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1.
West Afr J Med ; 38(4): 374-379, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903091

RESUMO

Background: Localization of epidural space has no clear-cut end point like during subarachnoid block, making it an enigma to the anaesthetist. Confirmation of correct placement of the catheter is desirable in order to prevent failure, high or total spinal when large amount of local anaesthetic agent is inadvertently injected in the intrathecal space, subdural block and lastly local anaesthesia systemic toxicity. This study evaluated the use of meniscus sign to confirm correct placement of epidural catheter. Materials and method: A total of 80 patient's scheduled for epidural anaesthesia were recruited into this prospective observational study. The epidural space was located using the loss of resistance to air (LORA) technique. An epidural catheter was inserted gradually through the Tuohy needle, with its removal, 4cm of catheter left in the space and a test dose of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline was instilled. The presence of meniscus sign on the catheter was used to confirm correct placement. The number of correctly placed epidural catheters, intravascular or peri-dura placements were all noted. Result: Of the 80 patients, meniscus sign confirmed correct epidural catheter placement in 74 of them"(92.5% success)". The study showed 100% success for both sensitivity and specificity when the meniscus sign was used for locating epidural placement. Conclusion: The meniscus sign is a reliable indicator of correct epidural catheter placement, with high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural , Menisco , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo , Cateteres/efeitos adversos , Espaço Epidural , Humanos
2.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 48(2): 169-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886247

RESUMO

Although buttonhole cannulation has some benefits compared to rope-ladder cannulation, the increase of infection rates represents a major obstacle to patient safety, and its use is questionable in routine clinic practice. On the other hand, rope-ladder cannulation is difficult to implement even with a prescribed protocol, leading the cannulator in daily practice to a possible use of the area technique. This article provides a reflection on the impact of cannulation technique on the safety of patients on regular hemodialysis treatment and describes a new approach for arteriovenous fistula cannulation, the Multiple Single Cannulation Technique (MuST). The MuST has not been described before, but it has been used with promising results. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefits of this cannulation technique.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210667, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662134

