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3.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(3): 265-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548435

RESUMO

The legal and ethical asymmetry between honoring positive claims of conscience versus negative claims of conscience was recently analyzed by several articles in this journal. The first author of this article (ALB) identified unique but defeasible reasons against honoring positive claims of conscience, such as the greater threat they post to institutional values and institutional resources than negative claims of conscience. However, ALB wrote, when these reasons can be overcome, positive claims of conscience should enjoy the same ethical and legal respect as negative claims of conscience. This article argues that the prescription of birth control by non-Roman Catholic physicians in Roman Catholic institutions is an example of a positive claim of conscience that can overcome concerns of institutional values and resources, and therefore ought to receive the same ethical respect and legal protection as negative claims of conscience. In making this argument, this article also responds to several of the thoughtful comments raised by Alberto Giubilini and Dominic Wilkinson.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Médicos , Consciência , Anticoncepção , Humanos , Prescrições
5.
Hum Genet ; 140(10): 1487-1498, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424406

RESUMO

Migration and admixture history of populations have always been curious and an interesting theme. The West Coast of India harbours a rich diversity, bestowing various ethno-linguistic groups, with many of them having well-documented history of migrations. The Roman Catholic is one such distinct group, whose origin was much debated. While some historians and anthropologists relating them to ancient group of Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, others relating them for being members of the Jews Lost Tribes in the first Century migration to India. Historical records suggests that this community was later forcibly converted to Christianity by the Portuguese in Goa during the Sixteenth Century. Till date, no genetic study was done on this group to infer their origin and genetic affinity. Hence, we analysed 110 Roman Catholics from three different locations of West Coast of India including Goa, Kumta and Mangalore using both uniparental and autosomal markers to understand their genetic history. We found that the Roman Catholics have close affinity with the Indo-European linguistic groups, particularly Brahmins. Additionally, we detected genetic signal of Jews in the linkage disequilibrium-based admixture analysis, which was absent in other Indo-European populations, who are inhabited in the same geographical regions. Haplotype-based analysis suggests that the Roman Catholics consist of South Asian-specific ancestry and showed high drift. Ancestry-specific historical population size estimation points to a possible bottleneck around the time of Goan inquisition (fifteenth century). Analysis of the Roman Catholics data along with ancient DNA data of Neolithic and bronze age revealed that the Roman Catholics fits well in a basic model of ancient ancestral composition, typical of most of the Indo-European caste groups of India. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis suggests that most of the Roman Catholics have aboriginal Indian maternal genetic ancestry; while the Y chromosomal DNA analysis indicates high frequency of R1a lineage, which is predominant in groups with higher ancestral North Indian (ANI) component. Therefore, we conclude that the Roman Catholics of Goa, Kumta and Mangalore regions are the remnants of very early lineages of Brahmin community of India, having Indo-Europeans genetic affinity along with cryptic Jewish admixture, which needs to be explored further.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Índia , Judeus/genética , Filogenia
6.
J Relig Health ; 60(6): 3807-3870, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396482

RESUMO

This study offers an exploratory review of the experience of stress and burnout syndrome among Catholic priests. Following Arksey and O'Malley's (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8(1):19-32, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616 )  protocol, a scoping study was conducted. Given the scarcity of studies found on the subject, a broad selection criterion  was used, which included quantitative, qualitative and mixed studies, literature reviews and comparative studies with other professions. The results reveal various risk factors: work overload among younger generations of priests, a sociocultural context that distrusts the clergy, neurotic, introverted, perfectionist and narcissistic personality styles, avoidant and complacent coping styles, living alone, not having sufficient support (especially from the Church authorities), excessive demands and lack of boundaries related to the priestly role and submissive obedience styles, among others. However, the studies reviewed also identified important protection factors: promoting optimism, an approach-based coping style and a collaborative way of resolving conflicts, frequent physical exercise, eating a balanced diet, finding time to rest, strengthening personal identity, social support (from parishioners, collaborators, colleagues, superiors) and leading an active spiritual life. Stress and burnout are associated with certain pathologies linked to smoking, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, anxiety and depression. Strengthening protective factors and minimizing the impact of risk factors would do much to improve the clergy's occupational health.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Clero , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Catolicismo , Humanos
7.
J Relig Health ; 60(5): 3217-3229, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263390

