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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 19-40, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453323

RESUMO

Eleocharis dulcis, an aquatic plant belonging to Cyperaceae family, is indigenous to Asia, and also occurs in tropical Africa and Australia. The edible corm part of E. dulcis is a commonly consumed aquatic vegetable with a planting area of 44.46 × 103 hm2 in China. This work aims to explore the potential of E. dulcis corm for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits by reviewing its nutrients, phytochemicals, functions, processing and food products. Eleocharis dulcis corm contains starches, dietary fibers, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, phenolics, sterols, puchiin, saponins, minerals and vitamins. Among them, phenolics including flavonoids and quinones could be the major bioconstituents that largely contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and hypolipidemic functions. Peel wastes of E. dulcis corm tend to be enriched in phenolics to a much higher extent than the edible pulp. Fresh-cut E. dulcis corm can be consumed as a ready-to-eat food or processed into juice for beverage production, and anti-browning processing is a key to prolonging shelf life. Present food products of E. dulcis corm are centered on various fruit and vegetable beverages, and suffer from single categories and inadequate development. In brief, underutilized E. dulcis corm possesses great potential for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eleocharis/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
2.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111071, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763862

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) deficiency affects crop production and quality. Rho of plants (ROPs) involves in multiple physiological processes in plants. While it has not been well characterized under Fe deficiency, especially in perennial woody plants. In our study, we cloned ROP homologous gene MxRop1 from Malus xiaojinenesis, then overexpressed it in Arabidopsis, showing enhanced plant tolerance to Fe deficiency, which demonstrated its gene function during this stress. Overexpression of MxRop1 also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Moreover, active state of MxRop1 (CA-MxRop1) interacted with N-terminal region of MxrbohD1, one ROS synthesis gene. When MxrbohD1 was overexpressed in apple calli, it showed significantly increased H2O2 content, fresh weight and FCR activity, while ROS inhibitor application dramatically inhibited FCR activity, demonstrating ROS produced by MxrbohD1 regulated Fe deficiency responses. Furthermore, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation, MxrbohD1 was overexpressed in apple roots, with increased expression of Fe deficiency-induced genes and increased root FCR activity. Under Fe deficiency, it exhibited slight leaf yellowing phenotype. Co-expression of CA-MxRop1 and MxrbohD1 significantly induced ROS generation. Finally, we proposed that MxRop1 interacted with MxrbohD1 to modulate ROS mediated Fe deficiency adaptive responses in Malus xiaojinensis, which will provide a guidance of cultivation of Fe-deficiency tolerant apple plant.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
3.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111026, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620431

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play numerous important roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies reported that BRs could promote stem growth by regulating the expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). However, the mechanism of XTHs involved in stem growth remains unclear. In this study, PcBRU1, which belonged to the XTH family, was upregulated by exogenous BL treatment in Pyrus communis. The expression of PcBRU1 was highest in stems and lowest in leaves. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that PcBRU1 was located in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressing PcBRU1 in tobaccos promoted the plant height and internode length. Electron microscopy and anatomical structure analysis showed that the cell wall was significantly thinner and the cells were slenderer in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PcBRU1 than in wild-type tobaccos. PcBRU1 promoted stem growth as it loosened the cell wall, leading to the change in cell morphology. In addition, overexpressing PcBRU1 altered the root development and leaf shape of transgenic tobaccos. Taken together, the results could provide a theoretical basis for the XTH family in regulating cell-wall elongation and stem growth.


Assuntos
Crescimento Celular , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684771

