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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760138

RESUMO

Ecological stoichiometric should be incorporated into management and nutrient impacted ecosystems dynamic to understand the status of ecosystems and ecological interaction. The present study focused on ecological stoichiometric characteristics of soil, and leaves, stems, and roots of different macrophytes after the banning of seine fishing in Shengjin Lake. For C, N, and P analysis from leaves, stems, roots, and soil to explore their stoichiometric ratio and deriving environmental forces, four dominant plant communities (Vallisneria natans, Zizania latifolia, Trapa natans and Carex schmidtii) were collected. The concentration of C, N, P and C: N: P ratio in leaves, stems, roots, and soil among the plant communities varied significantly. Along the depth gradient high C: N was measured in C.schmidtii soil (7.08±1.504) but not vary significantly (P >0.05). High C: P result was found in T.natans (81.14±43.88) and in V.natans soil (81.40±42.57) respectively with no significant difference (p>0.05). Besides, N: P ratio measured high in V. natans (13.7±4.05) and showed significant variation (P<0.05). High leaf C: N and N: P ratio was measured in C. schmidtii and V. natans respectively. Nevertheless, high leaf C: P ratio was measured in Z. latifolia. From the three studied organs, leaf C: N and N: P ratio showed high values compared to root and stems. The correlation analysis result showed that at 0-10cm depth soil organic carbon (SOC) correlated negatively with stem total phosphorus (STP), and root total nitrogen (RTN) (P<0.05) but positively strongly with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) and leaf total nitrogen (LTN) (P<0.01) respectively. Soil total nitrogen (STN) at 0-10cm strongly positively correlated with leaf total phosphorus (LTP) (P<0.01) and positively with RN: P and leaf total carbon (LTC) (P<0.05). Soil basic properties such as soil moisture content (SMC), bulky density (BD) and pH positively correlated with soil ecological stoichiometric characteristics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) result showed available nitrogen (AN), soil total nitrogen (STN), and available phosphorus (AP) were the potential determinants variables on plants stoichiometric characteristics.


Assuntos
Plantas/química , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Carex (Planta) , China , Ecossistema , Eleocharis , Hydrocharitaceae , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127372, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615381

RESUMO

The physicochemical and physiological properties of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from bamboo shoots were investigated in present study. IDF showed better adsorption capacity than the corresponding SDF from the same species. Microstructure observation results indicated that the surface of IDF was porous, whereas the SDF was relatively flat and compact. The cholesterol-adsorption capacities of IDF and SDF from Fargesia spathacea were relatively higher than the other species. Both SDF and IDF from F. spathacea showed potential prebiotic effects, although the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium promotion effects of SDF were relatively stronger than IDF. Compared with control, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids in IDF and SDF supplement groups were increased by 1.28 and 0.71 folds, respectively. These results suggested that F. spathacea dietary fibers with strong cholesterol-adsorption activity and prebiotic potential, could be used as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods production.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Prebióticos , Fenômenos Químicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555603

RESUMO

Plants respond to changes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation both morphologically and physiologically. Among the variety of plant UV-responses, the synthesis of UV-absorbing flavonoids constitutes an effective non-enzymatic mechanism to mitigate photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage caused by UV stress, either reducing the penetration of incident UV radiation or acting as quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we designed a UV-exclusion experiment to investigate the effects of UV radiation in Silene littorea. We spectrophotometrically quantified concentrations of both anthocyanins and UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in petals, calyces, leaves and stems. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV effect on the photosynthetic activity in hours of maximum solar radiation and we tested the impact of UV radiation on male and female reproductive performance. We found that anthocyanin concentrations showed a significant decrease of about 20% with UV-exclusion in petals and stems, and a 30% decrease in calyces. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds under UV-exclusion decreased by approximately 25% in calyces and stems, and 12% in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of plants grown under UV decreased at maximum light stress, reaching an inhibition of 58% of photosynthetic activity, but their ability to recover after light-stress was not affected. In addition, exposure to UV radiation did not affect ovule production or seed set per flower, but decreased pollen production and total seed production per plant by 31% and 69%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that UV exposure produced opposing effects on the accumulation of plant phenolic compounds and reproduction. UV radiation increased the concentration of phenolic compounds, suggesting a photoprotective role of plant phenolics against UV light, yet overall reproduction was compromised.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Silene/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/efeitos da radiação
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584888