RESUMO

Importance: Before the widespread implementation of robotic systems to provide patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic occurs, it is important to understand the acceptability of these systems among patients and the economic consequences associated with the adoption of robotics in health care settings. Objective: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of using a mobile robotic system to facilitate health care tasks. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 2 components: a national survey to examine the acceptability of using robotic systems to perform health care tasks in a hospital setting and a single-site cohort study of patient experiences and satisfaction with the use of a mobile robotic system to facilitate triage and telehealth tasks in the emergency department (ED). The national survey comprised individuals living in the US who participated in a sampling-based survey via an online analytic platform. Participants completed the national survey between August 18 and August 21, 2020. The single-site cohort study included patients living in the US who presented to the ED of a large urban academic hospital providing quaternary care in Boston, Massachusetts between April and August 2020. All data were analyzed from August to October 2020. Exposures: Participants in the national survey completed an online survey to measure the acceptability of using a mobile robotic system to perform health care tasks (facilitating telehealth interviews, acquiring vital signs, obtaining nasal or oral swabs, placing an intravenous catheter, performing phlebotomy, and turning a patient in bed) in a hospital setting in the contexts of general interaction and interaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients in the cohort study were exposed to a mobile robotic system, which was controlled by an ED clinician and used to facilitate a triage interview. After exposure, patients completed an assessment to measure their satisfaction with the robotic system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Acceptability of the use of a mobile robotic system to facilitate health care tasks in a hospital setting (national survey) and feasibility and patient satisfaction regarding the use of a mobile robotic system in the ED (cohort study). Results: For the national survey, 1154 participants completed all acceptability questions, representing a participation rate of 35%. After sample matching, a nationally representative sample of 1000 participants (mean [SD] age, 48.7 [17.0] years; 535 women [53.5%]) was included in the analysis. With regard to the usefulness of a robotic system to perform specific health care tasks, the response of "somewhat useful" was selected by 373 participants (37.3%) for facilitating telehealth interviews, 350 participants (35.0%) for acquiring vital signs, 307 participants (30.7%) for obtaining nasal or oral swabs, 228 participants (22.8%) for placing an intravenous catheter, 249 participants (24.9%) for performing phlebotomy, and 371 participants (37.1%) for turning a patient in bed. The response of "extremely useful" was selected by 287 participants (28.7%) for facilitating telehealth interviews, 413 participants (41.3%) for acquiring vital signs, 192 participants (19.2%) for obtaining nasal or oral swabs, 159 participants (15.9%) for placing an intravenous catheter, 167 participants (16.7%) for performing phlebotomy, and 371 participants (37.1%) for turning a patient in bed. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the median number of individuals who perceived the application of robotic systems to be acceptable for completing telehealth interviews, obtaining nasal and oral swabs, placing an intravenous catheter, and performing phlebotomy increased. For the ED cohort study, 51 individuals were invited to participate, and 41 participants (80.4%) enrolled. One participant was unable to complete the study procedures because of a signaling malfunction in the robotic system. Forty patients (mean [SD] age, 45.8 [2.7] years; 29 women [72.5%]) completed the mobile robotic system-facilitated triage interview, and 37 patients (92.5%) reported that the interaction was satisfactory. A total of 33 participants (82.5%) reported that their experience of receiving an interview facilitated by a mobile robotic system was as satisfactory as receiving an in-person interview from a clinician. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a mobile robotic system was perceived to be acceptable for use in a broad set of health care tasks among survey respondents across the US. The use of a mobile robotic system enabled the facilitation of contactless triage interviews of patients in the ED and was considered acceptable among participants. Most patients in the ED rated the quality of mobile robotic system-facilitated interaction to be equivalent to in-person interaction with a clinician.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente , Robótica/métodos , Triagem , Adulto , Idoso , Boston , Cateterismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Flebotomia , Exame Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 169, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the continuous improvement of surgical instruments in vitrectomy, the use of a trocar and cannula not only optimizes the incision process but also facilitates insertion and withdrawal of instruments during the procedure. Nevertheless, incision-related complications have also been reported in the literature. However, cannula fractures during 25G+ minimally invasive vitrectomy have rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old man underwent 25G+ pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. At the beginning of the operation, we used a trocar with a cannula to perform the sclerotomy. After the trocar was pulled out, the cannula was not seen on the surface of the sclera. Thus the inside and outside of the eye were carefully searched. The broken cannula tip was found in the ciliary body corresponding to the superonasal sclerotomy site and was subsequently removed. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness regarding the risk of intraoperative fractures of 25G+ minimally invasive ocular surgical instruments is imperative. Whenever a broken or missing cannula is encountered, the residual part should be immediately extracted to avoid revision surgeries and postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Cânula/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo/instrumentação , Falha de Equipamento , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Esclerostomia , Vitrectomia , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Corpos Estranhos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Esclera
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e23855, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725926

