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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2607-2614, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096642

RESUMO

Fused-ring aromatics, important skeletal components of black carbon (BC), contribute to long-term carbon (C) sequestration in nature. They have previously been thought to be primarily formed by incomplete combustion of organic materials, whereas the nonpyrogenic origins are negligible. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), including recoupled long-range C-H dipolar dephasing, exchange with protonated and nonprotonated spectral editing (EXPANSE), and dipolar-dephased double-quantum/single-quantum (DQ/SQ) spectroscopy, we for the first time identify fused-ring aromatics that formed during the decomposition of wheat (Triticum sp.) straw in soil under aerobic, but not anaerobic conditions. The observed formation of polyaromatic units as plant litter decomposes provides direct evidence for humification. Moreover, the estimation of the annual flux of such nonpyrogenic BC could be equivalent to 3-12% of pyrogenic BC added to soils from all other sources. Our findings significantly extend the understanding of potential sources of fused-ring aromatic C and BC in soils as well as the global C cycle.


Assuntos
Triticum/química , Aerobiose , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125379, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995866

RESUMO

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) were sampled (24 h, Hi-Vol XAD-2) in dry and wet season, and separately analyzed for particulate and gaseous phases. To reveal the influence of rice straw open burning (RSOB), SVOC levels and profiles were comparatively analyzed between two areas, rice plantation area (KL) with intensive RSOB activities and remote national park (KY), and with fresh RSOB smoke. PAHs were significantly higher in KL than KY in both seasons. PAHs levels in KL during burning season were ∼10 times above the wet season indicating RSOB influence. In KY, however, PAHs levels in wet season were 2 times above dry season suggesting impacts of local emission transport. OCPs levels were not statistically different between 2 seasons and between 2 sites in each season. RSOB smoke contained 5880 ng/m3 of 14 PAHs and 13.5 ng/m3 of 16 OCPs which were respectively 14 and 7 times above those in KL during burning period. The 4-ring compounds, most remarkably fluoranthene, and 5-ring (BbF and BaP) were dominant PAHs species in RSOB smoke. Similarity in PAH profiles and diagnostic ratios between KL dry season and RSOB smoke suggested its strong influence on the local air quality. Elevated OCPs levels in RSOB smoke may be associated with re-emission of the compounds accumulated in the paddy soil during the burning. RSOB in Southeast Asia has a serious implication on exposure to the toxic air pollutants hence should be eliminated with priority.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Oryza , Caules de Planta , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorenos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Fumaça , Solo , Tailândia
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 431-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907707

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal-mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal-mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)-mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Mimosina/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Tampões (Química) , Cátions , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Solubilidade
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111761, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896050

RESUMO

The combination of different colors from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may influence growth and production of secondary metabolites in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on morphophysiology and content of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a phytoecdysteroid, was evaluated in accessions of an endangered medicinal species, Pfaffia glomerata, grown in vitro. Two accessions (Ac22 and Ac43) were cultured in vitro under three different ratios of red (R) and blue (B) LEDs: (i) 1R:1B, (ii) 1R:3B, and (iii) 3R:1B. An equal ratio of red and blue light (1R:1B) increased biomass accumulation, anthocyanin content, and 20E production (by 30-40%). Moreover, 1R:1B treatment increased the size of vascular bundles and vessel elements, as well as strengthened xylem lignification and thickening of the cell wall of shoots. The 1R:3B treatment induced the highest photosynthetic and electron transport rates and enhanced the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes. Total Chl content, Chl/Car ratio, and NPQ varied more by accession type than by light source. Spectral quality affected primary metabolism differently in each accession. Specifically, in Ac22 plants, fructose content was higher under 1R:1B and 1R:3B treatments, whereas starch accumulation was higher under 1R:3B, and sucrose under 3R:1B. In Ac43 plants, sugars were not influenced by light spectral quality, but starch content was higher under 3R:1B conditions. In conclusion, red and blue LEDs enhance biomass and 20E production in P. glomerata grown in vitro.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/efeitos da radiação , Ecdisterona/análise , Luz , Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Amido/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111763, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931382

