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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 263-281, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740898

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Plant-specific Dof transcription factors VDOF1 and VDOF2 are novel regulators of vascular cell differentiation through the course of a lifetime in Arabidopsis, with shifting their transcriptional target genes. Vascular system is one of critical tissues for vascular plants to transport low-molecular compounds, such as water, minerals, and the photosynthetic product, sucrose. Here, we report the involvement of two Dof transcription factors, named VASCULAR-RELATED DOF1 (VDOF1)/VDOF4.6 and VDOF2/VDOF1.8, in vascular cell differentiation and lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. VDOF genes were expressed in vascular tissues, but the detailed expression sites were partly different between VDOF1 and VDOF2. Vein patterning and lignin analysis of VDOF overexpressors and double mutant vdof1 vdof2 suggested that VDOF1 and VDOF2 would function as negative regulators of vein formation in seedlings, and lignin deposition in inflorescence stems. Interestingly, effects of VDOF overexpression in lignin deposition were different by developmental stages of inflorescence stems, and total lignin contents were increased and decreased in VDOF1 and VDOF2 overexpressors, respectively. RNA-seq analysis of inducible VDOF overexpressors demonstrated that the genes for cell wall biosynthesis, including lignin biosynthetic genes, and the transcription factor genes related to stress response and brassinosteroid signaling were commonly affected by VDOF1 and VDOF2 overexpression. Taken together, we concluded that VDOF1 and VDOF2 are novel regulators of vascular cell differentiation through the course of a lifetime, with shifting their transcriptional target genes: in seedlings, the VDOF genes negatively regulate vein formation, while at reproductive stages, the VDOF proteins target lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Inflorescência , Mutação , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sementes , Análise de Sequência
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000830, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810128

RESUMO

Plants are attacked by herbivores, which often specialize on different tissues, and in response, have evolved sophisticated resistance strategies that involve different types of chemical defenses frequently targeted to different tissues. Most known phytohormones have been implicated in regulating these defenses, with jasmonates (JAs) playing a pivotal role in complex regulatory networks of signaling interactions, often generically referred to as "cross talk." The newly identified class of phytohormones, strigolactones (SLs), known to regulate the shoot architecture, remain unstudied with regard to plant-herbivore interactions. We explored the role of SL signaling in resistance to a specialist weevil (Trichobaris mucorea) herbivore of the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, that attacks the root-shoot junction (RSJ), the part of the plant most strongly influenced by alterations in SL signaling (increased branching). As SL signaling shares molecular components, such as the core F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2), with another new class of phytohormones, the karrikins (KARs), which promote seed germination and seedling growth, we generated transformed lines, individually silenced in the expression of NaMAX2, DWARF 14 (NaD14: the receptor for SL) and CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (NaCCD7: a key enzyme in SL biosynthesis), and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (NaKAI2: the KAR receptor). The mature stems of all transgenic lines impaired in the SL, but not the KAR signaling pathway, overaccumulated anthocyanins, as did the stems of plants attacked by the larvae of weevil, which burrow into the RSJs to feed on the pith of N. attenuata stems. T. mucorea larvae grew larger in the plants silenced in the SL pathway, but again, not in the KAI2-silenced plants. These phenotypes were associated with elevated JA and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) levels and significant changes in the accumulation of defensive compounds, including phenolamides and nicotine. The overaccumulation of phenolamides and anthocyanins in the SL pathway-silenced plants likely resulted from antagonism between the SL and JA pathway in N. attenuata. We show that the repressors of SL signaling, suppressor of max2-like (NaSMXL6/7), and JA signaling, jasmonate zim-domain (NaJAZs), physically interact, promoting NaJAZb degradation and releasing JASMONATE INSENSITIVE 1 (JIN1/MYC2) (NaMYC2), a critical transcription factor promoting JA responses. However, the increased performance of T. mucorea larvae resulted from lower pith nicotine levels, which were inhibited by increased IAA levels in SL pathway-silenced plants. This inference was confirmed by decapitation and auxin transport inhibitor treatments that decreased pith IAA and increased nicotine levels. In summary, SL signaling tunes specific sectors of specialized metabolism in stems, such as phenylpropanoid and nicotine biosynthesis, by tailoring the cross talk among phytohormones, including JA and IAA, to mediate herbivore resistance of stems. The metabolic consequences of the interplay of SL, JA, and IAA signaling revealed here could provide a mechanism for the commonly observed pattern of herbivore tolerance/resistance trade-offs.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lactonas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Larva , Metabolômica , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Gorgulhos/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735612