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The application of transcatheter angiographic embolization (TAE) is controversial in the treatment of ulcer bleeding. This study aims to determine rebleeding risk factors and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic TAE (p-TAE) following endoscopic hemostasis in rebleeding prevention of Forrest lla ulcers.The medical records of Forrest lla ulcer patients who underwent endoscopic hemostasis (E group) and endoscopic hemostasis plus p-TAE (E + p-TAE group) in West China Hospital from May 2009 to May 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline characteristics, clinical efficacy, and rebleeding risk factors were analyzed.As a result, a total of 102 patients were included, with 75 and 27 patients in E and E + p-TAE group, respectively. Most of the baseline data in E and E + p-TAE group were similar except for the proportion of protruded non-bleeding visible vessel (NBVV) (E group vs E + p-TAE group, 50.7% vs 74.1%, P = .035). The rebleeding rate of E + p-TAE group (3.7%) was significantly lower than E group (24.0%) (P = .02). The protruded NBVV (OR: 6.896, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.532-30.642, P = .01) and employment of p-TAE (OR: 0.038, 95% CI: 0.003-0.448, P = .009) were identified as independent risk factors for Forrest IIa ulcer rebleeding. Additionally, log-rank test indicated the rebleeding occurrence was greatly reduced by p-TAE in patients with protruded NBVVs (P = .006).In conclusion, the protruded NBVV and employment of p-TAE were the independent risk factors tightly associated with rebleeding of Forrest IIa ulcer. P-TAE following endoscopic hemostasis could effectively prevent Forrest IIa ulcer from rebleeding.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemostase Endoscópica/métodos , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia/métodos , Cateterismo/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24735, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, there was no consensus regarding balloon dilation time in endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD). Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the stone removal and overall complication rates of dilation of short and long duration with EPBD. METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Cochrane Library), Web of Science, EMBASE Databases, and PubMed were searched from their inception to December 1, 2019 for all articles regarding balloon dilation time in EPBD for removal of bile duct stones. The data were extracted and the methodology quality was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: Four studies involving a total of 1553 patients were included, 918 in the short dilation group and 635 in the long dilation group. The results of meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the 2 different dilation groups in the complete stone removal in randomized controlled trails (RCTs) group (P = .10) and non-RCTs group (P = 0.45), mechanical lithotripsy requirement (RCTs: P = .92; non-RCTs: P = .47), pancreatitis (RCTs: P = .48; non-RCTs: P = .45), bleeding (RCTs: P = .95; non-RCTs: P = .60), infection of biliary (RCTs: P = .58; non-RCTs: P = .29), perforation (RCTs: P = .32; non-RCTs: P = .37). CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that there no significant difference in the efficacy and safety of dilation of short and long duration for removal of bile duct stones with EPBD.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/métodos , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Dilatação/métodos , Litotripsia/métodos , Duração da Cirurgia , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24909, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection is a widely used treatment option for dysphagia associated with cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle achalasia, but uniform standards and protocols for administration techniques and injection sites are still lacking. This case study suggests that a unique administration technique involving a combination of ultrasound, electromyography, and balloon guidance for injecting the CP muscle can reduce inadvertent migration of BTX to non-injected tissues and increase the effectiveness and safety of BTX treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe the case of a 74-year-old man who could not swallow food or saliva for 8 months. DIAGNOSIS: The patient showed signs of true bulbar paralysis, including dizziness, hoarseness, and dysphagia. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing showed massive mucilage secretion and residual materials in the postcricoid region and aspiration when swallowing 1 ml of yogurt. The video fluoroscopic swallowing study showed profoundly limited epiglottic folding and CP muscle non-relaxation, despite several unsuccessful swallow attempts. INTERVENTIONS: To manage insufficient relaxation opening of the CP muscle, BTX injection was performed using ultrasound, electromyography, and balloon catheter guidance. The narrow CP muscle situated above the balloon was identified as the target of injection by ultrasound. OUTCOMES: The patient was able to eat a soft diet. The follow-up fibrotic endoscopic swallowing study demonstrated a reduction in the amount of pharyngeal residue. The video fluoroscopic swallowing study showed that CP muscle relaxation was significantly enhanced and no penetration was shown. CONCLUSION: The unique administration technique with triple guidance holds several advantages, suggesting that it may be a promising treatment for CP muscle achalasia.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Cateterismo/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Acalasia Esofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Deglutição , Acalasia Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Esfíncter Esofágico Superior/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Blood Press Monit ; 26(3): 230-233, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734122

RESUMO

Rat ventral caudal artery (VCA, tail artery) cannulation for blood pressure monitoring and blood sampling is essential for maintaining consistent procedures in rat models. Double or triple insults are sometimes necessary, but repeated VCA cannulations have not been compared with repeated femoral artery cannulations. In addition, the collateral system for resistance to ischemia in the rat tail is unclear. Our present study revealed that repeated VCA cannulations on different days was a better technique than repeated femoral artery cannulations in terms of surgical time, postsurgical weight loss and ischemic complications. Furthermore, the lateral caudal arteries and the segmental anastomosing vessels were important for resistance to ischemic complications after VCA occlusion.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral , Cauda , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Cateterismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Ratos
11.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 99: 103387, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781413