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality that allows the destruction of tumor cells and microorganisms by reactive oxygen species, formed by the combination of photosensitizer (PS), molecular oxygen and adequate wavelength light. This research, through a clean methodology that involves pressurized liquids extraction (PLE), obtained a highly antimicrobial extract of Tetragonia tetragonoides, which rich in chlorophylls as photosensitizers. The Chlorophylls-based extract (Cbe-PLE) presented pharmacological safety, through the maintenance of cellular viability. In addition, Cbe-PLE showed great efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, with severe dose-dependent damage to the cell wall of the pathogen. The obtained product has a high potential for the development of photostimulated phytotherapic formulations for clinical applications in localized infections, as a complementary therapeutic alternative to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aizoaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/farmacologia , Luz , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104441, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778760

RESUMO

In the present work, we reported the triterpenoids isolated from n-butanol fraction of Kadsura heteroclita which is a Tujia ethnomedicine with trivial name "Xuetong". This effort resulted in the isolation of six unpresented triterpenoids xuetongsu A-F (1-6), along with five known triterpenoids (7-11). The structures of the reported compounds were established on the 1D, and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra, along with CD spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the absolute stereochemistry of compound 7 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for all isolated compounds, compound 7 shown weak cytotoxic activity against HL-60 with IC50 value of 50.0 µM.


Assuntos
Kadsura/química , Caules de Planta/química , Triterpenos/química , China , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1080-1091, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The newly developed sugarcorn is conceived for dual-purpose use as a potential biofuel feedstock and a high-energy silage crop. Its agronomic traits are, however, not fully appraised under the umbrella of nitrogen (N) management and with canopy reflectance indicator. A 3-year field study was conducted to examine the responses of silage biomass, stalk sugar concentration, sugar and juice yields to various N applications; and determine the quantitative relationships between canopy reflectance, expressed as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and stalk sucrose or other sugar measures in a dual-purpose sugarcorn (cv. 'CO384xC103'), in comparison with a commercial leafy silage-specific hybrid (cv. 'Pride A5892G3 EDF'). RESULTS: The moderate N rate, 125 kg ha-1 , produced similar stalk sucrose, silage and grain yields, compared to the high rate (250 kg N ha-1 ), regardless of application methods. The NDVI signatures measured at the V8-V10 stage exhibited significant (P < 0.01) and exponential relationships with stalk sucrose concentrations, sucrose and juice yields at the R3 stage, and with silage yield at approximately 65% whole-plant moisture, the optimum silage-harvest window. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the moderate N rate, 125 kg ha-1 , which is recommended for conventional grain corn production in the region, was likely close to the economic optimum N rate for leafy silage-specific and sugarcorn. Canopy reflectance, measured at the early growth stages, can be used as a potential indicator of sugar and silage production, and this quantitative relationship necessitates further evaluation with more genotypes and under wide environmental conditions. © 2019 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Silagem/análise , Açúcares/química , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(3): 239-252, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832900

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Lack of structural components results in inflorescence stem bending. Differentially expressed genes involved in lignin and hemicellulose biosynthesis are vital; genes involved in cellulose and glycan biosynthesis are also relevant. An erect inflorescence stem is essential for high-quality cut herbaceous peony flowers. To explore the factors underlying inflorescence stem bending, major cell walls contents were measured, and stem structure was observed in two herbaceous peony varieties with contrasting stem straightness traits ('Da Fugui', upright; 'Chui Touhong', bending). In addition, Illumina sequencing was performed and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was used to analyze the results. The results showed significant differences in lignin, hemicellulose and soluble sugar contents, sclerenchyma and xylem areas and thickening in cell walls in pith at stage S3, when bending begins. In addition, 44,182 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found, and these DEGs were mainly enriched in 36 pathways. Among the DEGs, hub genes involved in lignin, cellulose, and xylan biosynthesis and transcription factors that regulated these process were identified by WGCNA. These results suggested that the contents of compounds that provided cell wall rigidity were vital factors affecting inflorescence stem straightness in herbaceous peony. Genes involved in or regulating the biosynthesis of these compounds are thus important; lignin and hemicellulose are of great interest, and cellulose and glycan should not be ignored. This paper lays a foundation for developing new herbaceous peony varieties suitable for cut flowers by molecular-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Inflorescência/metabolismo , Paeonia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Parede Celular , Celulose/metabolismo , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Paeonia/genética , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos
9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 47-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420737

