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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 312-321, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane straw is an available but largely ignored lignocellulosic biomass to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with highly crystalline, tunable surface chemistries and a wide-ranging adaptability. Herein, we utilized sugarcane straw to obtain pure cellulose via purification processes, followed by subsequent preparation of CNCs via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The properties of the purified fibers and obtained CNCs were assessed by their composition, morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity and thermal stability. RESULTS: After the purification process, alkali-treated fibers (ATFs) contained 886.33 ± 1.25 g kg-1 cellulose, and its morphological analysis revealed a smooth and slender fibrous structure. The CNCs obtained by treatment with 64 wt% sulfuric acid at 45 °C for 60 min were isolated in a yield of 21.8%, with a diameter and length of 6 to 10 nm and 160 to 200 nm, respectively. Moreover, crystallinity index of these CNCs reached 62.66%, and thermal stability underwent a two-step degradation. Short-term ultrasonication after hydrolysis was employed to enhance isolation of the CNC particles and improve the anionic charge with higher value -38.00 mV. CONCLUSION: Overall, isolation and characterization results indicated the potential for CNCs preparation using sugarcane straw, in addition to offering a fundamental understanding of this material and indicating potential applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Celulose/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saccharum/química , Resíduos/análise , Hidrólise , Nanopartículas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 19-40, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453323

RESUMO

Eleocharis dulcis, an aquatic plant belonging to Cyperaceae family, is indigenous to Asia, and also occurs in tropical Africa and Australia. The edible corm part of E. dulcis is a commonly consumed aquatic vegetable with a planting area of 44.46 × 103 hm2 in China. This work aims to explore the potential of E. dulcis corm for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits by reviewing its nutrients, phytochemicals, functions, processing and food products. Eleocharis dulcis corm contains starches, dietary fibers, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, phenolics, sterols, puchiin, saponins, minerals and vitamins. Among them, phenolics including flavonoids and quinones could be the major bioconstituents that largely contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and hypolipidemic functions. Peel wastes of E. dulcis corm tend to be enriched in phenolics to a much higher extent than the edible pulp. Fresh-cut E. dulcis corm can be consumed as a ready-to-eat food or processed into juice for beverage production, and anti-browning processing is a key to prolonging shelf life. Present food products of E. dulcis corm are centered on various fruit and vegetable beverages, and suffer from single categories and inadequate development. In brief, underutilized E. dulcis corm possesses great potential for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eleocharis/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111071, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763862

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) deficiency affects crop production and quality. Rho of plants (ROPs) involves in multiple physiological processes in plants. While it has not been well characterized under Fe deficiency, especially in perennial woody plants. In our study, we cloned ROP homologous gene MxRop1 from Malus xiaojinenesis, then overexpressed it in Arabidopsis, showing enhanced plant tolerance to Fe deficiency, which demonstrated its gene function during this stress. Overexpression of MxRop1 also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Moreover, active state of MxRop1 (CA-MxRop1) interacted with N-terminal region of MxrbohD1, one ROS synthesis gene. When MxrbohD1 was overexpressed in apple calli, it showed significantly increased H2O2 content, fresh weight and FCR activity, while ROS inhibitor application dramatically inhibited FCR activity, demonstrating ROS produced by MxrbohD1 regulated Fe deficiency responses. Furthermore, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation, MxrbohD1 was overexpressed in apple roots, with increased expression of Fe deficiency-induced genes and increased root FCR activity. Under Fe deficiency, it exhibited slight leaf yellowing phenotype. Co-expression of CA-MxRop1 and MxrbohD1 significantly induced ROS generation. Finally, we proposed that MxRop1 interacted with MxrbohD1 to modulate ROS mediated Fe deficiency adaptive responses in Malus xiaojinensis, which will provide a guidance of cultivation of Fe-deficiency tolerant apple plant.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
4.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111074, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763866

