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1.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 31-42, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988184

RESUMO

Sin in its original form constitutes a deviation from human behavior. Christian doctrine incorporates into the Judeo-Christian tradition the deadly sins that we all know (and their demons), as well as the virtues that are supposed to defeat or at least neutralize: 1) pride / humility, 2) greed / generosity, 3) lust / chastity, 4) anger / patience, 5) gluttony / temperance, 6) envy / charity and 7) laziness / diligence. In this same line of thought, to sin would be to abuse the freedom of God. According to John Bossy, the seven deadly sins would be the expression of a social and community ethic with which the Catholic Church tried at the time to contain violence and heal the troubled medieval society. Sins and their penance were originally a healthy warning of how to manage one’s individual and social behavior (Savater, 2013). That which Modern society allows as lawful or not, has “overcome” the conduct and moral republicanism of our days (1). Morality is one of the most sophisticated features of human judgment, behavior, and mind. An individual who deviates from violent morality, rules and civil rights, even affecting the individual liberties of others, sometimes even aggressively. A scientific approach to the origins of evil refers us to the exciting analysis of the molecular, epigenetic, phylogenetic and cellular determinants of the neurobiology of sin. This formidable adventure of thought constitutes a harmonious path traveled by moral philosophy and the neurosciences of that long stretch that is between the error of Prometheus and the error of Descartes.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Cristianismo , Princípios Morais , Virtudes , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Filogenia
2.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 27-46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638598

RESUMO

The article is the first step of a research project aimed at investigating new perspectives and aspects of Morgagni's role and work. His activities as a medical examiner and forensic doctor are yet to be truly discovered. Manuscripts, written by Morgagni when he was a forensic expert for the Health Magistrate of Venice, currently preserved at the City Library in Forli (Italy), shed light on a new aspect of his cultural background. As a forensic doctor, he also helped push an increase in "social medicine" in Italy, when physicians began to collaborate with the administrative and political institutions in order to plan environmental and urban regulations to control air quality. While reading his reports, his contribution to the primordial medical Hygiene and Public Health emerges. Among his reports, the authors focused on the one concerning the Beatification of Gregorio Barbarigo, which clearly highlights his pathological approach, as well as his knowledge and application of embalming systems and mummiology. Moreover, this report could be considered as an issue in the history of paleopathology.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Medicina Legal/história , Patologia/história , Santos/história , Anatomia/história , Exumação/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história , Odorantes
5.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 74-78, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593380

RESUMO

Sunday February 24, 1957 was a pivotal day in the history of anesthesiology and pain medicine. The leader of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Pius XII met with anesthesiologists attending an international symposium sponsored by the Italian Society of Anesthesiologists entitled, "Anesthesia and the Human Personality". The purpose of this audience was to seek clarification about the use of opioids at the end of life to reduce suffering. Three questions had been formulated from the previous year's Italian Congress of Anesthesiologists and sent to the Holy See on this specific issue. The Pope responded during this audience remarking that there was no moral obligation to withhold pain medication that could elevate suffering. He further remarked that the suppression of consciousness that can occur with opioids was consistent with the spirit of the Christian gospels. Finally, he also stated that it was not morally objectionable to administer opioids even if it might shorten life. The moral philosophy behind these answers is the doctrine of double effect. In essence, administering medications to relieve pain, the primary effect, may also hasten death, the unintended secondary effect. In seeking answers to these questions, the Italian anesthesiologists were at the forefront of a larger and ongoing debate. As new therapies are developed that may have unintended consequences, when it is morally permissible to use them?


Assuntos
Analgesia/história , Anestesiologia/história , Catolicismo/história , Manejo da Dor/história , Religião e Medicina , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Analgesia/ética , Anestesiologistas/história , Anestesiologia/ética , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas/história
7.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 633-634, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533174

RESUMO

In a recently published letter to the editor of this journal, the authors have called for the need to establish psychological support structures that cater to people's mental health in this time of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To be more holistic, we extend this call to include people's spiritual well-being as well. We highlight the initiatives of the Philippines' religious sector. In particular, we report some of the interventions made by the Roman Catholic Church that have led to the social media hashtag, #ChurchInAction. These religious and spiritual interventions showcase the efforts of the Philippine Church and play an important role in providing assistance in time of public health crisis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Catolicismo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas
8.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165356

RESUMO

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Santos/história , Urologia/história , Catolicismo/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Medicina , Religião e Medicina
9.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367176

RESUMO

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Santos/história , Urologia/história , Catolicismo/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Medicina , Religião e Medicina
10.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 163-172, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284632

