, it is necessary to know the risk factors for the appearance of these infections, and thus prevent their appearance and improve the safety of hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/etiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/etiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Hepática/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
15.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 52-66, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274344

RESUMO

With the aim towards establishing an animal model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 12 piglets aged 9 weeks (mean body weight 21 kg) were surgically provided with central venous catheters. Six piglets were nourished parenterally with the objective to reach a 14-d period of TPN; the other six piglets served as control and were fed normally. Only one animal from each group could be monitored over the whole period. Nine piglets were euthanised on d 13 and one on d 12. No animal showed fever or signs of septicaemia during the study. The levels of Ca, Mg, Na and P in the blood were within the normal range as were those for blood glucose and plasma creatinine. Symptoms of the TPN included: transient diarrhoea, occasional appearance of faecal blood and occasional absence of defecation. A reduced small intestine length and altered mucosal morphology and function were observed. One animal showed bile stasis at the end of the study. All TPN animals showed a remarkably high level of blood urea early in the morning. The intestinal symptoms observed may resemble the human situation during TPN. However, due to the fast growth rate, pigs aged 9 weeks have higher nutrient requirements per kg body weight. Consequently, the osmolality of the nutrient solution was necessarily high. Whether the significantly higher blood urea observed in the TPN group reflected a catabolic metabolism during the starving period at night-time could not be conclusively shown. Alternatively, it could reflect a slower growth rate and a resulting quantitative excess of amino acids (AA), or could have been the consequence of a suboptimal AA composition. A permanent infusion would be favourable in order not to overcharge the capacity for glucose uptake and amino acid metabolism during the infusion.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Nutrição Parenteral Total/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais , Nutrição Parenteral Total/efeitos adversos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 458-464, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placing central venous lines under ultrasonographic guidance reduces the complications of the procedure. AIM: To compare prevalences of complications of central venous line placements with or without ultrasonographic guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study that contemplated the comparison of two groups of patients subjected to a central venous line placement at a nephrology service for renal replacement therapy. In one group of 100 patients, the line was placed without ultrasonographic guidance between 2008 and 2012. Between 2015 and 2017 the line was placed in 138 patients using ultrasonographic guidance. The prevalences of complications with both types of procedures were recorded. RESULTS: The frequency of complications of procedures with and without ultrasonographic guidance was 0.7 and 18% respectively (prevalence ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval 0-0.3). Ninety five percent of recorded complications were arterial puncture, followed by hematomas in 10% and pneumothorax in 5%. The higher prevalence of complications was observed in emergency line placement without ultrasonographic guidance. There was a direct association between the number of line placement attempts in a single procedure and the prevalence of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic guidance is associated with a reduction in the prevalence of central venous line complications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/métodos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
17.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 774-779, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compliance of the care process involving insertion of central vascular catheter (CVC) in hemodialysis. METHOD: Cross-sectional quantitative approach developed at the hemodialysis service of a reference hospital in Sergipe, Brazil. Sample consisting of 1,342 actions evaluated, corresponding to 122 forms for monitoring and control of CVC insertion. Data collection was held from July to December 2016. RESULTS: The adherence rate to the use of the insertion form was 54.9%. The procedure evaluated achieved 93% overall compliance. Of the 11 specific actions observed, seven (64%) presented 100% compliance. The density of the overall incidence of primary bloodstream infections reduced from 10.6 to 3.1 infections per 1,000 patients/day. CONCLUSION: Although the observed actions reached specific desired conformities, the use of the checklist was lower than expected. Strategies for monitoring, coaching and educational and organizational actions can contribute to safe care.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/métodos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150465