RESUMO

Developing dwarf watermelon is a major objective among breeders. The dsh dwarf watermelon germplasm developed in our laboratory is genetically stable. We previously produced preliminary evidence that Cla010726, which encodes a gibberellin 20-oxidase-like protein, is the primary gene controlling dwarfism in watermelon. However, the underlying genetic mechanism was unknown. In this study, we characterized the spontaneous recessive mutant dsh, which is a gibberellin (GA)-deficient mutant. Many of the phenotypic traits of dsh plants are similar to those of known GA-deficient mutants. The dsh plants were sensitive to exogenous bioactive GAs, which increased seedling height. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of endogenous GA3 proved that the bioactive GA3 content was substantially lower than normal in dsh. Additionally, the T5ClaGA20ox RNAi plants generally exhibited dwarfism, with short stems and internodes as well as small leaves and fruit. An examination of the transgenic plants carrying the ClaGA20ox1 promoter-GUS and mutant ClaGA20ox2 promoter-GUS constructs confirmed that two promoter sites are involved in the regulation of ClaGA20ox expression. Hence, mutations in the promoter of the GA20ox gene, which encodes a key enzyme involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, lead to the dwarfism of watermelon plants. The dsh mutant is a potentially useful germplasm resource for developing new watermelon varieties exhibiting dwarfism.