RESUMO

Ficus krishnae stem bark and leaves are used for diabetes treatment in traditional medicines. Stem bark of F. krishnae was sequentially extracted with hexane, methanol and water, and these extracts were tested for their antihyperglyceamic activity by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in overnight fasted glucose loaded normal rats. Hexane extract showed significant glucose lowering activity in OGTT, and the triterpene alcohols (cycloartenol+24-methylenecycloartanol) (CA+24-MCA) were isolated together from it by activity guided isolation and characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The ratio of the chemical constituents CA and 24-MCA in (CA+24-MCA) was determined as 2.27:1.00 by chemical derivatization and gas chromatographic quantification. (CA+24-MCA) in high fat diet-streptozotocin induced type II diabetic rats showed significant antidiabetes activity at 1 mg/kg and ameliorated derailed blood glucose and other serum biochemical parameters. Cytoprotective activity of (CA+24-MCA) from glucose toxicity was evaluated in cultured RIN-5F cells by MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy. (CA+24-MCA) in in vitro studies showed enhanced cell viability in RIN-5F cells and significant protection of beta cells from glucose toxicity. Both in in vivo and in vitro studies (CA+24-MCA) showed enhancement in insulin release from the beta cells. In short term toxicity studies in mice (CA+24-MCA) did not show any conspicuous toxic symptoms. The combination of the phytosterols (CA+24-MCA) obtained through activity guided isolation of the stem bark of F. krishnae showed significant activity, and therefore is a promising candidate for new generation antidiabetes drug development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ficus/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fitosteróis/química , Triterpenos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Ficus/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 135-145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418382

RESUMO

Infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in humans are one of the main public health problems caused by sexually transmitted diseases. Objective of this study was to evaluate potential biological activity of the medicinal plant Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) on T. vaginalis. Methanolic extracts of the stems and leaves of A. mexicana, and different fractions were prepared with solvents of different polarities. The extracts and functional groups were detected containing sterols, triterpenes, quinones, flavonoids and, alkaloids. Extracts from both the stems and leaves of A. mexicana inhibited the growth of T. vaginalis with half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of 70.6 and 67.2 µg/ml, respectively. In the active fractions, the most abundant compounds were berberine and jatrorrhizine, with presumed antiparasitic activity.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichomonas vaginalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Vacinas Bacterianas , Ciclofosfamida , Depressão Química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina , Fluoruracila , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucovorina , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Quinonas , Esteróis , Triterpenos
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2025-2032, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The winemaking procedure results in the generation of stems, a by-product that is harmful to the environment. Concomitantly, stems are rich in polyphenols and, hence, they are putatively beneficial for human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the grape stem extracts derived from three native Greek vine varieties, namely Mavrodaphne, Muscat and Rhoditis were examined for their chemical composition and antioxidant and antimutagenic properties using a battery of in vitro biomarkers. RESULTS: All extracts are rich in polyphenols. Moreover, they exhibit potent antioxidant and antimutagenic properties with the extract of Mavrodaphne being the strongest in reducing the DPPH• and O2 -• radicals and the Fe3+ and in protecting plasmid DNA from peroxyl radical-induced oxidative modification. CONCLUSION: Therefore, although they are serious pollutants, grape stems contain phytochemicals with important biological properties and can be used as (ingredients of) bio-functional foods to improve certain aspects of human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vitis/química , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Grécia , Humanos , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Plasmídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 508-517, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237544