RESUMO

Pararectal abscesses are life-threatening conditions that can rupture and cause septic peritonitis. The objective of this case report is to describe aggressive treatment of a pararectal abscess to allow a quick return to competitions. A 14-year-old pony was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) of the University of Perugia because of a suspected intra-abdominal mass. Two weeks earlier, it exhibited clinical signs compatible with colic which was treated medically; however, because of the persistence of a firm mass on the right side of the abdomen noted on rectal palpation, the pony was admitted to the VTH. Based on rectal palpation, rectal ultrasound, neutrophilic leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase, the diagnosis of a pararectal abscess was made. The horse was treated with ceftiofur IM and MgSO4/paraffin oil via a nasogastric tube. Standing surgical drainage of the abscess with placement of an indwelling drain was performed, followed by daily lavages with rifampicin and acetylcysteine along with Ringer lactate solution with subsequent passive drainage. A bacterial culture revealed the presence of Streptococcus zooepidemicus that was treated with oral rifampicin. Standing laparoscopy revealed adhesions to the rectum. An epidural catheter was placed for repeated delivery of morphine sulfate. The pony was monitored daily by rectal examination, while complete blood count, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, and abdominal ultrasound (to assess the size of the abscess) were repeated weekly. The pony progressively improved and was discharged one month later, shortly returning to competitions. This report emphasizes the importance of combining medical and surgical treatments for pararectal abscesses.


Assuntos
Abscesso , Cólica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/veterinária , Animais , Cateterismo/veterinária , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino
12.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(2): 101-112, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648328

RESUMO

Deep vein catheterization is an important method to prevent and treat burn shock in severe burn patients, monitor hemodynamic changes and provide venous nutritional support. Although deep vein catheterization has been applied widely, there is no standard operation and management process. In order to guide the operation and management of deep vein catheterization in severe burn patients in a more scientific and standard manner, the consensus writing group organized domestic experts in burn field, most of whom are members of the 10th Committee of Chinese Burn Association to discuss and reach a consensus mainly in selection of deep vein catheter and the catheterization site, the method of catheterization operation, catheter maintenance, and prevention and treatment of catheter-related complications. This consensus aims to provide practical basis and guidance for the operation and management of deep vein catheterization in severe burn patients.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Choque , Queimaduras/terapia , Cateterismo , Consenso , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
13.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(4): 571-577, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ureteral stent insertion and subsequent removal remains one of the most common procedures performed in endourology. We aimed to evaluate a novel, one-step method, permitting simultaneous stent removal and guidewire passage using a self-constructed suture snare via standard cystoscopy. This method should be used prior to ureteroscopy, in cases of minimal stent encrustation and peri-ureteral mucosal oedema, where identification and subsequent cannulation of the ureteral orifice may be a challenge. METHODS: A self-constructed suture snare is constructed using an open-ended ureteral catheter to facilitate this novel 'Switch' technique. Operative duration, cost feasibility and potential complications with this novel method were assessed in patients with an indwelling stent duration above 100 days. RESULTS: Age inclusion in this study ranged from 21 to 35 years, with kidney, ureter and bladder scores below 6, in the five patients assessed. Previous ureteral stent indwelling time ranged from 106 to 315 days. Reasons for (pre-stented) ureteroscopy were mostly stone related. The overall recorded procedure time for the Switch technique was successfully performed in less than 96 s (range 68-95 s) in all cases within this series. No procedure-related complications were reported. CONCLUSION: Utilizing the suture snare, the novel Switch technique was successfully performed in all cases assessed. This method is both time and cost feasible and could be easily utilized in resource-limited areas, regional centres or in cases where a stent grasper is not available, may have malfunctioned or cannot adequately approximate due to distal ureteral stent encrustation.