RESUMO

Stem trichomes and seed fibers originate from epidermal cells and partially share a regulatory pathway at the molecular level. In Gossypium barbadense, two insertions of a Ty1 long-terminal repeat-retrotransposon [transposable element TE1 and TE2] in a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene (HD1) result in glabrous stems. The primers used to identify the TE insertions in G. barbadense were applied to screen for the same events in 81 modern G. hirsutum varieties and 31 wild races. Three wild races were found carrying the same TEs as G. barbadense. However, the TE insertions in two of these wild races occurred at different sites (4th exon), therefore, named TE3, while the TE in the other wild race occurred at the same site as TE2. An RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the loss of HD1 function was caused by the TE insertion. Genetic mapping revealed a strong association between glabrous stems and TE3 insertions, confirming that HD1 is a critical gene for stem trichome initiation in G. hirsutum, as in G. barbadense. Using the long-terminal repeat sequence as a query to search against the Texas Marker-1 reference genome sequence, we found that the TE occurred after tetraploid cotton formation and evolved at different rates in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, at least three independent insertion events of the same retrotransposon occurred preferentially in the A sub-genome's HD1 gene, but not in the D sub-genome of G. hirsutum or G. barbadense, suggesting that an unknown TE insertion mechanism and resultant gene function changes may have hastened cotton speciation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Gossypium/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Caules de Planta/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Tricomas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Zíper de Leucina/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Tetraploidia
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110768, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479712

RESUMO

Stem bark of Erythrina latissima E. Mey (Leguminosae) contains a wide range of prenylated flavonoids able to counteract the genotoxic properties of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Thus, the hypothesis was raised that E. latissima stem bark extracts (ELBE) may counteract the in vivo hepatotoxic effects of aflatoxins, contaminants in food and feed. An HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to determine the level of flavonoid aglycones (11.82%) and glycosides (16.17%). ADME, pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness assessment of major flavonoids of ELBE, using the web tool SwissADME, showed good oral bioavailability. The protective effect of ELBE against AFB1 induced genotoxicity in the Vitotox assay after metabolic activation was confirmed (IC50 of 44.32 µg/ml), followed by evaluation of its inhibitory effect on hepatotoxicity in rats induced by the same agent. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ELBE (20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) or curcumin (500 mg/kg) combined with piperine (20 mg/kg) - positive control, for 8 days prior to AFB1 exposure (1 mg/kg). The ELBE group showed a decreased activity of ALP and γ-GT compared to the AFB1 group. Histopathological examination of the liver demonstrated ameliorative effects of ELBE. Thus, ELBE could have a protective effect against hepatotoxins such as AFB1.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Antimutagênicos/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Erythrina/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides/análise , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112875, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546138

