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3.
Herz ; 45(7): 703-714, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030560

RESUMO

The progress in cardiology during the last 50 years can best be studied by looking at the diagnostics and treatment of patients with aortic valve stenosis. Previously, the clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG) and chest X­ray were used before heart catheterization, which included a transseptal puncture to complete the indications for surgery in young patients. Nowadays, echocardiography, often combined with a dobutamine stress test, is the primary diagnostic tool to which computed tomography for quantification of valve calcification and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can be of additive value. The treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis is no longer only treated by aortic valve replacement but transluminal aortic valve implantation also represents a new therapeutic option. The change in the age groups of treated patients is also noteworthy. Surgery is recommended for patients under 75 years old but for older patients, especially those with a high risk, interventional catheter-assisted treatment is preferred.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Idoso , Algoritmos , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Humanos
4.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 1): 1853-1860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic lung disease (WHO group 3) is the second leading cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In turn, the development of PH influences the course of lung disease, worsening the clinical symptoms and prognosis. The aim: To analyse the difficulties in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review and Discussion: According to recent literature, PH in the course of lung diseases develops as a result of both "parenchymal" and vascular pathology in patients with a genetic predisposition. Prolonged infection (especially viral) may be an additional promoting factor. Elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is usually moderate and correlates with severity of lung disease. In a small minority, PAP may reach that seen in WHO group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal tools for the diagnosis of PH in chronic lung diseases. Unfortunately, current medications for treating PAH have not shown benefit in controlled trials of group 3 PH, hence their routine use is not recommended. Patients with severe group 3 PH should be considered for referral to expert centres or entry into clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Pneumopatias , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Prognóstico
5.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 1): 1867-1869, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension is defined as being a haemodynamic state, wherein the mean pulmonary artery pressure measured during right heart catheterization is equal or greater than 25 mmHg. As a result, right ventricular heart failure develops and clinical symptoms such as dyspnea, fatigue, weakness, angina and fainting occur. The aim: To highlight the role of imaging techniques in diagnostic process for pulmonary hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review and Disscusion: The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is multistage and often requires a number of studies. Currently, imaging techniques play a significant role in the diagnostic algorithm for pulmonary hypertension due to the fact that they are non-invasive and readily available, and many of their parameters are closely related to pulmonary hemodynamics. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension requires a multistep approach and a number of imaging studies. The suspicion of the disease is based on medical history, clinical symptoms and chest radiogram. Echocardiography plays a crucial role in pulmonary hypertension detection. A computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance are valuable methods in determining the cause of suspected or confirmed pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 1): 1874-1877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: A comprehensive assessment of right ventricular size and function, as well as evaluation of pulmonary artery pressures is an integral part of every echocardiographic examination. It is important to know the relevant guidelines but also the pitfalls of echocardiography. The aim: To determine the significance of echocardiography in the diagnostic process, prognosis and evaluation of treatment effectiveness in pulmonary hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review and Discussion: The gold standard for evaluation of size, ejection fraction, and stroke volume of the right ventricle is cardiac magnetic resonance. Whereas, the gold standard for the assessments of pulmonary artery pressures is right heart catheterization. However, echocardiography is the first diagnostic modality in the assessment of size and function of the right heart. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Echocardiographic evaluation of the right heart plays a fundamental role in the diagnostic process of pulmonary hypertension. Echocardiography is essential to predict the course of the disease and assess the treatment efficiency.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico
7.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3119-3123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO), the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) Score has been proposed as a method to estimate a patient-specific "PFO-attributable fraction"-the probability that a documented PFO is causally-related to the stroke, rather than an incidental finding. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between this RoPE-estimated PFO-attributable fraction and the effect of closure in 3 randomized trials. METHODS: We pooled data from the CLOSURE-I (Evaluation of the STARFlex Septal Closure System in Patients With a Stroke and/or Transient Ischemic Attack due to Presumed Paradoxical Embolism through a Patent Foramen Ovale), RESPECT (Randomized Evaluation of Recurrent Stroke Comparing PFO Closure to Established Current Standard of Care Treatment), and PC (Clinical Trial Comparing Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale [PFO] Using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder With Medical Treatment in Patients With Cryptogenic Embolism) trials. We examine the treatment effect of closure in high RoPE score (≥7) versus low RoPE score (<7) patients. We also estimated the relative risk reduction associated with PFO closure across each level of the RoPE score using Cox proportional hazard analysis. We estimated a patient-specific attributable fraction using a PC trial-compatible (9-point) RoPE equation (omitting the neuroradiology variable), as well as a 2-trial analysis using the original (10-point) RoPE equation. We examined the Pearson correlation between the estimated attributable fraction and the relative risk reduction across RoPE strata. RESULTS: In the low RoPE score group (<7, n=912), the rate of recurrent strokes per 100 person-years was 1.37 in the device arm versus 1.68 in the medical arm (hazard ratio, 0.82 [0.42-1.59] P=0.56) compared with 0.30 versus 1.03 (hazard ratio, 0.31 [0.11-0.85] P=0.02) in the high RoPE score group (≥7, n=1221); treatment-by-RoPE score group interaction, P=0.12. The RoPE score estimated attributable fraction anticipated the relative risk reduction across all levels of the RoPE score, in both the 3-trial (r=0.95, P<0.001) and 2-trial (r=0.92, P<0.001) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The RoPE score estimated attributable fraction is highly correlated to the relative risk reduction of device versus medical therapy. This observation suggests the RoPE score identifies patients with cryptogenic stroke who are likely to have a PFO that is pathogenic rather than incidental.