RESUMO

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple aspects of physical and social health, including spiritual and religious dimensions, has been discussed not only by numerous theologians, scientists, and politicians, but also by millions of believers of all faiths worldwide. The pandemic seems to have exerted a significant impact on religious practices. Massive gatherings of devoted and faithful people have been strongly discouraged and even openly banned. Prominent religious festivals and pilgrimages that have been conflated by the media with other "mega-spreader events" are incessantly canceled to mitigate the pandemic and alleviate the burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system. The impact of the pandemic on Catholic or Muslim religious tourism has been extensively described in peer-reviewed and gray literature. However, observant members of the Orthodox Christianity faith have also experienced the constrictive prohibitions for gathering at and worshiping in shrines, churches, and monasteries. Among the manifestations of devotion that the pandemic has interfered with are the attendance to public worship spaces for the celebration of rites and ceremonies, like the celebration of Orthodox Easter. Expressions of reverent devotion including the kissing of crosses and icons as well as the sacrament of Holy Communion may have also been considered a motive of concern as these holy objects and the spoon used might act as fomites in the dissemination of the virus. Visitation of holy places has been also hampered by the pandemic. The most important centers of pilgrimage for Orthodox Christianity are Mount Athos and Jerusalem, as well as the Shrine of Panagia Evangelistria in the Island of Tinos, Greece. Authorities have halted almost completely the arrival of visitors to these sites. This paper aims at elaborating on the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on social manifestations of religiosity and therefore taking a toll on the spiritual health of believers who have deeply rooted religious convictions and are strongly attached to Church tradition. This analysis closes with the provision of specific suggestions for the care, support, and healing of the impacted or splintered spiritual health of the believers who cannot participate in expressions of devotion, such as pilgrimages and religious tourism because of personal and public health concern, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Catolicismo , Comportamento Ritualístico , Cristianismo , Humanos , Islamismo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Relig Health ; 60(5): 3245-3264, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328617

RESUMO

This paper investigates Catholic religious practices and Filipino values in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to show that religious practices conducted with proper social distancing help in the development of a renewed understanding of Filipino values without contributing to the spread of the virus. This qualitative study makes use of expository writing and content analysis. First, religious practices before the pandemic marked by maximum social interaction are presented. Then, the paper shows religious practices during the pandemic marked by social distancing. Thirdly, the paper looks into how Filipino values are recontextualized in relation to religious practices despite the need for social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, the researchers claim that those who participate in religious practices with social distancing do not contribute to the transmission of the virus while still developing a renewed understanding of Filipino values.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Catolicismo , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Child Sex Abus ; 30(7): 869-889, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323665

RESUMO

Amid considerable public scrutiny, Roman Catholic institutions in the United States have been called upon to address underlying organizational conditions that may facilitate child sex abuse and establish effective policies for early intervention and prevention. The development of child protection policies has largely been left to the discretion of local dioceses with little in the way of central oversight. This study examined the 32 U.S. archdioceses' written policies on child protection and maintaining a safe environment. We found 14 distinct policies spread across the archdioceses which fit into four general categories or domains: (1) Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse; (2) Detection and Reporting of Abuse; (3) Response to Victims; and (4) Investigational Process and Response to Allegations of Abuse. Using a tool developed from a list of unique components selected from the better policies of all 32 archdioceses, we compared policies across archdioceses. On a group level, we found current policies to be inadequate. The average score for all 32 archdioceses was 100.9 out of 250 possible points or 40%. The range was 61 to 137 (SD 20.4). The variation and inconsistencies across multiple archdioceses within the U.S. reveal the need for the Catholic Church to establish evidence-based standards on appropriately and effectively addressing child sexual abuse within its dioceses. These standards should be based on empirically supported best practices and emerging consensus of experts on better practices for youth-serving organizations in relation to child abuse. This article points to parameters for consideration in developing such standards.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Clero , Adolescente , Catolicismo , Criança , Família , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
11.
Ann Sci ; 78(4): 463-483, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251987