RESUMO

Excessive host inflammation following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We recently reported that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1) induces pro-inflammatory responses by activating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. A standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem (EAS) is a unique functional food that elicits anti-photoaging effects by suppressing pro-inflammatory signaling in hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B-exposed skin fibroblasts. To elucidate its potential in preventing excessive inflammation in COVID-19, we examined the effects of EAS on pro-inflammatory responses in S1-stimulated macrophages. Murine peritoneal exudate macrophages were co-treated with EAS and S1. Concentrations and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Expression and phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins were analyzed using western blotting and fluorescence immunomicroscopy. EAS significantly attenuated S1-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 in a concentration-dependent manner without reducing cell viability. EAS also markedly suppressed the S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß. However, among the TLR4 signaling proteins, EAS did not affect the degradation of inhibitor κBα, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase p54 subunit after S1 exposure. In contrast, EAS significantly suppressed S1-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Attenuation of S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 was greater than that by the Akt inhibitor perifosine, and the effects were potentiated by simultaneous treatment with both inhibitors. These results suggest that EAS attenuates S1-induced IL-6 and IL-1ß production by suppressing p44/42 MAPK and Akt signaling in macrophages. Therefore, EAS may be beneficial in regulating excessive inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/química , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asparagus (Planta)/metabolismo , Butadienos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 443, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tiller number is a factor determining panicle number and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Auxin plays an important role in the regulation of branch production. PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), an auxin efflux carrier, plays a role in the regulation of tiller number in rice (Oryza sativa); however, little is known on the roles of PIN1 in wheat. RESULTS: Nine homologs of TaPIN1 genes were identified in wheat, of which TaPIN1-6 genes showed higher expression in the stem apex and young leaf in wheat, and the TaPIN1-6a protein was localized in the plasma membrane. The down-expression of TaPIN1s increased the tiller number in TaPIN1-RNA interference (TaPIN1-RNAi) transgenic wheat plants, indicating that auxin might mediate the axillary bud production. By contrast, the spikelet number, grain number per panicle, and the 1000-grain weight were decreased in the TaPIN1-RNAi transgenic wheat plants compared with those in the wild type. In summary, a reduction of TaPIN1s expression increased the tiller number and grain yield per plant of wheat. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure of nine TaPIN1 proteins were analyzed, and subcellular localization of TaPIN1-6a was located in the plasma membrane. Knock-down expression of TaPIN1 genes increased the tiller number of transgenic wheat lines. Our study suggests that TaPIN1s is required for the regulation of grain yield in wheat.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 473, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation modification, one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins, widely participates in the regulation of plant growth and development. Fibers extracted from the stem bark of ramie are important natural textile fibers; however, the role of phosphorylation modification in the growth of ramie fibers is largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we report a phosphoproteome analysis for the barks from the top and middle section of ramie stems, in which the fiber grows at different stages. A total of 10,320 phosphorylation sites from 9,170 unique phosphopeptides that were assigned to 3,506 proteins was identified, and 458 differentially phosphorylated sites from 323 proteins were detected in the fiber developmental barks. Twelve differentially phosphorylated proteins were the homologs of Arabidopsis fiber growth-related proteins. We further focused on the function of the differentially phosphorylated KNOX protein whole_GLEAN_10029667, and found that this protein dramatically repressed the fiber formation in Arabidopsis. Additionally, using a yeast two-hybridization assay, we identified a kinase and a phosphatase that interact with whole_GLEAN_10029667, indicating that they potentially target this KNOX protein to regulate its phosphorylation level. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study provided insights into the involvement of phosphorylation modification in ramie fiber growth, and our functional characterization of whole_GLEAN_10029667 provide the first evidence to indicate the involvement of phosphorylation modification in the regulation of KNOX protein function in plants.


Assuntos
Boehmeria/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteoma , Boehmeria/genética , Boehmeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Biblioteca Gênica , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosforilação , Casca de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Têxteis , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 264: 153485, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358945

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a global concern and often the primary factor contributing to land degradation, limiting crop growth and production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a low input high value forage legume with a wide adaptation. Examining the tissue-specific responses to salt stress will be important to understanding physiological changes of alfalfa. The responses of two alfalfa cultivars (salt tolerant 'Halo', salt intolerant 'Vernal') were studied for 12 weeks in five gradients of salt stress in a sand based hydroponic system in the greenhouse. The accumulation and localization of elements and organic compounds in different tissues of alfalfa under salt stress were evaluated using synchrotron beamlines. The pattern of chlorine accumulation for 'Halo' was: root > stem ~ leaf at 8 dSm-1, and root ~ leaf > stem at 12 dSm-1, potentially preventing toxic ion accumulation in leaf tissues. In contrast, for 'Vernal', it was leaf > stem ~ root at 8 dSm-1 and leaf > root ~ stem at 12 dSm-1. The distribution of chlorine in 'Halo' was relatively uniform in the leaf surface and vascular bundles of the stem. Amide concentration in the leaf and stem tissues was greater for 'Halo' than 'Vernal' at all salt gradients. This study determined that low ion accumulation in the shoot was a common strategy in salt tolerant alfalfa up to 8 dSm-1 of salt stress, which was then replaced by shoot tissue tolerance at 12 dSm-1.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloro/análise , Cloro/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/análise , Sódio/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279388