Assuntos
Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 443, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tiller number is a factor determining panicle number and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Auxin plays an important role in the regulation of branch production. PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), an auxin efflux carrier, plays a role in the regulation of tiller number in rice (Oryza sativa); however, little is known on the roles of PIN1 in wheat. RESULTS: Nine homologs of TaPIN1 genes were identified in wheat, of which TaPIN1-6 genes showed higher expression in the stem apex and young leaf in wheat, and the TaPIN1-6a protein was localized in the plasma membrane. The down-expression of TaPIN1s increased the tiller number in TaPIN1-RNA interference (TaPIN1-RNAi) transgenic wheat plants, indicating that auxin might mediate the axillary bud production. By contrast, the spikelet number, grain number per panicle, and the 1000-grain weight were decreased in the TaPIN1-RNAi transgenic wheat plants compared with those in the wild type. In summary, a reduction of TaPIN1s expression increased the tiller number and grain yield per plant of wheat. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure of nine TaPIN1 proteins were analyzed, and subcellular localization of TaPIN1-6a was located in the plasma membrane. Knock-down expression of TaPIN1 genes increased the tiller number of transgenic wheat lines. Our study suggests that TaPIN1s is required for the regulation of grain yield in wheat.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 454, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photosynthesis in the green leafless blade tissues or organs of plants has been studied in some plants, but the photosynthetic characteristics of stems and petioles are poorly understood. Cucurbitaceous plants are climbing plants that have substantial stem and petiole biomass. Understanding the photosynthetic contribution of cucumber stems and petioles to their growth and the underlying molecular mechanisms are important for the regulating of growth in cucumber production. RESULTS: In this study, the photosynthetic capacity of cucumber stems and petioles were determined by 14CO2 uptake. The total carbon fixed by the stems and petioles was approximately 4% of that fixed by one leaf blade in the cucumber seedling stage, while the proportion of the carbon accumulated in the stems and petioles that redistributed to sink organs (roots and shoot apexes) obviously increased under leafless conditions. The photosynthetic properties of cucumber stems and petioles were studied using a combination of electron microscopy and isotope tracers to compare these properties of stems and petioles with those of leaf blade using two genotypes of cucumber (dark green and light green). Compared with those of the leaf blades, the chlorophyll contents of the cucumber stems and petioles were lower, and the stems and petioles had lower chloroplast numbers and lower stoma numbers but higher thylakoid grana lamella numbers and larger stoma sizes. The Chl a/b ratios were also decreased in the petioles and stems compared with those in the leaf blades. The total photosynthetic rates of the stems and petioles were equivalent to 6 ~ 8% of that of one leaf blade, but the respiration rates were similar in all the three organs, with an almost net 0 photosynthetic rate in the stems and petioles. Transcriptome analysis showed that compared with the leaf blades, the stems and petioles has significantly different gene expression levels in photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism; photosynthetic antenna proteins; and carbon fixation. PEPC enzyme activities were higher in the stems and petioles than in the leaf blades, suggesting that the photosynthetic and respiratory mechanisms in stems and petioles are different from those in leaf blade, and these results are consistent with the gene expression data. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed the photosynthetic contribution to the growth of cucumber stems and petioles, and showed their similar photosynthetic patterns in the terms of anatomy, molecular biology and physiology, which were different from those of cucumber leaf blades.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 451, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a biennial plant, Secale cereale L is usually harvested in the autumn in the northern part of China where the temperature difference between day and night is of great disparity Through the pot experiment, the seedlings were cut to 2, 6 and 10 cm stubble height, and the simulated freeze-thaw (FT) stress (10/- 5 °C) was carried out after 6 days regrowth. The physiological effects of FT with different stubble height were revealed by analyzing the relative water content (RWC), osmotic adjustment substance concentration (soluble sugar and protein), membrane peroxidation (MDA) and catalase (CAT) activity. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that under freeze stress (- 5 °C), the content of soluble protein and MDA decreased and the seedlings of 2 cm treatment kept higher level of soluble protein and MDA, while the seedlings of 6 and 10 cm treatments kept higher level of the RWC, soluble sugar content, and CAT activity. After FT stress, the content of soluble sugar and protein, RWC in the 6 cm treatment were higher than those in 2 cm and 10 cm treatments, and the CAT activity in 10 cm treatment was the highest while the MDA content is lower. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that keeping high stubble height is more adaptive for short-term FT stress.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação , Congelamento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secale/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Absorção Fisiológica , China , Pressão Osmótica
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 473, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation modification, one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins, widely participates in the regulation of plant growth and development. Fibers extracted from the stem bark of ramie are important natural textile fibers; however, the role of phosphorylation modification in the growth of ramie fibers is largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we report a phosphoproteome analysis for the barks from the top and middle section of ramie stems, in which the fiber grows at different stages. A total of 10,320 phosphorylation sites from 9,170 unique phosphopeptides that were assigned to 3,506 proteins was identified, and 458 differentially phosphorylated sites from 323 proteins were detected in the fiber developmental barks. Twelve differentially phosphorylated proteins were the homologs of Arabidopsis fiber growth-related proteins. We further focused on the function of the differentially phosphorylated KNOX protein whole_GLEAN_10029667, and found that this protein dramatically repressed the fiber formation in Arabidopsis. Additionally, using a yeast two-hybridization assay, we identified a kinase and a phosphatase that interact with whole_GLEAN_10029667, indicating that they potentially target this KNOX protein to regulate its phosphorylation level. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study provided insights into the involvement of phosphorylation modification in ramie fiber growth, and our functional characterization of whole_GLEAN_10029667 provide the first evidence to indicate the involvement of phosphorylation modification in the regulation of KNOX protein function in plants.


Assuntos
Boehmeria/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteoma , Boehmeria/genética , Boehmeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Biblioteca Gênica , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosforilação , Casca de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Têxteis , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
9.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684838

RESUMO

The chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from the leaves, stems, and roots of Kadsura coccinea (K. coccinea) were investigated. The essential oils were extracted by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were examined with DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS cation radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum microbiocidal concentrations (MMC). Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oils were also tested. A total of 46, 44, and 47 components were identified in the leaf, stem, and root oils, representing 95.66%, 97.35%, and 92.72% of total composition, respectively. The major compounds of three essential oils were α-pinene (16.60-42.02%), ß-pinene (10.03-18.82%), camphene (1.56-10.95%), borneol (0.50-7.71%), δ-cadinene (1.52-7.06%), and ß-elemene (1.86-4.45%). The essential oils were found to have weak antioxidant activities and cholinesterase inhibition activities. The essential oils showed more inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than those of other strains. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the root oil against S. aureus, with MIC of 0.78 mg/mL. Therefore, K. coccinea essential oils might be considered as a natural antibacterial agent against S. aureus with potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Kadsura/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Ionização de Chama/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710163

