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1.
J Plant Physiol ; 264: 153485, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358945

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a global concern and often the primary factor contributing to land degradation, limiting crop growth and production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a low input high value forage legume with a wide adaptation. Examining the tissue-specific responses to salt stress will be important to understanding physiological changes of alfalfa. The responses of two alfalfa cultivars (salt tolerant 'Halo', salt intolerant 'Vernal') were studied for 12 weeks in five gradients of salt stress in a sand based hydroponic system in the greenhouse. The accumulation and localization of elements and organic compounds in different tissues of alfalfa under salt stress were evaluated using synchrotron beamlines. The pattern of chlorine accumulation for 'Halo' was: root > stem ~ leaf at 8 dSm-1, and root ~ leaf > stem at 12 dSm-1, potentially preventing toxic ion accumulation in leaf tissues. In contrast, for 'Vernal', it was leaf > stem ~ root at 8 dSm-1 and leaf > root ~ stem at 12 dSm-1. The distribution of chlorine in 'Halo' was relatively uniform in the leaf surface and vascular bundles of the stem. Amide concentration in the leaf and stem tissues was greater for 'Halo' than 'Vernal' at all salt gradients. This study determined that low ion accumulation in the shoot was a common strategy in salt tolerant alfalfa up to 8 dSm-1 of salt stress, which was then replaced by shoot tissue tolerance at 12 dSm-1.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloro/análise , Cloro/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/análise , Sódio/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360871

RESUMO

The root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) is a widely used herbal medicine worldwide, whereas the stem of the plant is discarded or used as feed for livestock. To reuse and exploit the stem of P. lobata as a resource, we investigated its potential as a skin-whitening agent. We found that the developed, enriched P. lobata stem (PLS) extract significantly inhibited melanin production in the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-induced B16/F10 cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. To further confirm the mechanism of the antimelanogenic effect of the enriched PLS extracts, we examined the mRNA expression of tyrosinase, which was suppressed by the extracts. To standardize and implement effective quality control of the enriched PLS extracts, its major chemical constituents were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In total, 12 constituents were identified. In silico analysis showed that the main constituents, puerarin and daidzin, had excellent binding affinities for human tyrosinase. Collectively, our results suggest that the PLS extracts could be used as anti-pigmentation agents.


Assuntos
Melaninas/biossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Pueraria/química , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109603, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352274

RESUMO

AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 322 million people worldwide and is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A possible pathophysiological mechanism correlating both diseases is the increased oxidative stress in brain regions due to hyperglycemia. Myrsine coriacea (Primulaceae) is popularly known as "capororoca" and studies have been shown that this plant exhibits several pharmacological properties attributed to myrsinoic acid A (MAA) and B (MAB). Indeed, previous results have been shown its effects on the central nervous system, leading us to explore possible psychotropic effects. MAIN METHODS: The effects of treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of the barks from Myrsine coriacea (HEBMC, 150 mg/kg, o.g.), MAA (5 mg/kg, o.g.), and MAB (3 mg/kg, o.g.) were evaluated in streptozotocin (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabetic female rats. After 28 days of treatments, rats were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). Also, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of these rats. KEY FINDINGS: The treatment with MAA or MAB increased the latency of first immobility in diabetic rats, and the HEBMC administration decreased the immobility time, and increase the climbing in FST. However, only MAB treatment reduces the immobility time, increases the climbing, and swimming in FST, and increases the crossing of diabetic animals in the OFT. Besides, this behavioral improvement promoted by MAB administration was accompanied by reducing in oxidative stress in the HIP and PFC, but not reducing hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that MAB's antioxidant effect in the HIP of diabetic animals may be essential to its antidepressant-like effect.


Assuntos
Alcenos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Depressão/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Myrsine/química , Teste de Campo Aberto/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
4.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104998, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314801

RESUMO

Three new flavonoids, ephedroside A (1), ephedroside B (2), ephedroside C (3), together with fifty-four known compounds 4-57 were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, as well as by comparison with literature data. Thirty-eight of these compounds were isolated from the genus Ephedra for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of eight compounds were tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against bacteria (both Gram positive and Gram negative) and fungi, and were found to be in the range of 0.105-0.926 mM. Among them, compound 2 showed the best antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC value of 0.105 mM.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ephedra sinica/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias , China , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química
5.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105655, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225214