RESUMO

In this study, pot and field experiments were conducted to study the enrichment of soil cadmium by Kochia scoparia. Further, rotations in pot experiments were carried out with four varieties of Brassica rapa to verify the remediation effect of Kochia scoparia on cadmium contamination in soil. The enrichment capacity of Kochia scoparia was leaf > root > stem with bioconcentration factors (BCFCd) of 15.07, 5.44 and 2.96, respectively. The total cadmium in soil decreased by 6.02% to 13.60% after planting Kochia scoparia, and the activities of soil urease and acid phosphatase also increased. The results of pot cultivation shows that the above-ground cadmium content of Brassica rapa in Kochia scoparia-Brassica rapa rotation system decreased by 17.21% on average compared with the control group without rotation, whereas the biomass increased slightly, and the above-ground translocation factors (TFCd) did not change significantly. These results suggest that the rotation of Brassica rapa with Kochia scoparia could increase the yield of Brassica rapa, and effectively reduce the cadmium content in edible parts of Brassica rapa, toward the purpose of realizing the green agricultural concept of "harnessing while producing".


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bassia scoparia , Brassica rapa , Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Bassia scoparia/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 584-595, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237517

RESUMO

A method was established for simultaneous determination of 21 active constituents including flavanols, isoflavones, flavonols, dihydroflavones, dihydroflavonols, chalcones, pterocarpan, anthocyanidins and phenolic acids in Spatholobi Caulis by ultra fast liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry(UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS). Then, it was employed to analyze and evaluate the dynamic accumulation of multiple bioactive constituents in Spatholobi Caulis. The chromatographic separation was performed on a XBridge®C_(18)(4.6 mm×100 mm, 3.5 µm) at 30 ℃ with a gradient elution of 0.3% formic acid aqueous solution-methanol, and the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min~(-1), using multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. A comprehensive evaluation of the multiple bioactive constituents was carried out by gray correlation analysis(GRA). The 21 target components showed good linearity(r>0.999 0) in the range of the tested concentrations. The average recovery rates of the 21 components were from 97.46% to 103.6% with relative standard deviations less than 5.0%. There were differences in the contents of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis at diffe-rent harvest periods. Spatholobi Caulis had high quality from early November to early December, which is consistent with the local tradi-tional harvest period. This study reveals the rule of the dynamic accumulation of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis and provides basic information for the suitable harvest time. At the same time, it provides a new method reference for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal quality of Spatholobi Caulis.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110603, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304920

RESUMO

Both sides of tobacco leaves accumulate 210Po through their sticky hairs (trichomes) by means of diffusive deposition. It is known that tobacco leaves may contain high amounts of 210Po concentrations. However, there is less information about radionuclides in tobacco plants. In the study, the 210Po concentrations were determined monthly in different morphological parts of tobacco plants (leaf, stem, root) and soil samples and soil-to-plant transfer factor for 210Po was determined and the activity concentrations of 210Po radionuclide in 16 different popular brands of cigarettes were investigated in order to estimate the annual effective doses of 210Po to smokers. Besides the study investigated (focused on) the correlation between the amount of rainfall and 210Po concentration of tobacco leaf. The results of the present study indicated that the activity concentration of 210Po in cigarettes distributed in Turkey ranged from 16.1 ± 1.0 to 37.6 ± 2.6 mBq per cigarette and the mean value of their activity concentrations was 22.4 ± 1.5 mBq per cigarette. The mean value of annual effective doses of 210Po to smokers (20 cigarettes smoked by an individual per day) obtained from these activity concentrations was estimated to be 188.5 ± 12.4 µSv y-1.


Assuntos
Polônio/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Tabaco/química , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Doses de Radiação , Fumantes , Solo/química , Turquia
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 646-657, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112135

RESUMO

Pine trees are used as biomonitoring agents to evaluate atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to industrialization, urban construction, and rapid population growth, the city of Bursa is experiencing air pollution. In this study, PAHs were measured in pine tree branches and needles at a wastewater treatment plant site, an industrial site, and semirural site in Bursa for 12 months. The concentrations fluctuated depending on the characteristics of the areas. The lowest concentration value was measured in the semirural site while the highest value was determined in the wastewater treatment plant site. The PAH concentrations in pine needles ranged from 24 to 2565 ng/g dry weight (DW) and in pine branches from 163 to 2871 ng/g DW for 16 PAHs. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene were determined as dominant species in both tree components. Diagnostic ratios, ring profile, principal component analysis, the coefficient of divergence, and the Pearson correlation coefficient methods were used in the definition of sources of PAHs in the sampling sites, although all source identification methods have advantages and disadvantages. According to the results, the PAHs mainly originated from biomass and coal burning, traffic, and mixed sources. It also was concluded that three sampling sites showed higher PAH concentrations during winter, and the main PAH sources were similar.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Pinus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cidades , Estações do Ano , Turquia
12.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 148-152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141869