RESUMO

Xylem tracheids are the channels for water transport in conifer. Tracheid flow resistance is composed of tracheid lumen resistance and pit resistance. The single tracheid structure parameters in the stem and root of Sabina chinensis were obtained by dissociation and slicing, combined with numerical simulation to analyze the tracheid flow resistance characteristics. The results showed that the tracheid lumen resistance was determined by the tracheid width and tracheid length. The pit resistance was determined by the number of pits and single pit resistance. The single pit resistance was composed of four elements: the secondary cell wall, the border, the margo and the torus. The margo contributed a relatively large fraction of flow resistance, while the torus, the border and the secondary cell wall formed a small fraction. The size and position of the pores in the margo had a significant effect on the fluid velocity. The number of pits were proportional to tracheid length. The power curve, S-curve and inverse curve were fitted the scatter plot of total pit resistance, total resistance, total resistivity, which was found that there were the negative correlation between them. The three scatter plot values were larger in the stem than in the root, indicating that the tracheid structure in the root was more conducive to water transport than the stem. The ratio of tracheid lumen resistance to pit resistance mainly was less than 0.6 in the stem and less than 1 in the root, indicating that the pit resistance was dominant in the total resistance of the stem and root.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Xilema/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Madeira/fisiologia
11.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111026, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620431

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play numerous important roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies reported that BRs could promote stem growth by regulating the expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). However, the mechanism of XTHs involved in stem growth remains unclear. In this study, PcBRU1, which belonged to the XTH family, was upregulated by exogenous BL treatment in Pyrus communis. The expression of PcBRU1 was highest in stems and lowest in leaves. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that PcBRU1 was located in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressing PcBRU1 in tobaccos promoted the plant height and internode length. Electron microscopy and anatomical structure analysis showed that the cell wall was significantly thinner and the cells were slenderer in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PcBRU1 than in wild-type tobaccos. PcBRU1 promoted stem growth as it loosened the cell wall, leading to the change in cell morphology. In addition, overexpressing PcBRU1 altered the root development and leaf shape of transgenic tobaccos. Taken together, the results could provide a theoretical basis for the XTH family in regulating cell-wall elongation and stem growth.


Assuntos
Crescimento Celular , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo
12.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111046, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620444

RESUMO

Barren stalks and kernel abortion are the major obstacles that hinder maize production. After many years of inbreeding, our group produced a pair of barren stalk/non-barren stalk near-isogenic lines SN98A/SN98B. Under weak light stress, the barren stalk rate is up to 98 % in SN98A but zero in SN98B. Therefore, we consider that SN98A is a weak light-sensitive inbred line whereas SN98B is insensitive. In the present study, the near-isogenic lines SN98A/SN98B were used as test materials to conduct cytological and photosynthetic physiological analyses of the physiological mechanism associated with the differences in maize barren stalk induced by weak light stress. The results showed that weak light stress increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the function of chloroplasts, destroyed the normal rosette structure, inhibited photosynthetic electron transport, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. The actual photochemical quantum efficiency for PSI (Y(I)) and PSII (Y(II)), relative electron transfer rate for PSI (ETR(I)) and PSII (ETR(II)), and the P700 activities decreased significantly in the leaves of SN98A and SN98B under weak light stress, where the decreases were greater in SN98A than SN98B. After 10 days of shading treatment, the O2·- production rate, H2O2 contents, the yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ)), the donor side restriction for PSI (Y(ND)) and the quantum efficiency of cyclic electron flow photochemistry were always higher in SN98A than SN98B, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were always lower in SN98A than those in SN98B. These results show that SN98B has a stronger ability to remove ROS at its source, and maintain the integrity of the structure and function of the photosynthetic system. This self-protection mechanism is an important physiological reason for its adaptation to weak light.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/genética , Adaptação Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Energia Solar , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/efeitos da radiação , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos da radiação , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111048, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620445