RESUMO

Schisanlactone E (SE) is a bioactive ingredient extracted from the stem of Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb) Craib. SE has various pharmacological activity such as anti-tumor and anti-leukemia effects. However, its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion have rarely been examined. In this study, new quali-quantitative analytical methods were developed for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of SE in rats. A UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine SE in rat plasma, urine, and feces. Samples were precipitated with methanol and analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was validated and applied to the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and excretion analysis of SE after oral (6 mg/kg) or intravenous (2 mg/kg) administration. The absolute oral bioavailability of SE was approximately 79.3%. After oral administration, SE was mainly excreted via feces with a rate of 41.7% for 48 h. SE could not be detected in urine. Furthermore, a UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS method was developed for the metabolite screening of SE in rat plasma, urine, and feces. Metabolites were extracted by solid phase extraction and analyzed with full MS/dd-MS2 scan mode. As a result, 15 metabolites including 11 phase I and 4 phase II metabolites were identified by a three-step analytical strategy. The carboxyl group, the five membered ring, and the six membered α,ß-unsaturated lactone ring of SE could be predicted as the main metabolic sites. This study provides comprehensive insights into the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles of SE, and would be valuable for future development and utilization of SE and Kadsura heteroclita.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Kadsura/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fezes/química , Eliminação Intestinal , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos , Eliminação Renal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/análise
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112259, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577938

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ximenia americana L. is popularly known as yellow plum, brave plum or tallow wood. All the parts of this plant are used in popular medicine. Its reddish and smooth bark are used to treat skin infections, inflammation of the mucous membranes and in the wound healing process. OBJECTIVE: Verification of phytochemical profile, the molecular interaction between flavonoid, (-) epi-catechin and 5-LOX enzyme, by means of in silico study, the genotoxic effect and to investigate the pharmacological action of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of X. americana in pulmonary alterations caused by experimental COPD in Rattus norvegicus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The identification of secondary metabolites was carried out by TLC and HPLC chromatographic methods, molecular anchoring tests were applied to analyze the interaction of flavonoid present in the extract with the enzyme involved in pulmonary inflammation process and the genotoxic effect was assessed by comet assay and micronucleus test. For induction of COPD, male rats were distributed in seven groups. The control group was exposed only to ambient air and six were subjected to passive smoke inhalations for 20 min/day for 60 days. One of the groups exposed to cigarette smoke did not receive treatment. The others were treated by inhalation with beclomethasone dipropionate (400 mcg/kg) and aqueous and lyophilized extracts of X. americana (500 mg/kg) separately or in combination for a period of 15 days. The structural and inflammatory pulmonary alterations were evaluated by histological examination. Additional morphometric analyses were performed, including the alveolar diameter and the thickness of the right ventricle wall. RESULTS: The results showed that the aqueous extract of the bark of X. americana possesses (-) epi -catechin, in silico studies with 5-LOX indicate that the EpiC ligand showed better affinity parameters than the AracA ligand, which is in accordance with the results obtained in vivo studies. Genotoxity was not observed at the dose tested and the extract was able to stagnate the alveolar enlargement caused by the destruction of the interalveolar septa, attenuation of mucus production and decrease the presence of collagen fibers in the bronchi of animals submitted to cigarette smoke. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results proved that the aqueous extract of X. americana presents itself as a new option of therapeutic approach in the treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Olacaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/química , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124853, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563712

RESUMO

Co-combustion of coal and wheat straw (WS) was conducted in a lab-scale BFB combustor. Fuel composition (coal, 70%coal+30%WS), temperature (750, 800, 850, 900, 950 °C), secondary air ratio (0, 10%, 20%, 30%) were varied to on the release of gaseous pollutant was studied. CO, NOx and SO2 concentration in flue gas (FG) were measured on-line by a flue gas analyzer. Fly ash (FA), bottom slag (BS) and bed material (BM) were collected, digested and analyzed by ICP-OES to determine the distribution of heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd). Results indicated that co-combustion could improve the combustion of coal alone by reducing CO, NOx and SO2 emission and carbon content in fly ash effectively. In co-combustion the increasing secondary air could reduce CO emission and SO2 by enhancing disturbance and promoting sulfation respectively while the minimum NO emission was reached at the ratio of 20%. Co-combustion restrained the release of Zn, Cd and Pb compared with coal combustion alone. In co-combustion, high temperature increased their portion in the flue gas. For Zn, Pb and Cd, their content in the bottom solids increased while the portion of Cr decreased. Secondary air decreased their content in fly ash and transferred into flue gas significantly and in bottom solids content of Zn and Pb decreased while Cd increased.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral , Metais Pesados/análise , Triticum , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Gases , Incineração/instrumentação , Caules de Planta , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 316: 108924, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843629