RESUMO

Halophyte Lobularia maritima LmSAP encodes an A20AN1 zinc-finger stress-associated protein which expression is up-regulated by abiotic stresses and heavy metals in transgenic tobacco. To deepen our understanding of LmSAP function, we isolated a 1,147 bp genomic fragment upstream of LmSAP coding sequence designated as PrLmSAP. In silico analyses of PrLmSAP revealed the presence of consensus CAAT and TATA boxes and cis-regulatory elements required for abiotic stress, phytohormones, pathogen, and wound responses, and also for tissue-specific expression. The PrLmSAP sequence was fused to the ß-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and transferred to rice. Histochemical GUS staining showed a pattern of tissue-specific expression in transgenic rice, with staining observed in roots, coleoptiles, leaves, stems and floral organs but not in seeds or in the root elongation zone. Wounding strongly stimulated GUS accumulation in leaves and stems. Interestingly, we observed a high stimulation of the promoter activity when rice seedlings were exposed to NaCl, PEG, ABA, MeJA, GA, cold, and heavy metals (Al3+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+). These results suggest that the LmSAP promoter can be a convenient tool for stress-inducible gene expression and is a potential candidate for crop genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
4.
Nature ; 584(7819): 109-114, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669710

RESUMO

The size of plants is largely determined by growth of the stem. Stem elongation is stimulated by gibberellic acid1-3. Here we show that internode stem elongation in rice is regulated antagonistically by an 'accelerator' and a 'decelerator' in concert with gibberellic acid. Expression of a gene we name ACCELERATOR OF INTERNODE ELONGATION 1 (ACE1), which encodes a protein of unknown function, confers cells of the intercalary meristematic region with the competence for cell division, leading to internode elongation in the presence of gibberellic acid. By contrast, upregulation of DECELERATOR OF INTERNODE ELONGATION 1 (DEC1), which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, suppresses internode elongation, whereas downregulation of DEC1 allows internode elongation. We also show that the mechanism of internode elongation that is mediated by ACE1 and DEC1 is conserved in the Gramineae family. Furthermore, an analysis of genetic diversity suggests that mutations in ACE1 and DEC1 have historically contributed to the selection of shorter plants in domesticated populations of rice to increase their resistance to lodging, and of taller plants in wild species of rice for adaptation to growth in deep water. Our identification of these antagonistic regulatory factors enhances our understanding of the gibberellic acid response as an additional mechanism that regulates internode elongation and environmental fitness, beyond biosynthesis and gibberellic acid signal transduction.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730299

RESUMO

Flavonoids are key components of licorice plant that directly affect its medicinal quality. Importantly, the MYB family of transcription factors serves to regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in plants. The MYB transcription factors represent one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants and play important roles in the process of plant growth and development. MYB gene expression is induced by a number of plant hormones, including the lipid-based hormone jasmonate (JA). Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator that can induce the JA signaling pathway, which functions to regulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. In this study, MeJA was added to licorice cell suspensions, and RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes. As a result, the MYB transcription factors GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 were demonstrated to respond significantly to MeJA induction. Subsequently, the GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 protein were shown to localize to the cell nucleus, and it was verified that GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 could positively regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in licorice cells. Overall, this research helps illustrate the molecular regulation of licorice flavonoid biosynthesis induced by MeJA.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555603