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures often results in a relatively low flowering rate in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees with younger leaves. This study aimed to verify the impact of stem girdling on litchi flowering by identifying and characterizing the induced metabolic changes. After a 60 day exposure to cold treatment at 15 °C/10 °C (12 h/12 h), the flowering rate of the girdled trees was 100%, while that of the non-girdled trees was 20%, indicating that girdling improved litchi flowering at its turning stage. The metabolic profiles of litchi leaves with and without stem girdling during floral induction were compared and 505 metabolites potentially associated with litchi flowering were detected. Most metabolites were involved in the metabolism of starch and sucrose, fatty acid, and phenylpyruvic acid. The metabolic pathways concerned with the biosynthesis of epinephrine, sucrose, and d-maltose were induced in leaves after girdling treatment. The level of galactitol, phenylpyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and 13-HPOT biosynthesis remained stable in the leaves from girdled trees but changed drastically in the leaves from non-girdled trees. In addition, 379 metabolites concerning flowering rate were characterized. Metabolism pathways of starch and sucrose, galactose, and linoleic acid are of great significance to the flowering of litchi. Linoleic acid exhibited the most significant variations between girdled trees and non-girdled trees with fold changes of up to 13.62. These results contribute to understanding the biological mechanism of litchi floral induction and the metabolic changes after stem girdling.


Assuntos
Litchi/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Litchi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Fenilpirúvicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
9.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198864

RESUMO

Members of the genus Cuscuta are generally considered to be non-photosynthetic, stem-holoparasitic flowering plants. Under certain circumstances, at least some members of the genus are capable of limited photosynthesis. The galls of the Smicronyx weevils formed on Cuscuta campestris are particularly rich in chlorophylls compared to the stem of the parasitic plant. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the photosynthetic activity in the inner and outer gall cortices in comparison to the non-photosynthetic stems and a reference plant (Arabidopsis thaliana). The recorded prompt chlorophyll fluorescence transients were analyzed using JIP test. Detailed analysis of the chlorophyll fluorescence confirmed the presence of actively functioning photosynthetic machinery, especially in the inner cortex of the galls. This photosynthesis, induced by the insect larvae, did not reach the levels of the photosynthetic activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Thylakoid protein complexes were identified by separation with two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS PAGE. It appeared that some of the complexes presented in A. thaliana are missing in C. campestris. We hypothesize that the insect-triggered transition from non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissue in the gall is driven by the increased requirements for nutrients related to the larval nutrition.


Assuntos
Besouros , Cuscuta , Fotossíntese , Caules de Planta , Animais , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Cuscuta/parasitologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/parasitologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314454

RESUMO

Photons during the dark period delay flowering in short-day plants (SDP). Red photons applied at night convert phytochromes to the active far-red absorbing form (Pfr), leading to inhibition of flowering. Far-red photons (greater than 700 nm) re-induce flowering when applied after a pulse of red photons during the dark period. However, far-red photons at sufficiently high intensity and duration delay flowering in sensitive species. Mechanistically, this response occurs because phytochrome-red (Pr) absorbance is not zero beyond 700 nm. We applied nighttime photons from near infrared (NIR) LEDs (peak 850 nm) over a 12 h dark period. Flowering was delayed in Glycine max and Cannabis sativa (two photosensitive species) by 3 and 12 days, respectively, as the flux of photons from NIR LEDs was increased up to 83 and 116 µmol m-2 s-1. This suggests that long wavelength photons from NIR LEDs can activate phytochromes (convert Pr to Pfr) and thus alter plant development.