RESUMO

This special issue uses Catholicism as a thread to bring together five contributions to the transnational history of contraception. The articles, which cover examples from Western and East-Central Europe, East Africa and Latin America, all explore the complex interplay between users and providers of birth control in contexts marked by prevalence of the Catholic religion and/or strong political position of the Catholic Church. In the countries examined here, Brazil, Belgium, Poland, Ireland and Rwanda, Catholicism was the majority religion during the different moments of the long twentieth century the authors of this special issue focus on. Using transnationalism as a perspective to examine the social history of the entanglements between Catholicism and contraception, this special issue seeks to underscore the ways in which individuals and organisations used, adapted and contested local and transnational ideas and debate around family planning. It also examines the role of experts and activist groups in the promotion of family planning, while paying attention to national nuances in Catholic understandings of birth control. The contributions shed light on the motivations behind involvement in birth control activism and expertise, its modus operandi, networking strategies and interactions with men and women demanding contraceptive information and technology. Moreover, through the use of oral history, as well as other print sources such as women's magazines, this collection of articles seeks to illustrate 'ordinary' men and women's practices in the realm of reproductive health.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Religião e Medicina , História do Século XX , Humanos
11.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 173-194, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284633

RESUMO

This article examines female sterilisation practices in early twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It argues that the medical profession, particularly obstetricians and psychiatrists, used debates over the issue to solidify its moral and political standing during two political moments of Brazilian history: when the Brazilian government separated church and state in the 1890s and when Getúlio Vargas's authoritarian regime of the late 1930s renewed alliances with the Catholic church. Shifting notions of gender, race, and heredity further shaped these debates. In the late nineteenth century, a unified medical profession believed that female sterilisation caused psychiatric degeneration in women. By the 1930s, however, the arrival of eugenics caused a divergence amongst physicians. Psychiatrists began supporting eugenic sterilisation to prevent degeneration - both psychiatric and racial. Obstetricians, while arguing that sterilisation no longer caused mental disturbances in women, rejected it as a eugenic practice in regard to race. For obstetricians, the separation of sex from motherhood was more dangerous than any racial 'impurities', both phenotypical and psychiatric. At the same time, a revitalised Brazilian Catholic church rejected eugenics and sterilisation point blank, and its renewed ties with the Vargas regime blocked the medical implementation of any eugenic sterilisation laws. Brazilian women, nonetheless, continued to access the procedure, regardless of the surrounding legal and medical proscriptions.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Obstetrícia/história , Médicos/história , Religião e Medicina , Esterilização Reprodutiva/história , Brasil , Eugenia (Ciência)/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/história , Papel do Médico/história , Médicos/ética , Sistemas Políticos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Caracteres Sexuais , Esterilização Reprodutiva/ética , Esterilização Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Reprodutiva/psicologia
12.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 195-218, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284634

RESUMO

The twentieth-century history of men and women's attempts to gain access to reproductive health services in the Republic of Ireland has been significantly shaped by Ireland's social and religious context. Although contraception was illegal in Ireland from 1935 to 1979, declining family sizes in this period suggest that many Irish men and women were practising fertility control measures. From the mid-1960s, the contraceptive pill was marketed in Ireland as a 'cycle regulator'. In order to obtain a prescription for the pill, Irish women would therefore complain to their doctors that they had heavy periods or irregular cycles. However, doing so could mean going against one's faith, and also depended on finding a sympathetic doctor. The contraceptive pill was heavily prescribed in Ireland during the 1960s and 1970s as it was the only contraceptive available legally, albeit prescribed through 'coded language'. The pill was critiqued by men and women on both sides of the debate over the legalisation of contraception. Anti-contraception activists argued that the contraceptive pill was an abortifacient, while both anti-contraception activists and feminist campaigners alike drew attention to its perceived health risks. As well as outlining these discussions, the paper also illustrates the importance of medical authority in the era prior to legalisation, and the significance of doctors' voices in relation to debates around the contraceptive pill. However, in spite of medical authority, it is clear that Irish women exercised significant agency in gaining access to the pill.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Anticoncepcionais Orais/história , Relações Médico-Paciente , Religião e Medicina , Anticoncepção/ética , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Feminismo/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Papel do Médico/história , Direitos da Mulher/história
13.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 219-239, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284635

RESUMO

This article surveys the evolution of Rwandan family planning practices from the nation's mythico-historical origins to the present. Rwanda is typically regarded as a patriarchal society in which Rwandan women have, throughout history, endured limited rights and opportunities. However, oral traditions narrated by twentieth-century Rwandan historians, storytellers and related experts, and interpreted by the scholars and missionaries who lived in Rwanda during the nation's colonial period, suggest that gender norms in Rwanda were more complicated. Shifting practices related to family planning - particularly access to contraception, abortion, vasectomies and related strategies - are but one arena in which this becomes evident, suggesting that women's roles within their families and communities could be more diverse than the historiography's narrow focus on women as wives and mothers currently allows. Drawing upon a range of colonial-era oral traditions and interviews conducted with Rwandans since 2007, I argue that Rwandan women - while under significant social pressure to become wives and mothers throughout the nation's past - did find ways to exert agency within and beyond these roles. I further maintain that understanding historical approaches to family planning in Rwanda is essential for informing present-day policy debates in Rwanda aimed at promoting gender equality, and in particular for ensuring women's rights and access to adequate healthcare are being upheld.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Colonialismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/história , Religião e Medicina , Bélgica , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Missionários/história , Religião/história , Ruanda
14.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 240-266, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284636