RESUMO

Plants respond to changes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation both morphologically and physiologically. Among the variety of plant UV-responses, the synthesis of UV-absorbing flavonoids constitutes an effective non-enzymatic mechanism to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage caused by UV stress, either reducing the penetration of incident UV radiation or acting as quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we designed a UV-exclusion experiment to investigate the effects of UV radiation in Silene littorea. We spectrophotometrically quantified concentrations of both anthocyanins and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in petals, calyces, leaves and stems. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV effect on the photosynthetic activity in hours of maximum solar radiation and we tested the impact of UV radiation on male and female reproductive performance. We found that anthocyanin concentrations showed a significant decrease of about 20% with UV-exclusion in petals and stems, and a 30% decrease in calyces. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds under UV-exclusion decreased by approximately 25% in calyces and stems, and 12% in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of plants grown under UV decreased at maximum light stress, reaching an inhibition of 58% of photosynthetic activity, but their ability to recover after light-stress was not affected. In addition, exposure to UV radiation did not affect ovule production or seed set per flower, but decreased pollen production and total seed production per plant by 31% and 69%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that UV exposure produced opposing effects on the accumulation of plant phenolic compounds and reproduction. UV radiation increased the concentration of phenolic compounds, suggesting a photoprotective role of plant phenolics against UV light, yet overall reproduction was compromised.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Silene/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/efeitos da radiação
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584888

RESUMO

Ficus krishnae stem bark and leaves are used for diabetes treatment in traditional medicines. Stem bark of F. krishnae was sequentially extracted with hexane, methanol and water, and these extracts were tested for their antihyperglyceamic activity by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in overnight fasted glucose loaded normal rats. Hexane extract showed significant glucose lowering activity in OGTT, and the triterpene alcohols (cycloartenol+24-methylenecycloartanol) (CA+24-MCA) were isolated together from it by activity guided isolation and characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The ratio of the chemical constituents CA and 24-MCA in (CA+24-MCA) was determined as 2.27:1.00 by chemical derivatization and gas chromatographic quantification. (CA+24-MCA) in high fat diet-streptozotocin induced type II diabetic rats showed significant antidiabetes activity at 1 mg/kg and ameliorated derailed blood glucose and other serum biochemical parameters. Cytoprotective activity of (CA+24-MCA) from glucose toxicity was evaluated in cultured RIN-5F cells by MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy. (CA+24-MCA) in in vitro studies showed enhanced cell viability in RIN-5F cells and significant protection of beta cells from glucose toxicity. Both in in vivo and in vitro studies (CA+24-MCA) showed enhancement in insulin release from the beta cells. In short term toxicity studies in mice (CA+24-MCA) did not show any conspicuous toxic symptoms. The combination of the phytosterols (CA+24-MCA) obtained through activity guided isolation of the stem bark of F. krishnae showed significant activity, and therefore is a promising candidate for new generation antidiabetes drug development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ficus/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fitosteróis/química , Triterpenos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Ficus/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437364

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) availability is an important factor regulating the feedback mechanisms of global change. This research uses a small Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland i = on the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China as the research object and 15N tracer technology to study the effects of different nitrogen deposition levels (0 gN/m2, 4 gN/m2, and 8 gN/m2) through in situ controlled field experiments. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of nitrogen in plants and soils and their short-term effects on nitrous oxide emissions fluxes were studied. The results showed that 1) the nitrogen content in the stems, leaves and roots of C. angustifolia decreased slowly with the growing season. Nitrogen application significantly increased the absorption of tracer nitrogen in the aboveground and underground plant parts (P<0.01), and the more nitrogen applied, the larger the absorption amount was (P<0.01). The absorbed amount accounted for 52%-86% of the total tracer nitrogen. 2) The tracer nitrogen in the soil did not show a significant change; the more nitrogen that was applied, the more nitrogen that was retained in the soil, and the tracer nitrogen adsorbed by the soil was mainly ammonium nitrogen. 3) The variation in the 15N-labeled nitric oxide emissions flux under different nitrogen treatments was consistent; nitrogen application increased the 15N-labeled nitric oxide emissions flux, but the difference between the low-nitrogen and high-nitrogen treatments was not significant (P>0.05).