Assuntos
Cateterismo , Remoção de Dispositivo , Stents , Ureter/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Ureteroscopia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1120): 20200879, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529044

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic complications are uncommon after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. The presenting features include bleeding through or around the drainage catheter, hematemesis or melena. Diagnosis requires cholangiography, CT angiography or conventional angiography. Minor venous hemorrhage is managed by catheter repositioning, clamping or upgrading to a larger bore catheter. Major vascular injuries require percutaneous or endovascular procedures like embolization or stenting. A complete knowledge of these complications will direct the interventional radiologist to take adequate precautions to reduce their incidence and necessary steps in their management. This review presents and discusses various hemorrhagic complications occurring after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage along with their treatment options and suggests a detailed algorithm.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Colestase/terapia , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/terapia , Radiologia Intervencionista/educação , Angiografia , Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateterismo/métodos , Colangiografia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Drenagem/instrumentação , Drenagem/métodos , Fluoroscopia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Punções , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Ultrassonografia
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we introduce a multi-modal sensing and feedback framework aimed at assisting clinicians during endovascular surgeries and catheterization procedures. This framework utilizes state-of-the-art imaging and sensing sub-systems to produce a 3D visualization of an endovascular catheter and surrounding vasculature without the need for intra-operative X-rays. METHODS: The catheterization experiments within this study are conducted inside a porcine limb undergoing motions. A hybrid position-force controller of a robotically-actuated ultrasound (US) transducer for uneven porcine tissue surfaces is introduced. The tissue, vasculature, and catheter are visualized by integrated real-time US images, 3D surface imaging, and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. RESULTS: During externally-induced limb motions, the vasculature and catheter can be reliably reconstructed at mean accuracies of 1.9±0.3 mm and 0.82±0.21 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The conventional use of intra-operative X-ray imaging to visualize instruments and vasculature in the human body can be reduced by employing improved diagnostic technologies that do not operate via ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast agents. SIGNIFICANCE: The presented multi-modal framework enables the radiation-free and accurate reconstruction of significant tissues and instruments involved in catheterization procedures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo , Cateteres , Animais , Retroalimentação , Movimento (Física) , Suínos
19.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(2): 186-191, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405984

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: As a result of vehicular trauma, a 3-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat sustained luxation of the sacrocaudal joint and a urethral tear. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Retrograde contrast urethrocystography revealed a urethral tear at the level of the ischiatic tuberosity. Conservative treatment for 7 days with a urethral catheter was unsuccessful. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: An approach for a perineal urethrostomy was performed and revealed a large urethral tear (4 mm in length in a craniocaudal orientation and encompassing approx 50% of the urethral circumference) proximal to the bulbourethral glands. Urethroplasty was performed with a graft of a rectangular section of single-layer porcine small intestinal submucosa. Perineal urethrostomy was then completed routinely, and a urethral catheter was left in place for 5 days. Two days after removal of the urethral catheter, stranguria was noted. Retrograde contrast urethrocystography revealed a urethral stricture. Balloon dilation of the urethral stricture was performed, and the cat's stranguria improved. Ten weeks following balloon dilation, the cat developed hematuria, and a urinary tract infection and urethral stricture were diagnosed. Balloon dilation was repeated with instillation of triamcinolone solution at the stricture site. Eighteen months later (approx 21 months after the initial surgery), the cat was urinating normally. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The outcome for the cat of this report indicated that porcine small intestinal submucosa may be used to successfully augment urethroplasty for treatment of traumatic urethral tears in cats. Urethral balloon dilation with triamcinolone instillation may be used to treat postoperative urethral strictures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças dos Suínos , Estreitamento Uretral , Animais , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Cateterismo/veterinária , Gatos , Dilatação/veterinária , Masculino , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretra/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/veterinária
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