RESUMO

Parameritannin A-2 (PA-2) is a natural product extracted from the stems of the plant Urceola huaitingii. Our previous studies have shown that PA-2 exhibits significant synergistic anticancer effects with doxorubicin (DOX) in HGC27 gastric cancer cell lines. Here we report that our isobolographic analysis confirms the synergistic cytotoxic effects of PA-2 and DOX in HGC27 cells. Flow cytometry and immunoblotting indicate that PA-2 enhances DOX-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, PA-2 enhances the intracellular accumulation of DOX in HGC27 cells. The combination of DOX and PA-2 remarkably increases the release of cytochrome C and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, compared with DOX treatment alone. Moreover, PA-2 attenuates the DOX-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, providing a molecular mechanism for the synergistic effects of DOX and PA-2 in the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that PA-2 and DOX synergistically induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as PA-2 inhibits the PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in HGC27 cells. These findings suggest that the combination treatment with PA-2 and DOX may represent a potent therapy for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Apocynaceae/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Naftalenos/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Phytochemistry ; 169: 112178, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669819

RESUMO

In the present work, we take advantage of the characteristic NMR signal (δC-10 = 96.0-99.9) for guiding the isolation of schinortriterpenoids (SNTs) from n-butanol fraction of stems of Kadsura heteroclita which is a Tujia ethnomedicine with trivial name "Xuetong". This effort resulted in the identification of three unreported 3,4:9,10-disecocycloartane triterpenoids xuetongdilactones A-C and three undescribed SNTs xuetongdilactones D-F, along with two known SNTs, namely, wuweizidilactone B and micrandilactone B. The structures of the unreported compounds were established based on 1D, and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute stereochemistry of xuetongdilactone A was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis along with ECD calculation. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for all the isolated compounds.


Assuntos
Kadsura/química , Caules de Planta/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 376-383, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, the viticulture activity generates considerable amounts of underused lignocellulosic residues as grape cane, which are generally composted or burned despite their potential value as a source of bioactive compounds. Determination of their phytochemical composition and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) may be a useful way of exploiting different high-added value applications. RESULTS: Twenty-one phenolic compounds (PC) and two carotenoids (Car) were quantified by high performance-liquid chromatography-diode array detection in eight grape varieties from different locations in Mendoza, Argentina. The maximum concentrations corresponded to the stilbene ϵ-viniferin [10 552 µg g-1 dry weight (DW)], followed by the flavanols (+)-catechin (3718 µg g-1 DW) and (-)-epicatechin (2486 µg g-1 DW). In addition, lutein and ß-carotene were quantified at levels ranging between 350 and 2400 ng g-1 DW. The TAC of the extracts was assessed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,20-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, with a good correlation between TAC and total PC for each sample (r ≥ 0.82). CONCLUSION: Samples of cv. Malbec, the most representative variety of Argentina's winemaking industry, presented high contents of PC, particularly ϵ-viniferin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Quercetin-3-galactoside, OH-tyrosol and Car were reported for the first time in grape canes of the eight varieties. The results add to the existing knowledge related to this inexpensive source of high-value bioactive compounds, which could be used as functional ingredients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Caules de Planta/química , Vitis/classificação
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 614-622, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb is a common herb in East Asia. The flower buds are usually regarded as the traditional medicinal part, while leaves and stems are considered less valuable and receive little attention. This study compared the chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory effects of the different tissues in L. japonica Thunb for the first time. RESULTS: Thirty compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole / time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and iridoids were identified as the major components. The flower buds (FLJ), leaves (LLJ), and stems (SLJ) of L. japonica Thunb showed strong similarities in chemical components. The LLJ contained higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids than the FLJ and SLJ. Furthermore, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema assays in mice. Moreover, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ showed a cytoprotective effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were suppressed by treatments of FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ, respectively. The LLJ possessed a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the FLJ. CONCLUSION: Leaves and stems of L. japonica Thunb have chemical components and anti-inflammatory properties similar to flower buds, and may become alternative or supplementary sources of flower buds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
18.
Food Chem ; 312: 126086, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887623