RESUMO

Resistant starch type 2 (RS) was isolated from lotus stem using enzymatic digestion method. The isolated RS was subjected to ultrasonication (US) at different sonication power (100-400 W). The US treated and untreated RS samples were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DLS revealed that particle size of RS decreased from 12.80 µm to 413.19 nm and zeta potential increased from -12.34 mV to -26.09 mV with the increase in sonication power. SEM revealed smaller, disintegrated and irregular shaped RS particles after ultrasonication. FT-IR showed the decreased the band intensity at 995 cm-1 and 1047 cm-1 signifying that US treatment decreased the crystallinity of RS and increased its amorphous character. The bile acid binding, anti-oxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibition activity of samples also increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the increase in sonication power. Increase in US power however increased the values of hydrolysis from 23.11 ± 1.09 to 36.06 ± 0.13% and gylcemic index from 52.39 ± 0.38 to 59.50 ± 0.11. Overall, the non-thermal process of ultrasonic treatment can be used to change the structural, morphological and nutraceutical profile of lotus stem resistant starch which can have great food and pharamaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Lotus/química , Caules de Planta/química , Amido Resistente/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Absorção Fisico-Química , Valor Nutritivo
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 494-512, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197854

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is the cause of an ongoing health crisis in several regions of the world, particularly in tropical and neotropical countries. This scenario creates an urgent necessity for new practical solutions to address the limitations of current therapies. The current study investigated the isolation, phytochemical characterization, and myotoxicity inhibition mechanism of gallic acid (GA), a myotoxin inhibitor obtained from Anacardium humile. The identification and isolation of GA was achieved by employing analytical chromatographic separation, which exhibited a compound with retention time and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra compatible with GA's commercial standard and data from the literature. GA alone was able to inhibit the myotoxic activity induced by the crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and its two main myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and interaction studies by molecular docking suggested that GA forms a complex with BthTX-I and II. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) kinetics assays showed that GA has a high affinity for BthTX-I with a KD of 9.146 × 10-7 M. Taken together, the two-state reaction mode of GA binding to BthTX-I, and CD, FS and DLS assays, suggest that GA is able to induce oligomerization and secondary structure changes for BthTX-I and -II. GA and other tannins have been shown to be effective inhibitors of snake venoms' toxic effects, and herein we demonstrated GA's ability to bind to and inhibit a snake venom PLA2, thus proposing a new mechanism of PLA2 inhibition, and presenting more evidence of GA's potential as an antivenom compound.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Miotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/enzimologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Gálico/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miotoxicidade/enzimologia , Miotoxicidade/etiologia , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/química , Fosfolipases A2/química , Caules de Planta/química , Proteínas de Répteis/química , Proteínas de Répteis/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206066

RESUMO

The phytochemical composition of leaves, stems, pericarps and rhizomes ethanolic extracts of Asparagus acutifolius were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS. A. acutifolius samples contain at least eleven simple phenolics, one flavonon, two flavonols and six steroidal saponins. The stem extracts showed the highest total phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, where cafeic acid and rutin were the main compounds. No flavonoids were detected in the leaf, pericarp or rhizome while caffeic acid and ferulic acid were the predominant. Steroidal saponins were detected in the different plant parts of A. acutifolius, and the highest contents were found in the rhizome extracts. The stem extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the highest 2,2-azino-bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity was found in the pericarp extracts. The rhizome and leaf extracts showed a potent cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 and HepG2 cell lines. Moreover, the pericarp and rhizome extracts revealed a moderate lipase inhibitory activity. The leaf and rhizome extracts were screened for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic isolates. The leaf extract exhibited a powerful inhibitory activity against all the bacteria and fungi tested.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asparagus (Planta)/química , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Especificidade de Órgãos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Rizoma/química
8.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104965, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129921

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the leaves and stems of Dioscorea bulbifera resulted in isolation of 10 compounds, including three new norclerodane diterpenoids, diosbulbiferins A (1) and B (2) and diosbulbiferinoside A (3), and one new natural congener, diosbulbiferin C (4), along with one new tetrahydrophenanthrene, diosbulbinone (8). Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of spectroscopic methods, including NMR and mass spectra. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 and 8 were deduced by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses. In addition, cytotoxic effects against MCF-7, HepG2, and SK-Mel-2 cancer cells and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells were also reported.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dioscorea/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Vietnã
9.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104963, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129922

RESUMO

Six undescribed low-polarity compounds including three rare 14-methylergostane steroids (1-3), one euphane triterpenoid (4) and two octadecanoic acid ethyl esters (5 and 6), along with ten previously reported terpenyl cometabolites (7-16), were isolated from the stems of Tinospora sagittata. Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with structurally related known compounds, and all of them have been reported from T. sagittata for the first time. Compounds 4-6 and 16 showed potent in vitro inhibitory activity against the diabetes target α-glucosidase, while compounds 10 and 14 displayed promising antibacterial effect toward Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Tinospora/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , China , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 277, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt is a medicinal and edible plant widely cultivated in Asia. Terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids are the primary source of medicinal ingredients. Glandular trichomes with multicellular structures are known as biochemical cell factories which synthesized specialized metabolites. However, there is currently limited information regarding the site and mechanism of biosynthesis of these constituents in P. frutescens. Herein, we studied morphological features of glandular trichomes, metabolic profiling and transcriptomes through different tissues. RESULTS: Observation of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types based on their morphological features: peltate, capitate, and digitiform glandular trichomes. The oil of peltate glandular trichomes, collected by custom-made micropipettes and analyzed by LC-MS and GC-MS, contained perillaketone, isoegomaketone, and egomaketone as the major constituents which are consistent with the components of leaves. Metabolomics and transcriptomics were applied to explore the bioactive constituent biosynthesis in the leaves, stem, and root of P. frutescens. Transcriptome sequencing profiles revealed differential regulation of genes related to terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, respectively with most genes expressed highly in leaves. The genes affecting the development of trichomes were preliminarily predicted and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study established the morphological and chemical characteristics of glandular trichome types of P. frutescens implying the bioactive constituents were mainly synthesized in peltate glandular trichomes. The genes related to bioactive constituents biosynthesis were explored via transcriptomes, which provided the basis for unraveling the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents in this popular medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/química , Tricomas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Perilla frutescens/genética , Perilla frutescens/ultraestrutura , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/ultraestrutura , RNA de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcriptoma , Tricomas/ultraestrutura
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147782, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134386