RESUMO

This paper examines a neglected aspect of the history of the early Royal Society. Though it's first two Royal Charters of 1662 and 1663 did not contain any religious-political restrictions, its 3rd Royal Charter of 1669 did. For the grant of an investment property in Chelsea, and the right to appoint more than one Vice President, the 3rd Charter restricted the sale of the property in Chelsea back to the Crown, and all Presidents and Vice Presidents were required to swear the Anglican religious-political state oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy before admission to the positions. Thus the Royal Society, for the first time, was placed under a similar oaths system as those covering state, corporation, and religious organizations. The paper analyses the chaotic events leading up to the passing of the 3rd Charter: the impact of the Fire of London, the Royal Society's move to Catholic aristocrat Henry Howard's Arundel House, its failed plan to build a permanent 'college' there, and its forced acceptance of both the oaths and the non-alienation of Chelsea College. The paper concludes with the aftermath, the replacement of the oaths by a statutory declaration in 1835, through an Act of Parliament.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Humanos , Londres
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26361, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Work-life balance (WLB) is an essential precursor of workers' mental health. The theory of rational emotive behaviour therapy proposes that an imbalance in work and family life may result from people's dysfunctional perceptions of their work and other aspects of their personal life. Also, the constructive philosophies of rational emotive behavior therapy are said to be congruent with most religious belief systems of Christian clients. Therefore, our research examined the efficacy of Christian religious rational emotive behaviour therapy (CRREBT) on WLB among administrative officers in Catholic primary schools. METHODS: This is a group randomized trial involving 162 administrative officers from Catholic primary schools in Southeast Nigeria. The treatment process involved an 8-session CRREBT programme. RESULTS: The scores for WLB of the administrative officers enrolled in the CRREBT programme were significantly improved compared to those in the control group at the end of the study. At the follow-up phase, the CRREBT programme proved to be effective over a 3-month period. CONCLUSION: CRREBT is an effective therapeutic strategy for managing WLB among Catholic school administrative officers.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Catolicismo , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria
13.
J Relig Health ; 60(4): 2362-2370, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105027

RESUMO

The concept of Just-In-Time Training (JITT) is to provide critical information specific to a public health crisis, allowing individuals to understand and respond to an urgent situation. The design of the JITT curriculum appropriate for school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic is vital, as every individual has a role to play in mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2. When working with various communities, considering culture and religion is essential, as aligning values and beliefs with the JITT curriculum's objectives may significantly change the community's behavior toward a public health crisis. In this narrative, we describe how a JITT curriculum for the COVID-19 pandemic, created in Maryland, US, and implemented in a Catholic school system, aligned with core Catholic social teachings. This alignment allowed for implementing and delivering the COVID-19 curriculum in Maryland's Archdiocese Catholic school system, culminating in a medical-religious partnership that serves as a model for future public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Catolicismo , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Barbarói ; (58): 230-242, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1150906

RESUMO

Com objetivo de compreender como acontece a sacralização do objeto de consumo escapulário para católicos realizou-se uma investigação qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas com católicos que usam escapulário regularmente. Os discursos coletados passaram pela análise de conteúdo que revelou como resultado de pesquisa que o local do "sagrado" em relação ao escapulário, está vinculado à sua capacidade de proteger seu usuário. Ainda essa capacidade de proteção não está vinculada apenas ao objeto em si, mas no fato deste ter sido recebido como presente de uma pessoa amada. O que sacraliza então não é apenas a religião, mas a relação de afeto entre quem recebeu o escapulário de presente e a pessoa que o presenteou.(AU)


In order to understand how the process of sacralization of the scapular consumption object takes place for Catholics who use this item, a qualitative investigation was carried out. Interviews were conducted with Catholics who use scapular regularly. The speeches collected went through the content analysis of the speeches of these users, which revealed, as a result of research, that the place of the "sacred" in relation to the scapular, is linked to its ability to protect its user. Yet this protective capacity is not only linked to the object itself, but to the fact that it was received as a gift by a beloved person. What sacralizes it, then, is not just religion, but the affectionate relationship between the person who received the scapular as a gift and the person who gives it.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Religião , Catolicismo
15.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(3): e535-e536, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095955

RESUMO

In a letter to the editor, the authors have explored how the social media hashtag #ChurchInAction has become a narrative of the Philippine Church's social engagement with the poor during the pandemic and the public perception of its dynamism. But I argue that there is more to it than its perceived meaning. The hashtag plays a more political role as a symbol of activism against the emerging anti-church sentiment at the onset of intense lockdowns during the pandemic. More than just a display of Church prosocial engagement, the #ChurchInAction is embedded with connective and collective identity as in any activism against the critics of the Catholic institution.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Mídias Sociais , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Filipinas
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 455-472, abr.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279142