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , China , Nitratos/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Plant Sci ; 294: 110459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234218

RESUMO

Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) is a key NADPH-dependent flavo-protein oxidoreductase which can catalyze the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) to protect plant cells from oxidative damage induced by Reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and functional divergence of Populus GR family, three GR genes (PtGR1.1/1.2/2) were cloned from Populus trichocarpa and their biochemical characteristics were analyzed in this study. All the three genes were expressed in root, stem, leaf and bud, and the expression of PtGR genes were general upregulated under salicylic acid and alamethicin treatment. PtGR1.1 and PtGR1.2 were localized in cytoplasm, while PtGR2 was in chloroplast. The three PtGR proteins showed different enzymatic activities, apparent kinetic characteristic and thermal stability profiles. However, they have similar bivalent metal ions (Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) sensitivity and optimum pH profiles. Our study sheds light on a comprehensive information of glutathione reductase family in P. trichocarpa, and proved PtGR genes play critical roles when suffering different stresses.


Assuntos
Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/enzimologia , Alameticina/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Cinética , Chumbo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
Gene ; 744: 144626, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224272

RESUMO

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce is a well-known traditional Chinese herb. Polysaccharides are major bioactive components of Polygonatum odoratum, which can improve immunity, and are used to treat rheumatic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. This study identified potential genes and transcription factors (TFs) that regulate polysaccharide synthesis in Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce using RNA sequencing data from leaf, stem, and rhizome tissues. 76,714 unigenes were annotated in public databases. Analysis of KEGG annotations identified 18 key enzymes responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis and the most of the upregulated expressed unigenes were enriched in rhizome tissue compared with leaf or stem tissue. 73 TFs involved in polysaccharide synthesis were predicted. In addition, key enzyme genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. This study substantially enlarged the public transcriptome datasets of this species, and provided insight into detection of novel genes involved in synthesis of polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Polygonatum/genética , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Transcriptoma , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Polygonatum/enzimologia , Polygonatum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4209, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144390

RESUMO

We evaluated the effect of separately adding two sources of lanthanum (La), LaCl3 and La(NO3)3 × 6H2O at a concentration of 40 µM each, to the preservative solution of 15 cut tulip flower varieties. Ascorbic acid (AsA; 0.2 g/L) was used as a reference solution, while distilled water was used as control. The variety Laura Fygi recorded the longest vase life with 13 days. The highest water consumption per gram of stem fresh biomass weight (FBW) (2.5 mL) was observed in the variety Violet Beauty, whereas the lowest (1.098 mL) was recorded in Pink Impression. At the end of the vase life period, higher concentrations of total soluble sugars in petals and total soluble proteins in leaves were recorded in La-treated stems, compared to the AsA treatment and the control. Additionally, La(NO3)3 × 6H2O supply increased the fresh weight of stems in vase and prolonged vase life. Moreover, this treatment resulted in the highest foliar concentration of chlorophylls at the end of vase life. Therefore, La increases tulip flower vase life as a consequence of improving the concentrations of some vital biomolecules.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lantânio/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Tulipa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Tulipa/efeitos dos fármacos , Tulipa/metabolismo
13.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 127, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Node is the central organ of transferring nutrients and ions in plants. Cadmium (Cd) induced crop pollution threatens the food safety. Breeding of low Cd accumulation cultivar is a chance to resolve this universal problem. This study was performed to identify tissue specific genes involved in Cd accumulation in different rice stem nodes. Panicle node and the first node under panicle (node I) were sampled in two rice cultivars: Xiangwanxian No. 12 (low Cd accumulation cultivar) and Yuzhenxiang (high Cd accumulation cultivar). RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs. RESULTS: Xiangwanxian No. 12 had lower Cd concentration in panicle node, node I and grain compared with Yuzhenxiang, and node I had the highest Cd concentration in the two cultivars. RNA seq analysis identified 4535 DEGs and 70 miRNAs between the two cultivars. Most genesrelated to the "transporter activity", such as OsIRT1, OsNramp5, OsVIT2, OsNRT1.5A, and OsABCC1, play roles in blocking the upward transport of Cd. Among the genes related to "response to stimulus", we identified OsHSP70 and OsHSFA2d/B2c in Xiangwanxian No. 12, but not in Yuzhenxiang, were all down-regulated by Cd stimulus. The up-regulation of miRNAs (osa-miR528 and osa-miR408) in Xiangwanxian No. 12 played a potent role in lowering Cd accumulation via down regulating the expression of candidate genes, such as bZIP, ERF, MYB, SnRK1 and HSPs. CONCLUSIONS: Both panicle node and node I of Xiangwanxian No. 12 played a key role in blocking the upward transportation of Cd, while node I played a critical role in Yuzhenxiang. Distinct expression patterns of various transporter genes such as OsNRT1.5A, OsNramp5, OsIRT1, OsVIT2 and OsABCC1 resulted in differential Cd accumulation in different nodes. Likewise, distinct expression patterns of these transporter genes are likely responsible for the low Cd accumulation in Xiangwanxian No. 12 cultivar. MiRNAs drove multiple transcription factors, such as OsbZIPs, OsERFs, OsMYBs, to play a role in Cd stress response.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Chem ; 315: 126215, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014664