RESUMO

This paper scrutinises the relations between different models of family planning advice and their evolution in Poland between the mid-1950s and the late 1980s, focusing on their similarities and dissimilarities, conflicts and concordances. From 1956 onwards, the delivery of family planning advice became a priority for both the Polish Catholic Church and the party-state, especially its health authorities, which supported the foundation of the Society of Conscious Motherhood and aspired to mainstream birth control advice through the network of public well-woman clinics. As a consequence, two systems of family planning counselling emerged: the professional, secular family planning movement and Catholic pre-marital and marital counselling. We argue that reciprocal influence and emulation existed between state-sponsored and Catholic family planning in state-socialist Poland, and that both models used transnational organisations and debates relating to contraception for their construction and legitimisation. By evaluating the extent to which the strategies and practices for the delivery of birth control advice utilised by transnational birth control movements were employed in a 'second world' context such as Poland, we reveal unexpected supranational links that complicate and problematise historiographical and popular understandings of the Iron Curtain and Cold War Europe.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/história , Religião e Medicina , Socialismo/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Polônia , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/história
15.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 267-286, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284637

RESUMO

This paper looks at the journey of eleven counsellors in marital counselling centres in French-speaking Belgium, from the creation of the centres in 1953, to the 1970s, when contraception became legal, and abortion became a public issue. At the time of Humanae Vitae, groups of volunteers, working within Catholic organisations where counselling took place, began to structure their activity around Carl Rogers's ethics of client-centred therapy, placing their religious ideology in a secondary position to focus on the problems experienced by the couples and women they were receiving in the centres. These were often challenges they were experiencing themselves in their own lives. The reiteration of the Catholic orthodox view on contraception through Humanae Vitae marked a gap between the counsellors and the Church. This contribution questions the identity-related tension of Catholics working in conjugal counselling centres and the type of commitments they made to both the conjugal centres and the Church in a moment where family planning was debated both in the Church and politically.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Anticoncepção/história , Aconselhamento/história , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/história , Religião e Medicina , Bélgica , Anticoncepção/ética , Aconselhamento/ética , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/ética , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 50-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250205

RESUMO

This paper explores the rules for the expurgation of texts of astrology in the Iberian Indices of forbidden books. It addresses the prohibitions put forward in Rule IX of the Index of Trent and the bull Coeli et terrae of Sixtus V, and studies its impact on the rules and their interpretation in the Spanish and Portuguese Indices, in particular, those published in the first decades of the seventeenth century: the Spanish Index librorum prohibitorum et expurgatorum of 1612 and the Portuguese Index auctorum damnatae memoriae of 1624. It shows how these indices offer a more meticulous examination of the prohibitions providing not only more detail regarding the different practices of astrology, but also explicitly accept the doctrine of inclinations of Thomas Aquinas as a central rule to deal with astrological judgments on human behaviour. It also highlights some specific details of the practice of censorship of astrological books by examining case studies of censored Portuguese and Spanish astrological publications. These provide new dimensions and highlight significant differences between the theoretical rules, practical guidelines, and actual restriction of astrological content.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Catolicismo/história , Censura Científica , Religião e Ciência , História do Século XVII , Portugal , Espanha
20.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 26-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134363

RESUMO

Historians have portrayed the papal bull Coeli et terrae (1586) as a significant turning point in the history of the Catholic Church's censorship of astrology. They argue that this bull was intended to prohibit the idea that the stars could naturally incline humans towards future actions, but also had the effect of preventing the discussion of other forms of natural astrology including those useful to medicine, agriculture, and navigation. The bull, therefore, threatened to overturn principles established by Thomas Aquinas, which not only justified long-standing astrological practices, but also informed the Roman Inquisition's attitude towards this art. The promulgation of the bull has been attributed to the 'rigour' of the incumbent pope, Sixtus V. In this article I revise our understanding of this bull in two ways. First, I reconsider the Inquisition's attitude towards astrology in the mid-sixteenth century, arguing that its members promoted a limited form of Thomist astrology that did not permit the doctrine of inclination. Second, using Robert Bellarmine's unpublished lectures discussing Aquinas's views of astrology, I suggest that this attitude was common during the sixteenth century, and may have been caused by the crisis of Renaissance astrology precipitated by the work of Giovanni Pico.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Catolicismo/história , Censura Científica , Religião e Ciência , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI
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