RESUMO

Resumen El artículo explora la apropiación de la terminología psiquiátrica por parte de teólogos y párrocos franceses, en el contexto de la patologización de la religión del siglo XIX. Esta apropiación le sirvió al clero para demarcar la experiencia mística "auténtica" de la simulada o "desviada". En primer lugar, analizamos manuales médico-teológicos pensados para crear una oposición entre la histeria y la santidad, útil desde el punto de vista eclesiástico. En segundo lugar, presentamos los informes de tres párrocos sobre presuntas místicas y estigmatizadas. Concluimos que la apropiación de la retórica médica por parte del clero podía servir para definir los límites de la experiencia religiosa aprobada por la Iglesia católica.


Abstract This article explores the appropriation of psychiatric terminology by French theologians and priests, within the context of the pathologizations of religion in the nineteenth century. This appropriation allowed the clergy to differentiate "authentic" mystical experience from feigned or "deviant" ones. Firstly, it analyzes medical and theological manuals that sought to create an opposition between hysteria and saintliness, which was useful from the ecclesiastical point of view. Secondly, it presents the reports of three priests on supposed female mystics with stigmata. It concludes that the appropriation of medical rhetoric by the clergy could be used to define the limits of religious experience approved by the Catholic church.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Catolicismo , Clero , Dissidências e Disputas , França
17.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(2): 455-472, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190789

RESUMO

This article explores the appropriation of psychiatric terminology by French theologians and priests, within the context of the pathologizations of religion in the nineteenth century. This appropriation allowed the clergy to differentiate "authentic" mystical experience from feigned or "deviant" ones. Firstly, it analyzes medical and theological manuals that sought to create an opposition between hysteria and saintliness, which was useful from the ecclesiastical point of view. Secondly, it presents the reports of three priests on supposed female mystics with stigmata. It concludes that the appropriation of medical rhetoric by the clergy could be used to define the limits of religious experience approved by the Catholic church.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Clero , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , França , Humanos
18.
Issues Law Med ; 36(1): 44-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939342

RESUMO

Americans have benefited from a declining cancer incidence and improving prognosis over the past two decades, during which time rising prices for anti-cancer drugs have proportionally outstripped rising expenditures for overall cancer care and total national health expenditures. To meet the economic challenges, remedies have been proposed to base compensation on relative survival measurements perhaps taking into account associated drug toxicities, disabilities, and disease progression. While there are advantages for knowing the economic costs determined from so-called, "value-based" methodologies, it must be recognized that the measured values are impersonal, incomplete, and always biased. This article examines value-based costing of anti-cancer drugs in an individual and societal framework and advocates grounding decisions regarding cancer care and pharmaceutical costs on the ethical principles of human dignity and the common good.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Catolicismo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Respeito , Justiça Social , Estados Unidos
19.
J Relig Health ; 60(4): 2331-2352, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031781

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge for many religious denominations. The Roman Catholic Church strongly depends on physical communal worship and sacraments. Disagreements grow concerning the best balance between safety and piety. To address this issue, I review the major transmission risks for the SARS-CoV-2 virus and list certain measures to enhance the safety of the Roman Catholic Liturgy without compromising its intrinsic beauty and reverent spiritual attitude. This can be achieved through assimilation of several traditional elements into the modern liturgy. I emphasize that religious leadership and decision-making should be transparent and based on inclusiveness, pluralism, best scientific evidence and voluntary cooperation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Catolicismo , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Bull Hist Med ; 95(1): 24-52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967103

RESUMO

This article traces the historical processes by which Brazil became a world leader in cesarean sections. It demonstrates that physicians changed their position toward and use of different obstetric surgeries, in particular embryotomies and cesarean sections, over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The authors demonstrate that Catholic obstetricians, building upon both advancements in cesarean section techniques and new civil legislation that gave some personhood to fetuses, began arguing that fetal life was on par with its maternal counterpart in the early twentieth century, a shift that had a lasting impact on obstetric practice for decades to come. In the second half of the twentieth century, cesarean sections proliferated in clinical practice, but abortions remained illegal. Most importantly, women remained patients to be worked on rather than active participants in their reproductive lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/história , Cesárea/história , Obstetrícia/história , Aborto Induzido/tendências , Brasil , Catolicismo , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/tendências , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
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