RESUMO

The accumulation and transformation of arsenic species have been studied in the context of hydroponic cultivation of strawberry plants. Cultivation experiments have been performed by adding inorganic arsenic at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 via root irrigation. The total arsenic content was determined by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). The accumulation was dependent on the concentration of arsenic added to the irrigation and the arsenic species. Arsenic (III) accumulated at higher rates than arsenic (V). A greater accumulation of arsenic was found in roots (0.44-4.10 mg kg-1) than in stems (0.43-1.27 mg kg-1) and fruits (0.22-0.30 mg kg-1). The speciation results obtained by HPLC-HG-AFS analysis indicated that the addition of As(III) resulted in a partial methylation producing monomethyl arsenic (MMA) and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). After As(V) addition, only MMA was observed and this was accompanied with a notable reduction in the ratio of As(V) to As(III).


Assuntos
Arseniatos/administração & dosagem , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/administração & dosagem , Fragaria/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Metilação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 431-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907707

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal-mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal-mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)-mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Mimosina/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Tampões (Química) , Cátions , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Solubilidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926459

RESUMO

By screening an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of Salvia miltiorrhiza, we detected an acidic protein, SmGRP1, with no significant similarities to the other sequences in public databases. SmGRP1 encodes a peptide of 151 amino acids, 33.77 % of which are glutamic acid residues, and the peptide was positive according to "stains-all" staining. Expression analysis revealed that SmGRP1 was expressed in all examined tissues of S. miltiorrhiza but was most highly expressed in the leaves and stems. Without a signal peptide, SmGRP1 localized to the cytoplasm in protoplasts in subcellular localization experiments. SmGRP1 expression was prominently enhanced by ABA and darkness treatments; the protein could also be induced by high temperature, NaCl, and dehydration treatments, while low temperature suppressed its expression. Furthermore, although there were no obvious phenotypic differences in SmGRP1 overexpression and SmGRP1 knockdown mutants compared with control plants under normal culture conditions, the stomata of the knockdown lines remained open when treated with ABA, darkness, NO, and H2O2. In addition, the water loss rate of the knockdown mutants was faster than that of the control lines and overexpression mutants when exposed to air. These observations indicate that SmGRP1 is a novel acidic protein with potential calcium-binding capability and is involved in stomatal movement and stress resistance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Escuridão , Desidratação/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928667

RESUMO

The development of high-yielding wheat genotypes containing micronutrient-dense grains are the main priorities of biofortification programs. At the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, breeders have successfully crossed high zinc progenitors including synthetic hexaploid wheat, T. dicoccum, T. spelta and landraces to generate high-zinc varieties. In this study, we report a genome-wide association using a wheat diversity panel to dissect the genetics controlling zinc, iron, copper, manganese and phosphorus concentrations in the grain and rachis during grain development and at physiological maturity. Significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for each nutrient using multi-locus mixed model methodologies. For mature grain, markers that showed significant pleiotropic effects were found on chromosomes 1A, 3B and 5B, of which those on chromosome 5B at ∼95.5 cM were consistent over two growing seasons. Co-located MTAs were identified for the nutrient concentrations in developing grain, rachis and mature grain on multiple chromosomes. The identified genomic regions included putative candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport and storage protein processing. These findings add to our understanding of the genetics of the five important nutrients in wheat grain and provide information on genetic markers for selecting high micronutrient genotypes.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Triticum/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947701