Assuntos
Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raios Infravermelhos , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cannabis/metabolismo , Cannabis/efeitos da radiação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Fótons , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos da radiação
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1071-1083, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159440

RESUMO

Branching in long-lived plants can cause scarring at the base and affect wood density, which greatly inhibits wood yield and quality. Eucalyptus urophylla is one of the most important commercial forest tree species in South China, with diverse branch number and branch angles under different genetic backgrounds. However, the main elements and regulatory mechanisms associated with different branching traits in E. urophylla remain unclear. To identify the factors that may influence branching, the transcriptome and metabolome were performed on the shoot apex (SA), lateral shoot apex (LSA), and stem segment at the 5th axillary bud from the shoot apex (S1) in lines ZQUC14 (A) and LDUD26 (B), with A exhibiting a smaller Ba than B. A total of 307.3 million high-quality clean reads and nine hormones were identified from six libraries. Several differentially expressed regulatory factors were identified between the two genotypes of E. urophylla. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, plant hormone biosynthesis and their transport pathways. Furthermore, gene expression pattern analysis identified genes that were significantly downregulated or upregulated in S1 relative to the SA and LSA segments, and the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was constructed to explain branching development. This study clarified the main plant hormones and genes underlying branch numbers and angles of E. urophylla, confirmed that ABA and SA could promote a larger branch angle and smaller branch number, while IAA has an opposite function. Numbers of key candidate genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction were found in the positive regulation of branch formation. These novel findings should aid molecular breeding of branching in Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucalyptus/genética , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(8): e2100241, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081830

RESUMO

Artemisia fragrans is commonly used as a folk medicine as antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient agents. The villagers use its pungent odor to repel rodents, mites, and pests, as well as its essential oil and smoke after burning to treat lung infections after uprooting the plant. Herein, we extracted the essential oils (EOs) of different parts of the plant and analyzed their chemical compositions and antibacterial activities. The chemical analysis led to the identification of 73, 59, and 57 compounds in the EOs of the stem, leaf, and flower, respectively. All of the EOs exhibited antibacterial activities against both G+ and G- bacteria. The EOs of the leaf and flower were more effective against tested bacteria, except B. anthracis and P. aeruginosa, compared to that of the stem. The binary combination of the EOs (stem and flower) or (stem and leaf) showed a synergistic effect. Statistical analysis indicated EOs of leaf and flower are more potent than that of the stem. These findings suggest the application of leaf and flower of the plant, which not only can prevent its uprooting but also ensure better therapeutic function.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia
13.
J Plant Physiol ; 262: 153436, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring polar auxin transport (PAT) in plants and drawing conclusions from the observed transport data is only meaningful if these data are being analysed with a mathematical model which describes PAT. In this report we studied the polar auxin transport in Panax ginseng stems of different age and grown on different substrates. METHODS: We measured polar IAA transport in stems using a radio labelled IAA and analysed the transport data with a mathematical model we developed for Arabidopsis. RESULTS: We found that PAT in ginseng stems, as compared to Arabidopsis inflorescence stems, has a 2-fold lower transport velocity and a 3-fold lower steady state auxin flux. CONCLUSION: We were able to pinpoint two physiological parameters that influenced the observed transport characteristics in ginseng which differ from Arabidopsis, namely an increase in immobilization together with a reduced reflux of IAA from the surrounding tissue back to the transporting cells.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Panax/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Panax/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891670