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the stable diagnostic traits and the biological activity of the stems and leaves of Daphne albowiana Woronow ex Pobed., a plant native to Georgia. Biological assays of the methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts show the plant to possess cytotoxic and antioxidant activities, but no noteworthy antibacterial or antifungal activities. All extracts show cytotoxic activity on A549 (lung carcinoma) cells. The following stable diagnostic characteristic were identified during the microstructural analysis: leaf surface glabrous, hypostomatic, dorsoventral; epidermal cells chaotic; curved with curved walls on both the upper and lower epidermis; stomata paracytic; well visible spherical crystals of inulin in leaf epidermis; leaf vascular bundles reverse-collateral; vascular system monocyclic, bilateral; wood diffuse-porous; xylem parenchyma is apotracheal, slightly diffuse; vessel walls are predominantly spirally thickened; collenchyma lamellar; radial rays in single rows, heterogeneous. The identified cytotoxic and antioxidant activity showcase this species to be of significant interest to the medicinal field. The identified anatomical peculiarities provide valuable information for the correct identification and standardization of the Daphne albowiana plant material.


Assuntos
Daphne/anatomia & histologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Daphne/química , República da Geórgia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
13.
Phytother Res ; 34(7): 1704-1720, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185841

RESUMO

Microcirculation, which connects macrocirculation and cells between arterioles and venules, plays a major role in the early onset of a variety of diseases. In this article, a dextran-induced microcirculation dysfunction (MCDF) model rats were adopted to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza stem-leaf extracts based on plasma and urine metabonomics. The results showed the effective components of S. miltiorrhiza stem-leaf could significantly improve the hemorheology and coagulation index of MCDF rats and callback the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1), induciblenitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF), P-Selectin, thromboxane A2, 6-keto-PGF1α , TNF-α, and interleukin-1ß to control group in MCDF rats. The decrease of microvessel density (MVD) in lung and thymus caused by MCDF was upgraded by Salvia miltiorrhiza stem-leaf. Based on the plasma and urine metabolic data, 20 potential biomarkers were identified. These biomarkers are mainly related to linoleic acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, pyruvate metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, and citrate cycle. The results indicated that the effective components of S. miltiorrhiza stem-leaf can improve the hemorheological disorder and vascular endothelial function. Meanwhile, the effective components can regulate potential biomarkers and correlated metabolic pathway, which can provide guidance for the research and development of new drugs for MCDF.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Hemorreologia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1140-1150, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220139

RESUMO

Alterations of aroma properties and aroma-related attributes of sugarcane juice during thermal processing under different temperatures (90, 100, and 110 ℃) and treating time (10 s, 20 s, and 30 s) were assessed in this study. Changes in the volatility of aroma compounds were extremely complicated and respected to thermal processing conditions. Fructose, serine, and glutanic acid of sugarcane juice were increased at first and decreased at the end of treatment at high temperature. Phenolic compounds and PPO activity presented the decrease trends throughout the thermal treatment. The thermal processing of sugarcane juice could be roughly divided into three stages based on the cluster analysis of all the data in this study. Sugars, amino acids, and phenolic compounds might be important potential precursors of aroma deteriorating reactions. The comprehensive analysis of aroma relevant compounds and enzyme activities was beneficial for the investigation of degradation mechanism of aroma for sugarcane juice, and providing a theoretical basis for optimization of juice processing. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated the changing process of aroma quality and associated compounds in sugarcane juice during thermal processing. This could help to find out the reasons of aroma degradations in sugarcane juice and other thermal sensitive juice. Our manuscript created a paradigm for future studies on the aroma quality control and parameter optimization during the processing of fruit and vegetable juice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidase/química , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Saccharum/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/química , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/enzimologia , Saccharum/enzimologia , Volatilização
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053614