Assuntos
Embolia Paradoxal/etiologia , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Forame Oval Patente/cirurgia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e752, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126773

RESUMO

Introducción: La colocación de stents mediante cateterismo cardiaco en recién nacidos con ciertas cardiopatías congénitas complejas constituye un puente hacia la cirugía correctiva, paliativa o trasplante cardiaco. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado del implante percutáneo de stents en pacientes recién nacidos con cardiopatías congénitas complejas. Presentación de los casos: Se colocó stents en cinco pacientes; a uno de ellos en la aorta y a los cuatros restantes en el ductus arterioso. Un primer paciente con hipoplasia de cavidades izquierdas en el que predominaba el bajo gasto se le colocó stent en el ductus e inmediatamente se le condujo al salón de operaciones para cerclaje pulmonar. Otro paciente con la misma enfermedad, pero en el que predominaba el hiperflujo pulmonar, se intervino de forma inversa, medió 47 días entre uno y otro proceder. A un tercer paciente, portador de coartación aórtica, se le colocó stent en la aorta y se le hizo cerclaje pulmonar 14 días después del proceder hemodinámico. Las condiciones clínicas del cuarto paciente, con síndrome de hipoplasia de cavidades izquierdas solo permitió colocar stent en el ductus. Esta paciente fallece en evento no relacionado con el cateterismo cardiaco. El último paciente intervenido, portador de una atresia pulmonar, tolera la colocación del stent en el ductus y la evolución clínica posterior demostró que no requería realizar cerclaje pulmonar. Conclusiones: La colocación de stent en el grupo de pacientes analizado es factible y el momento de su implante según el evento hemodinámico apremiante pudiera ser una forma alternativa del cateterismo cardiaco(AU)


Introduction: The paliative placing of stents by cardiac catetherism in new borns with specific congenital hearts diseases is a bridge through a new kind of corrective, paliative surgery or heart transplant. Objective: To evaluate the result of the percutaneous implant of stents in newborn patients with complex congenital heart diseases. Cases presentation: There were placed stents in 5 patients, to one of them in the aorta and to the other four in the ductus arteriosus. The first patient with hypoplasia of the left cavities in which low output predominated had an stent placing in the ductus and he was immediately taken to OR to perform a pulmonary cerclage. Another patients with the same disease but with predominance of pulmonary hyperflow was intervened in the inverse way; there were 47 days between both procedures. A third patient, carrier of aortic coarctation, had an stent placing in the aorta and he also had pulmonary cerclage 14 days after the hemodynamic procedure. The clinical conditions of the fourth patient, who had syndrome of left cavities´ hypoplasia, just allowed to place the stent in the ductus. This patients died in a procedure not related to heart catetherism. The last intervened patient, who was a carrier of pulmonary atresia, tolerated the stent placing in the ductus and the subsequent clinical evolution showed that it was not needed pulmonary cerclage. Conclusions: The stent placing in the analized group of patients is suitable and the moment for its implantation according to the hemodynamic event can be an alternative form of heart catetherism(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Stents/normas , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia
10.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1084-1087, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921661

RESUMO

Diazoxide, a drug used to treat hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH), is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), as reported by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, no report has detailed the association between diazoxide dose and PH development. We report a case of an infant with HH, subsequently complicated by diazoxide-induced PH. When diazoxide was introduced, PH did not appear initially, but it developed during increased dosing. We monitored PH via regular echocardiography examinations. PH gradually improved with tapering of the diazoxide dose and disappeared after drug discontinuation. Our case suggests a diazoxide dose threshold might induce PH. Therefore, close echocardiography examinations should accompany diazoxide treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/tratamento farmacológico , Diazóxido/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/complicações , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/etiologia , Desprescrições , Diazóxido/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has emerged as an important risk factor for higher short-term mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related anomalies; yet little is known about how SES affects these outcomes over the long-term. METHODS: We linked data from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial to US Census Bureau data to analyze the relationship of neighborhood SES tertiles with mortality and transplantation, neurodevelopment, quality of life, and functional status at 5 and 6 years post-Norwood procedure (N = 525). Cox proportional hazards regression and linear regression were used to assess the association of SES with mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Patients in the lowest SES tertile were more likely to be racial minorities, older at stage 2 and Fontan procedures, and to have more complications and fewer cardiac catheterizations over follow-up (all P < .05) compared with patients in higher SES tertiles. Unadjusted mortality was highest for patients in the lowest SES tertile and lowest in the highest tertile (41% vs 29%, respectively; log-rank P = .027). Adjustment for patient birth and Norwood factors attenuated these differences slightly (P = .055). Patients in the lowest SES tertile reported lower functional status and lower fine motor, problem-solving, adaptive behavior, and communication skills at 6 years (all P < .05). These differences persisted after adjustment for baseline and post-Norwood factors. Quality of life did not differ by SES. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, those with low SES have worse neurodevelopmental and functional status outcomes at 6 years. These differences were not explained by other patient or clinical characteristics.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/métodos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Classe Social , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Técnica de Fontan/mortalidade , Técnica de Fontan/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/complicações , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/etnologia , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ocupações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Resultado do Tratamento , Coração Univentricular/mortalidade , Coração Univentricular/cirurgia
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 133-139, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753269