RESUMO

Commercial avocado orchards typically consist of composite trees. Avocado is salt-sensitive, suffering from substantial growth and production depreciation when exposed to high sodium and chloride levels. Salt ions penetrate the roots and are subsequently transferred to the foliage. Hence, understanding distinct physiological responses of grafted avocado plant organs to salinity is of great interest. We compared the ion, metabolite and lipid profiles of leaves, roots and trunk drillings of mature 'Hass' scion grafted onto two different rootstocks during gradual exposure to salinity. We found that one rootstock, VC840, did not restrict the transport of irrigation solution components to the scion, leading to salt accumulation in the trunk and leaves. The other rootstock, VC152, functioned selectively, moderating the movement of toxic ions to the scion organs by accumulating them in the roots. The leaves of the scion grafted on the selective rootstock acquired the standard level of essential minerals without being exposed to excessive salt concentrations. However, this came with an energetic cost as the leaves transferred carbohydrates and storage lipids downward to the rootstock organs, which became a strong sink. We conclude that mutual scion-rootstock relationships enable marked tolerance to salt stress through selective ion transport and metabolic modifications.


Assuntos
Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Israel , Lipidômica , Metaboloma , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/genética
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684771

RESUMO

Excessive host inflammation following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We recently reported that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1) induces pro-inflammatory responses by activating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. A standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem (EAS) is a unique functional food that elicits anti-photoaging effects by suppressing pro-inflammatory signaling in hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B-exposed skin fibroblasts. To elucidate its potential in preventing excessive inflammation in COVID-19, we examined the effects of EAS on pro-inflammatory responses in S1-stimulated macrophages. Murine peritoneal exudate macrophages were co-treated with EAS and S1. Concentrations and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Expression and phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins were analyzed using western blotting and fluorescence immunomicroscopy. EAS significantly attenuated S1-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 in a concentration-dependent manner without reducing cell viability. EAS also markedly suppressed the S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß. However, among the TLR4 signaling proteins, EAS did not affect the degradation of inhibitor κBα, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase p54 subunit after S1 exposure. In contrast, EAS significantly suppressed S1-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Attenuation of S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 was greater than that by the Akt inhibitor perifosine, and the effects were potentiated by simultaneous treatment with both inhibitors. These results suggest that EAS attenuates S1-induced IL-6 and IL-1ß production by suppressing p44/42 MAPK and Akt signaling in macrophages. Therefore, EAS may be beneficial in regulating excessive inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/química , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asparagus (Planta)/metabolismo , Butadienos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641614

RESUMO

Designing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts with excellent performance has far-reaching significance. In this work, a high-activity biomass free-metal carbon catalyst with N and S co-doped was successfully prepared by using the KOH activated awn stem powder as the precursor with organic matter pore-forming doping technology, which is named TAAS. The content of pyridine nitrogen groups accounts for up to 36% of the total nitrogen content, and a rich pore structure is formed on the surface and inside, which are considered as the potential active centers of ORR. The results show that the specific surface area of TAAS reaches 191.04 m2/g, which effectively increases the active sites of the catalyst, and the initial potential and half slope potential are as high as 0.90 and 0.76 V vs. RHE, respectively. This study provides a low-cost, environmentally friendly and feasible strategy for the conversion of low-value agricultural and forestry wastes into high value-added products to promote sustainable development of energy and the environment.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Oxigênio/química , Caules de Planta/química , Biomassa , Catálise , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Porosidade
16.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577160

RESUMO

Seventeen new carbazole alkaloid derivatives, including a trimeric carbazole racemate, (±)-microphyltrine A (1), 15 dimeric carbazole racemates, (±)-microphyldines A-O (2-16), and a C-6-C-3″-methyl-linked dimeric carbazole, microphyldine P (17), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya microphylla (Merr. et Chun) Swingle. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS and NMR data analysis. The optically pure isomers of these isolated carbazole alkaloids were obtained by chiral HPLC separation and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Murraya/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0251937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506505