RESUMO

Functional traits have emerged as a key to understand species responses to environmental conditions. The concerted expression of multiple traits gives rise to the phenotype of each individual, which is the one interacting with the environment and evolving. However, patterns of trait covariation and how they vary in response to environmental conditions remain poorly understood, particularly at the intraspecific scale. Here, we have measured traits at different scales and in different organs, and analysed their covariation in a large number of conspecifics distributed in two contrasting environments. We expected significant correlations among traits, not only within clusters of traits as found in global, multispecies studies, but also among clusters, with more relationships within clusters, due to genetic constraints, and among clusters due to more coordinated phenotypes than community level, multispecies studies. We surveyed 100 Pinus sylvestris trees in a Mediterranean mountainous area distributed in two contrasting elevations. We measured 13 functional traits, in three clusters (leaf, stem and whole-plant traits), and analysed their variation and coordination. We found significant coordination among traits belonging to different clusters that reveals coordinated phenotypes. However, we found fewer correlations within trait clusters than initially expected. Trait correlation structures (number, intensity and type of correlations among traits) differed among individuals at different elevations. We observed more correlations within trait clusters at low elevation compared to those at high elevation. Moreover, the higher number of correlations among different trait clusters and the lower trait variation at the higher elevation suggests that variability decreases under more stressful conditions. Altogether, our results reveal that traits at intraspecific scale are coordinated in a broad network and not only within clusters of traits but also that this trait covariation is significantly affected by environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ecossistema , Pinus sylvestris/anatomia & histologia , Pinus sylvestris/química , Pinus sylvestris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Biológica Individual , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espanha , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2607-2614, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096642

RESUMO

Fused-ring aromatics, important skeletal components of black carbon (BC), contribute to long-term carbon (C) sequestration in nature. They have previously been thought to be primarily formed by incomplete combustion of organic materials, whereas the nonpyrogenic origins are negligible. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), including recoupled long-range C-H dipolar dephasing, exchange with protonated and nonprotonated spectral editing (EXPANSE), and dipolar-dephased double-quantum/single-quantum (DQ/SQ) spectroscopy, we for the first time identify fused-ring aromatics that formed during the decomposition of wheat (Triticum sp.) straw in soil under aerobic, but not anaerobic conditions. The observed formation of polyaromatic units as plant litter decomposes provides direct evidence for humification. Moreover, the estimation of the annual flux of such nonpyrogenic BC could be equivalent to 3-12% of pyrogenic BC added to soils from all other sources. Our findings significantly extend the understanding of potential sources of fused-ring aromatic C and BC in soils as well as the global C cycle.


Assuntos
Triticum/química , Aerobiose , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia
17.
Am J Primatol ; 82(3): e23102, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003053

RESUMO

Agricultural expansion encroaches on tropical forests and primates in such landscapes frequently incorporate crops into their diet. Understanding the nutritional drivers behind crop-foraging can help inform conservation efforts to improve human-primate coexistence. This study builds on existing knowledge of primate diets in anthropogenic landscapes by estimating the macronutrient content of 24 wild and 11 cultivated foods (90.5% of food intake) consumed by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. We also compared the macronutrient composition of Bossou crops to published macronutrient measures of crops from Bulindi, Uganda, East Africa. The composition of wild fruits, leaves, and pith were consistent with previous reports for primate diets. Cultivated fruits were higher in carbohydrates and lower in insoluble fiber than wild fruits, while wild fruits were higher in protein. Macronutrient content of cultivated pith fell within the ranges of consumed wild pith. Oil palm food parts were relatively rich in carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and/or fermentable fiber, adding support for the nutritional importance of the oil palm for West African chimpanzees. We found no differences in the composition of cultivated fruits between Bossou and Bulindi, suggesting that macronutrient content alone does not explain differences in crop selection. Our results build on the current understanding of chimpanzee feeding ecology within forest-agricultural mosaics and provide additional support for the assumption that crops offer primates energetic benefits over wild foods.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes/análise , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas/química , Guiné , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
18.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111761, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896050