RESUMO

Canthin-6-one, one of the main alkaloid compounds extracted from Ailanthus altissima, has recently attracted increasing interest for its antifungal activity. To evaluate the potential of canthin-6-one in controlling plant fungal diseases, we investigated the antifungal activity of canthin-6-one isolated from A. altissima against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in vitro. The mycelial growth rate and micro-broth dilution were used to test antifungal activity. Furthermore, label-free quantitative proteomics and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) techniques were applied to analyze the antifungal mechanism. It was found that canthin-6-one significantly inhibited the growth of Foc, and had higher inhibitory action than chlorothalonil at the same concentration. Proteomic analysis showed that the expression of 203 proteins altered significantly after canthin-6-one treatment. These differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in amino acid biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism pathways. These results suggest that canthin-6-one significantly interferes with the metabolism of amino acids. Therefore, it affects nitrogen nutrients and disturbs the normal physiological processes of fungi, and ultimately leads to the death of pathogens. This study provides a natural plant antifungal agent and a new perspective for the study of antifungal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ailanthus/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Carbolinas/química , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Ailanthus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Carbolinas/isolamento & purificação , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 6010-6019, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is a functional food from Central America. Interest in it is growing rapidly due to the many health benefits from the seed. However, when chia is grown at high latitudes, seed yield may be low whereas a high stem biomass and immature inflorescences are produced. Little is known about the chemical composition and the properties of stems and flowers. In this work, the metabolite profile, the antioxidant activity, and the total polyphenol content of stems and inflorescences were evaluated in a factorial experiment with different chia populations (commercial black chia and long-day flowering mutants G3, G8, and G17) and irrigation (100% and 50% of evapotranspiration). RESULTS: The results show the influence of irrigation and seed source on the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of chia flower and stem. Inflorescences exhibit higher antioxidant activity, suggesting their potential use as natural antioxidant. The mutants G3 and G8, at 50% irrigation, contained the highest amounts of compounds with nutraceutical value, especially within the flower. The mutant G17 showed lower antioxidant activity and polyphenol content compared to other seed sources but exhibited high omega 3 content in flowers but low in stems. This indicates that chia varieties should be chosen according to the objective of cultivation. CONCLUSION: These findings, indicating a close relation of metabolite content with irrigation and seed source, may provide the basis for the use of chia flower and stem for their nutraceutical value in the food, feed, and supplement industries. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , América Central , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flores/química , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Mutação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Salvia/genética , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 369, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742091

RESUMO

ANAC071 and its homolog ANAC096 are plant-specific transcription factors required for the initiation of cell division during wound healing in incised Arabidopsis flowering stems and Arabidopsis hypocotyl grafts; however, the mechanism remains mostly unknown. In this study, we showed that wound-induced cambium formation involved cell proliferation and the promoter activity of TDR/PXY (cambium-related gene) in the incised stem. Prior to the wound-induced cambium formation, both ANAC071 and ANAC096 were expressed at these sites. anac-multiple mutants significantly decreased wound-induced cambium formation in the incised stems and suppressed the conversion from mesophyll cells to cambial cells in an ectopic vascular cell induction culture system (VISUAL). Our results suggest that ANAC071 and ANAC096 are redundantly involved in the process of "cambialization", the conversion from differentiated cells to cambial cells, and these cambium-like cells proliferate and provide cells in wound tissue during the tissue-reunion process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Flores/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regeneração , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Filogenia , Caules de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112113, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690006

RESUMO

The main purpose of this work is to thoroughly describe the implementation protocol of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method in the plant analysis. Numerous feasibility studies and recent progress in instrumentation and trends in chemical analysis make LIBS an established method in plant bioimaging. In this work, we present an easy and straightforward phytotoxicity case study with a focus on LIBS method. We intend to demonstrate in detail how to manipulate with plants after exposures and how to prepare them for analyses. Moreover, we aim to achieve 2D maps of spatial element distribution with a good resolution without any loss of sensitivity. The benefits of rapid, low-cost bioimaging are highlighted. In this study, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) was treated with an aqueous dispersion of photon-upconversion nanoparticles (NaYF4 doped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ coated with carboxylated silica shell) in a hydroponic short-term toxicity test. After a 72-hour plant exposure, several macroscopic toxicity end-points were monitored. The translocation of Y, Yb, and Tm across the whole plant was set by employing LIBS with a lateral resolution 100 µm. The LIBS maps of rare-earth elements in B.oleracea plant grown with 50 µg/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated exposures showed the root as the main storage, while the transfer via stem into leaves was minimal. On the contrary, the LIBS maps of plants exposed to the 500 µg/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated uncover slightly different trends, nanoparticles as well as ions were transferred through the stem into leaves. However, the main storage organ was a root as well.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Túlio/toxicidade , Itérbio/administração & dosagem , Ítrio/administração & dosagem , Lasers , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espectral
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112124, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711578