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating disease affecting trees belonging to the genus Pinus. To control the spread of PWD in the Masson pine forest in China, PWD resistant Masson pine clones have been selected by the Anhui Academy of Forestry. However, because Masson pine is a difficult-to-root species, producing seedlings is challenging, especially from trees older than 5 years of age, which impedes the application of PWD resistant clones. In this study, we investigated the factors affecting rooting of PWD resistant clones and established a cheap, reliable, and simple method that promotes rooting. We tested the effects of three management methods, four substrates, two cutting materials, two cutting treatments, and three collection times on the rooting of cuttings obtained from 9-year-old PWD resistant clones. Rooting was observed only in stem cuttings treated with the full-light automatic spray management method. Additionally, stem cuttings showed a significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than needles cuttings. Compared with other substrates, stem cuttings planted in perlite produced the longest adventitious root and the highest total root length and lateral root number. Moreover, stem cuttings of PWD resistant clones collected in May showed a significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than those collected in June and July. Moreover, stem cuttings prepared with a horizontal cut while retaining the needles showed significantly higher rooting rate and root quality than those prepared with a diagonal cut while partly removing the needles. This study promotes the reproduction of seedlings of PWD-resistant Masson pine clones which helps control the spread of PWD, meanwhile, provides a technical reference for the propagation of mature pine trees via cuttings.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Resistência à Doença , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/instrumentação , Pinus/microbiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Seleção Artificial
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502156

RESUMO

The stem lenticel is a highly specialized tissue of woody plants that has evolved to balance stem water retention and gas exchange as an adaptation to local environments. In this study, we applied genome-wide association studies and selective sweeping analysis to characterize the genetic architecture and genome-wide adaptive signatures underlying stem lenticel traits among 303 unrelated accessions of P. tomentosa, which has significant phenotypic and genetic variations according to climate region across its natural distribution. In total, we detected 108 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms, annotated to 88 candidate genes for lenticel, of which 9 causative genes showed significantly different selection signatures among climate regions. Furthermore, PtoNAC083 and PtoMYB46 showed significant association signals and abiotic stress response, so we overexpressed these two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that the number of stem cells in all three overexpression lines was significantly reduced by PtoNAC083 overexpression but slightly increased by PtoMYB46 overexpression, suggesting that both genes are involved in cell division and expansion during lenticel formation. The findings of this study demonstrate the successful application of an integrated strategy for dissecting the genetic basis and landscape genetics of complex adaptive traits, which will facilitate the molecular design of tree ideotypes that may adapt to future climate and environmental changes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Caules de Planta/genética , Populus/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alelos , Variação Biológica da População , Epigênese Genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482904

RESUMO

Perennial woody plants undergo a period of dormancy from the beginning of autumn until the end of spring. Whereas the molecular and physiological events that characterize dormancy release of buds have been described in detail, those occurring in woody tissues underneath the buds are mostly unknown. To bridge this gap, the mRNA populations of cane segments located underneath the bud were analyzed at bud dormancy (E-L 1) and at bud burst (E-L 4). They revealed an important reprogramming of gene expression suggesting that cell division, cell wall metabolism and the mobilization of sugars are the main metabolic and cellular events occurring in cane woody tissues at bud burst. Also, the upregulation of several genes of sugar metabolism, encoding starch- and sucrose-degrading enzymes and sugar transporters, correlates with the decrease in starch and soluble sugars in woody tissues concomitant with increased sucrose synthase and α-amylolytic biochemical activities. The latter is likely due to the VviAMY2 gene that encodes a functional α-amylase as observed after its heterologous expression in yeast. Taken together, these results are consistent with starch and sugar mobilization in canes being primarily involved in grapevine secondary growth initiation and supporting the growth of the emerging bud.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Portugal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
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