RESUMO

Forsythiae Fructus (FF) is a widely used folk medicine in China, Japan, and Korea. The distribution of bioactive constituents throughout the fruit segments has rarely been addressed, although mounting evidence suggests that plant secondary metabolites are synthesized and distributed regularly. The phytochemical profiles of three segments of FF (pericarp, stalk and seed) were firstly revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantitative analysis of twenty-one bioactive constituents, including three phenylethanoid glycosides, five lignans, eight flavonoids, and five phenolic acids to explore the spatial distribution of bioactive constituents. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) were conducted to visualize and verify the distribution regularity of twenty-one analytes among three segments. The results showed that phytochemical profiles of the three segments were similar, i.e., phenylethanoid glycosides covering the most part were the predominant compounds, followed by lignans, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Nevertheless, the abundance of twenty-one bioactive constituents among three segments was different. Specifically, phenylethanoid glycosides were highly expressed in the seed; lignans were primarily enriched in the stalk; flavonoids were largely concentrated in the pericarp, while the contents of phenolic acids showed no much difference among various segments. The research improves our understanding of distribution patterns for bioactive constituents in FF, and also complements some scientific data for further exploring the quality formation mechanism of FF.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Forsythia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111763, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931382

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality that allows the destruction of tumor cells and microorganisms by reactive oxygen species, formed by the combination of photosensitizer (PS), molecular oxygen and adequate wavelength light. This research, through a clean methodology that involves pressurized liquids extraction (PLE), obtained a highly antimicrobial extract of Tetragonia tetragonoides, which rich in chlorophylls as photosensitizers. The Chlorophylls-based extract (Cbe-PLE) presented pharmacological safety, through the maintenance of cellular viability. In addition, Cbe-PLE showed great efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, with severe dose-dependent damage to the cell wall of the pathogen. The obtained product has a high potential for the development of photostimulated phytotherapic formulations for clinical applications in localized infections, as a complementary therapeutic alternative to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aizoaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/farmacologia , Luz , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have been used as an important source of indispensable bioactive compounds in various cosmetics, foods, and medicines. However, the subsequent functional annotation of these compounds seems arduous because of the largely uncharacterized, vast metabolic repertoire of plant species with known biological phenotypes. Hence, a rapid multi-parallel screening and characterization approach is needed for plant functional metabolites. RESULTS: Fifty-one species representing three plant families, namely Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae, were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-MS/MS) as well as multivariate analyses. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolite profiling datasets indicated a distinct clustered pattern for 51 species depending on plant parts (leaves and stems) and relative phylogeny. Examination of their relative metabolite contents showed that the extracts from Fabaceae plants were abundant in amino acids, fatty acids, and genistein compounds. However, the extracts from Rosaceae had higher levels of catechin and ellagic acid derivatives, whereas those from Asteraceae were higher in kaempferol derivatives and organic acids. Regardless of the different families, aromatic amino acids, branch chain amino acids, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids related to the shikimate pathway were abundant in leaves. Alternatively, certain amino acids (proline, lysine, and arginine) as well as fatty acids levels were higher in stem extracts. Further, we investigated the associated phenotypes, i.e., antioxidant activities, affected by the observed spatial (leaves and stem) and intra-family metabolomic disparity in the plant extracts. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that ellagic acid, mannitol, catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin derivatives were positively correlated with antioxidant phenotypes, whereas eriodictyol was positively correlated with tyrosinase inhibition activity. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that metabolite profiling, including multi-parallel approaches and integrated bioassays, may help the expeditious characterization of plant-derived metabolites while simultaneously unraveling their chemodiversity.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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