RESUMO

Garlic-based extracts have been surveyed as healthy promoting supplements in relation to their content of organosulfur compounds. The present study investigated the effect of high pressure extraction and maceration, and four extraction solvents (three hydroalcoholic mixtures and sunflower oil) on the total and relative amounts of the main organosulfur compounds of clove and stem extracts of the Italian ecotype "Aglio Rosso di Sulmona" (Sulmona Red Garlic). Organosulfur compounds were more abundant in cloves than in stem extracts. High pressure extraction led to higher recoveries of hydrophilic compounds than maceration whereas the highest amounts of lipophilic compounds were detected in macerates. A higher alliin-to-allicin conversion ratio was detected in clove, in comparison to stem extracts. Sunflower oil fostered allicin decay to compounds such as ajoenes, vinyldithiins and sulfides. The use of specific extraction methods may lead to standardised grade extracts, both from native raw materials and by-products.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Ecótipo , Alho/genética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão , Syzygium
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800694

RESUMO

The volume of global gross banana exports reached a record of 117.9 million tonnes in 2015 (FAO 2017), which agro-industrial wastes derived as the pseudo-stem, rachis and leaves do not have an industrial application instead they are discarded. This research study applies full factorial design and response surface methodology to determine the effect of pressing temperature and resin content on density (D), moisture (M), water absorption (WA), water swelling (WS), module of rupture (MOR), module of elasticity (MOE) and formaldehyde content (FC) of particle board made of banana pseudo-stem. A 22 factorial design was performed, factors considered were resin and temperature. The low level of resin was 15% in the coarse fiber (CF) and 35% in fine fiber (FF); high level as 25% CF and 45% FF. Temperature levels were 150ºC and 170ºC respectively. The boards met all quality parameters except ones with low resin content that didn't meet WS parameter. Furthermore, resin affected positively on WA, FC and MOE, and decreased D, WS and MOR values. Meanwhile, temperature affected negatively on D, WS, and increased FC, WA, MOE, MOR properties; none of the factors affected M response. Process conditions were optimized to 162.61°C and 43.15% FF, 23.97% CF.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Teste de Materiais , Musa , Caules de Planta , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resinas Vegetais/análise , Elasticidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Resistência à Tração
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860684

RESUMO

The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors with many biological functions that extensively regulate plant growth, development and reproduction. Erigeron breviscapus is a medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, and is believed to improve blood circulation and ameliorate platelet coagulation. In order to gain a detailed understanding of how transcription factor expression may regulate the growth of this potentially important medicinal plant, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family of E. breviscapus is needed. In the present study, 44 MADS-box genes were identified in E. breviscapus and categorized into five subgroups (MIKC, Mα, Mß, Mγ and Mδ) according to their phylogenetic relationships with the Arabidopsis MADS-box genes. Additionally, the functional domain, subcellular location and motif compositions of the E. breviscapus MADS-box gene products were characterized. The expression levels for each of the E. breviscapus MADS-box (EbMADS) genes were analyzed in flower, leaf, stem and root organs, and showed that the majority of EbMADS genes were expressed in flowers. Meanwhile, some MADS genes were found to express high levels in leaf, stem and root, indicating that the MADS-box genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the E. breviscapus. The results from gene expression analysis under different pollination treatments revealed that the MADS-box genes were highly expressed after non-pollinated treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the E. breviscapus MADS-box gene family, and the results provide valuable information for understanding of the classification, cloning and putative functions of the MADS-box family.


Assuntos
Erigeron/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/química , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/genética , Plantas Medicinais , Domínios Proteicos
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