RESUMO

Aniline, a synthetic compound widely used in industrial and pesticide production, is a potential environmental pollutant. The removal of aniline is extremely important to minimize threats to human health and the surrounding environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the removal efficiency and physiological response of Salix. babylonica cuttings to aniline pollution. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, spectral reflectance and the concentration of aniline in leaves, stems and roots were analysed. The experiment showed that S. babylonica has a strong removal effect on aniline wastewater. Cuttings from S. babylonica stems and roots played an important role in accumulating aniline. However, this increase in aniline concentration was dose dependent and was not always linear. With increasing aniline concentration in S. babylonica was increasingly stressed, with negative impacts on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance index in S. babylonica leaves. These results indicate that non-stomatal limitations are the main reason for the reduction in Pn in S. babylonica leaves due to chlorophyll structure destruction under aniline stress. In addition, aniline concentrations result in an unbalanced distribution of excitation energy between the two light systems, thereby hindering photosynthetic electron transfer and restricting the efficient operation of photosynthesis. Salix babylonica can endure moderate concentrations of aniline and has potential for the phyto-management of aniline-polluted wastewater, although further studies are needed using polluted wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/análise
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112125, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714138

RESUMO

Phytomanagement is proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly suggestion for sustainable use of large metal-contaminated areas. In the current work, the energy crop miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) was grown in ex situ conditions on agricultural soils presenting a Cd, Pb and Zn contamination gradient. After 93 days of culture, shoot and root growth parameters were measured. Soils and plants were sampled as well to study the TE accumulation in miscanthus and the effects of this plant on TE mobility in soils. Results demonstrated that miscanthus growth depended more on the soils silt content rather than TE-contamination level. Moreover, soil organic carbon at T93 increased in the soils after miscanthus cultivation by 25.5-45.3%, whereas CaCl2-extractible TEs decreased due to complex rhizosphere processes driving plant mineral uptake, and organic carbon inputs into the rhizosphere. In the contaminated soils, miscanthus accumulated Cd, Pb and Zn mainly in roots (BCF in roots: Cd " Zn > Pb), while strongly reducing the transfer of these elements from soil to all organs and from roots to rhizomes, stems and leaves (average TFs: 0.01-0.06, 0.11-1.15 and 0.09-0.79 corresponding to Cd, Pb and Zn respectively). Therefore, miscanthus could be considered a TE-excluder, hence a potential candidate crop for coupling phytostabilization and biomass production on the studied Metaleurop TE-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera
20.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110857, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775356

RESUMO

Dwarfism is an important agronomic trait in pumpkin that can increase yield. In this study, the dwarf Cucurbita pepo L. line X10 exhibited significantly longitudinally shorter cell length in the stem than did the normal-vine line JIN234. The dwarf stature of X10 was recovered with exogenous gibberellin (GA3) application, suggesting that X10 might be sensitive to GA biosynthesis. Genetic analysis revealed that this dwarf trait is controlled by a single completely dominant locus: CpDw (Cucurbita pepo L. Dwarf). Using 1,300 F2 individuals derived from a cross between X10 and JIN234, we mapped the CpDw locus to a region of approximately 24.6 kb on chromosome 10 that contain 5 annotated genes. The high expression level of Cp4.1LG10g05910.1 and high GA2ox enzyme activity in X10 revealed that the GA 2-oxidase gene Cp4.1LG10g05910.1 is a candidate gene for CpDw. Alignment of the Cp4.1LG10g05910.1 gene revealed two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations in the two exons, as well as several SNPs and InDels in the important functional elements of promoter between parental lines. Further allelic diversity analysis of the Cucurbita spp. germplasm resources indicated that Cp4.1LG10g05910.1 may be involved in vine growth during the early developmental stage in C. pepo but not in C. maxima or C. moschata. This study provides an important theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of vine length and crop breeding in pumpkin.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbita/genética , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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