RESUMO

The combination of different colors from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may influence growth and production of secondary metabolites in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on morphophysiology and content of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a phytoecdysteroid, was evaluated in accessions of an endangered medicinal species, Pfaffia glomerata, grown in vitro. Two accessions (Ac22 and Ac43) were cultured in vitro under three different ratios of red (R) and blue (B) LEDs: (i) 1R:1B, (ii) 1R:3B, and (iii) 3R:1B. An equal ratio of red and blue light (1R:1B) increased biomass accumulation, anthocyanin content, and 20E production (by 30-40%). Moreover, 1R:1B treatment increased the size of vascular bundles and vessel elements, as well as strengthened xylem lignification and thickening of the cell wall of shoots. The 1R:3B treatment induced the highest photosynthetic and electron transport rates and enhanced the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes. Total Chl content, Chl/Car ratio, and NPQ varied more by accession type than by light source. Spectral quality affected primary metabolism differently in each accession. Specifically, in Ac22 plants, fructose content was higher under 1R:1B and 1R:3B treatments, whereas starch accumulation was higher under 1R:3B, and sucrose under 3R:1B. In Ac43 plants, sugars were not influenced by light spectral quality, but starch content was higher under 3R:1B conditions. In conclusion, red and blue LEDs enhance biomass and 20E production in P. glomerata grown in vitro.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/efeitos da radiação , Ecdisterona/análise , Luz , Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Amido/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111763, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931382

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality that allows the destruction of tumor cells and microorganisms by reactive oxygen species, formed by the combination of photosensitizer (PS), molecular oxygen and adequate wavelength light. This research, through a clean methodology that involves pressurized liquids extraction (PLE), obtained a highly antimicrobial extract of Tetragonia tetragonoides, which rich in chlorophylls as photosensitizers. The Chlorophylls-based extract (Cbe-PLE) presented pharmacological safety, through the maintenance of cellular viability. In addition, Cbe-PLE showed great efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, with severe dose-dependent damage to the cell wall of the pathogen. The obtained product has a high potential for the development of photostimulated phytotherapic formulations for clinical applications in localized infections, as a complementary therapeutic alternative to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aizoaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/farmacologia , Luz , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have been used as an important source of indispensable bioactive compounds in various cosmetics, foods, and medicines. However, the subsequent functional annotation of these compounds seems arduous because of the largely uncharacterized, vast metabolic repertoire of plant species with known biological phenotypes. Hence, a rapid multi-parallel screening and characterization approach is needed for plant functional metabolites. RESULTS: Fifty-one species representing three plant families, namely Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae, were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-MS/MS) as well as multivariate analyses. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolite profiling datasets indicated a distinct clustered pattern for 51 species depending on plant parts (leaves and stems) and relative phylogeny. Examination of their relative metabolite contents showed that the extracts from Fabaceae plants were abundant in amino acids, fatty acids, and genistein compounds. However, the extracts from Rosaceae had higher levels of catechin and ellagic acid derivatives, whereas those from Asteraceae were higher in kaempferol derivatives and organic acids. Regardless of the different families, aromatic amino acids, branch chain amino acids, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids related to the shikimate pathway were abundant in leaves. Alternatively, certain amino acids (proline, lysine, and arginine) as well as fatty acids levels were higher in stem extracts. Further, we investigated the associated phenotypes, i.e., antioxidant activities, affected by the observed spatial (leaves and stem) and intra-family metabolomic disparity in the plant extracts. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that ellagic acid, mannitol, catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin derivatives were positively correlated with antioxidant phenotypes, whereas eriodictyol was positively correlated with tyrosinase inhibition activity. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that metabolite profiling, including multi-parallel approaches and integrated bioassays, may help the expeditious characterization of plant-derived metabolites while simultaneously unraveling their chemodiversity.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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