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of interventional treatment of atrial septal defect (ASD) in low weight infants under 2-year-old. Seven hundred and ninety-three secundum ASD patients were divided into 2 groups: 665 were above 2-year-old and 128 were under 2-year-old. The basic conditions before the operation, postoperative complications within 24 hours, and adverse outcomes during a three-year follow-up were compared between the 2 groups using multivariate analysis. There were significant differences in age, weight, and the diameter of the ASD between the 2 groups (p <0.001). The immediate success rate of the procedure was 96.7%. There were no significant differences in the success rate of the procedure, the incidence of residual shunt, arrhythmia, procedure-related arrhythmia, and occluder shedding between 2 groups (p >0.05). Similarly, we found no association between age ≤2-year-old and any adverse outcomes postprocedure within 24 hours, including procedure failure (OR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.04 to 2.93), residual shunt (OR = 1.07; 95%CI: 0.54 to 2.14), arrhythmia (OR = 0.68; 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.43), or procedure-related arrhythmia (OR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.04 to 2.87). In the follow-up data, we found no association between age ≤2-year-old and arrhythmia (HR = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.50 to 1.80) and procedure-related arrhythmia (HR = 0.96;95%CI:0.25 to 3.64). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated no significant difference in the occurrence of arrhythmia between the 2 groups (log-rank test: p = 0.776). In conclusion, percutaneous ASD closure in young and low weight infants has a high success and low complication rate, along with reliable effects.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(16): 1951-1957, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819485

RESUMO

As the world slowly starts to recover from the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic, health care systems are now thinking about resuming elective cardiovascular procedures, including procedures in cardiac catheterization laboratories. Rebooting catheterization laboratories will be an arduous process, in part because of limited health care resources, new processes, and fears stemming from the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. The authors propose a detailed phased-in approach that considers clinical, patient-centered, and operational strategies to safely and effectively reboot catheterization laboratory programs during these unprecedented times. This model balances the delivery of essential cardiovascular care with reduced exposure and preservation of resources. The guiding principles detailed in this review can be used by catheterization laboratory programs when restarting elective interventional procedures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cateterismo Cardíaco/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
19.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(8): 983-992, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis is among the most common valvular defects in developed countries. In the assessment of eligibility for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) is performed to determine the precise dimensions of the aortic valve, the topography of the aortic ostium and the ability to use various arterial access routes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships between the radiation dose and the repeatability of measurements of dimensions of the aortic valve in MDCT performed before TAVI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved a group of 60 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT before TAVI. The radiation dose was expressed as computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). The coefficient of variation (CV) of each measurement was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the measurements/mean measurement × 100%, based on the measurements performed independently by 2 radiologists. RESULTS: A statistically significant negative linear correlation was observed between the DLP value of the MDCT before TAVI, and the CV of the measurement of the minimum dimension of the aortic annulus (r = -0.25; p < 0.05). Lower DLP doses of the MDCT before TAVI constitute an independent factor associated with a higher CV for the measurement of the minimum dimension of the aortic annulus. CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that tests using lower radiation doses should be followed by an assessment of the degree of repeatability of the aortic valve sizing.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Doses de Radiação
20.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 976-980, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality following orthotopic liver transplant, yet there is no standardized protocol for pre-liver-transplant coronary artery disease assessment. The main objective of this study was to determine the agreement between 2 methods of cardiac risk assessment: dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE) and coronary calcium score (CCS) and to determine which test was best able to predict coronary calcification in low-risk patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 436 patients who received cardiac clearance for a liver transplant. A total of 152 patients' medical records were included based on the inclusion of patients who had received both DSE and CCS. A kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the agreement between the DSE and CCS results. In addition, the positive predictive values (PPVs) of both the CCS and DSE along with cardiac catheterization indicating abdominal occlusion were analyzed to compare the accuracy of the 2 tests. RESULTS: It was determined that there was a 12% agreement between DSE results and CCS. It was found that the DSE had a PPV of 56% and the CCS had a PPV of 80%. CONCLUSION: From this data, it was concluded that there was no agreement between the results of the CCS and the DSE. While neither the CCS nor the DSE presents an optimal method of risk assessment, the CCS had a much higher PPV and was therefore determined to be the more accurate test.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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