RESUMO

We evaluated the safety and feasibility of ultrasound-guided peripherally-inserted central venous catheters (PICC) by a neurointensivist at the bedside compared to fluoroscopy-guided PICC and conventional central venous catheter (CCVC). This was a retrospective study of adult patients who underwent central line placement and were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2014 and March 2018. In this study, the primary endpoint was central line-induced complications. The secondary endpoint was initial success of central line placement. Placements of ultrasound-guided PICC and CCVC performed at the bedside if intra-hospital transport was inappropriate. Other patients underwent PICC placement at the interventional radiology suite under fluoroscopic guidance. A total of 191 patients underwent central line placement in the neurosurgery ICU during the study period. Requirement for central line infusion (56.0%) and difficult venous access (28.8%) were the most common reasons for central line placement. The basilic vein (39.3%) and the subclavian vein (35.1%) were the most common target veins among patients who underwent central line placement. The placements of ultrasound-guided PICC and CCVC at the bedside were more frequently performed in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001) and with hemodynamic instability (p <0.001) compared to the fluoroscopy-guided PICC placement. The initial success rate of central line placement was better in the fluoroscopy-guided PICC placement than in the placements of ultrasound-guided PICC and CCVC at the bedside (p = 0.004). However, all re-inserted central lines were successful. There was no significant difference in procedure time between the three groups. However, incidence of insertional injuries was higher in CCVC group compared to PICC groups (p = 0.038). Ultrasound-guided PICC placement by a neurointensivist may be safe and feasible compared to fluoroscopy-guided PICC placement by interventional radiologists and CCVC placement for neurocritically ill patients.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Trombose/terapia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Veias Jugulares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Radiologistas , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/efeitos adversos
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(3): 316-324, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombosis (VT) in children is often associated with a central venous catheter (CVC). We aimed to determine the incidence of VT associated with percutaneous non-tunnelled CVCs in a general paediatric population, and to identify risk factors for VT in this cohort. METHODS: Observational, prospective study enrolling consecutive patients at a tertiary multi-disciplinary paediatric hospital. A total of 211 percutaneous, non-tunnelled CVCs were analysed. Data regarding potential risk factors for CVC-related VT were collected. Compression ultrasonography with colour Doppler was used to diagnose VT. RESULTS: Overall, 30.3% of children developed CVC-related VT, with an incidence rate of 29.6 (confidence interval, 22.5-36.9) cases/1000 CVC days. Upper body CVC location, multiple lumen CVCs, and male gender were independent risk factors for VT in multivariate analysis. All upper body VTs were in the internal jugular vein (IJV). The occurrence of CVC-related VT did not affect length of paediatric ICU or hospital stay. In patients with VT, femoral CVCs, young age, paediatric ICU admission, and a ratio of CVC/vein diameter >0.33 were associated with VT being symptomatic, occlusive, or both. IJV VT was often asymptomatic and non-occlusive. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric non-tunnelled CVCs are frequently complicated by VT. Avoiding IJV CVCs and multiple lumen catheters could potentially reduce the overall risk of VT. However, IJV VT was more likely to be smaller and asymptomatic compared with femoral vein VT. More data are needed on the risk of complications from smaller, asymptomatic VT compared with the group of VT with symptoms or vein occlusion. Femoral vein CVCs and CVC/vein diameter >0.33 could be modifiable risk factors for VT with larger thrombotic mass. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12615000442505.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Veia Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(25): e16182, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232976

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In recent years, central venous catheterization (CVC) has become widely used for hemodialysis patients. Based on 3 cases, we discussed the detection and management of venous perforation at an early stage. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Patients 1 (male, 77 years), 2 (male, 82 years), and 3 (male, 30 years) were diagnosed with uremia and underwent hemodialysis. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography suggested pneumomediastinum in patient 1 and pneumothorax in patient 2 after a replacement of the temporary hemodialysis catheter. In patient 3, X-ray suggested that the tip of the catheter was approximately at the plane of the fifth thoracic vertebrate after the temporary catheter was placed. INTERVENTIONS: In patients 1 and 2, the catheters were maintained where they were for about 2 weeks until a false lumen formed outside the catheter. In patient 3, the catheter was withdrawn at once when vein perforation was observed. OUTCOME: In patients 1 and 2, the catheters were adjusted successfully under digital subtraction angiography (DSA) guidance 2 weeks later. In patient 3, hemothorax developed, and a total of approximately 1000 mL of bloody fluid was drained. LESSONS: When venous perforation occurs during CVC, it is safer and more reliable to adjust or withdraw the catheter under DSA guidance after a false lumen forms outside the catheter.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Veias Jugulares/lesões , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Diálise Renal/métodos
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