RESUMO

Mangrove ecosystems are an important component of "blue carbon". However, it is not clear whether the stems play roles in the CH4 budget of mangrove ecosystems. This study investigated the CH4 emission from mangrove stems and its potential driving factors. We set up six sample plots in the Zhangjiang Estuary National Mangrove Nature Reserve, where Kandelia obovata, Avicennia marina and Aegiceras corniculata are the main mangrove tree species. Soil properties such as total carbon content, redox potential and salinity were determined in each plot. The dynamic chamber method was used to measure mangrove stems and soil CH4 fluxes. Combined field survey results with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of soil properties, we divided the six plots into two sites (S1 and S2) to perform statistical analyses of stem CH4 fluxes. Then the CH4 fluxes from mangrove tree stems and soil were further scaled up to the ecosystem level through the mapping model. Under different backgrounds of soil properties, salinity and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors modified soil CH4 fluxes in the two sites, and further affected the stem CH4 fluxes of mangroves. The soil of both sites are sources of CH4, and the soil CH4 emission of S2 was about twice higher than that of S1. Results of upscaling model showed that mangrove stems in S1 were CH4 sinks with -105.65 g d-1. But stems in S2 were CH4 sources around 1448.24 g d-1. Taken together, our results suggested that CH4 emission from mangrove soils closely depends on soils properties. And mangrove stems were found to act as both CH4 sources and CH4 sinks depend on soil CH4 production. Therefore, when calculating the CH4 budget of the mangrove ecosystem, the contribution of mangrove plant stems cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Metano , China , Estuários , Metano/análise , Caules de Planta/química , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2306: 105-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954943

RESUMO

Fatty acids are an essential structural and energy storage component of cells and hence there is much interest in their metabolism, requiring identification and quantification with readily available instrumentation, such as GC-MS. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) can be generated and extracted directly from biological tissue, in a one-pot process, and following high resolution GC, their respective chain length, degrees of unsaturation, and other functionalities can be readily identified using EI-MS. Defining the positions of the double bonds in the alkyl chain requires conversion of the FAMEs into their respective dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives. Following EI, this derivative allows charge retention on the heterocycle, and concomitant charge remote fragmentation of the alkyl chain to yield key double bond position identifying ions. The protocols described herein have been applied to the identification and quantification of fatty acids harvested from microalgae grown to produce biofuels and to the screening of salt tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Lipidômica/métodos , Microalgas/química , Biologia Computacional , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Oxazóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Software
13.
Chem Asian J ; 16(14): 1956-1966, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043274

RESUMO

Direct attachment of gold nanoparticles to a green support without the use of an external reducing agent and using it for removing toxic pollutants from wastewater, i. e., reduction of nitroarene to amine, are described. A novel approach involving the reduction of gold by the jute plant (Corchorus genus) stem-based (JPS) support itself to form nanoparticles (AuNPs) to be used as a catalytic system ('dip-catalyst') and its catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of series of nitroarenes in aqueous media are presented. AuNPs/JPS catalyst was characterized using SEM, UV-Vis, FTIR, TEM, XPS, and ICP-OES. Confined area elemental mapping exhibits uniform and homogeneous distribution of AuNPs on the support surface. TEM shows multi-faceted AuNPs in the range of 20-30 nm. The reactivity of AuNPs/JPS for the transfer hydrogenation of nitroarene as well as hydrogenation of quinoline under molecular H2 pressure was evaluated. Sodium borohydride, when used as the hydrogen source, demonstrates a high catalytic efficiency in the transfer hydrogenation reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Quinoline is quantitatively and chemoselectively hydrogenated to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (py-THQ) using molecular hydrogen. Reusability studies show that AuNPs are stable on the support surface and their selectivity is not affected.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nitrobenzenos/química , Quinolinas/química , Compostos de Anilina/síntese química , Catálise , Corchorus/química , Ouro/química , Química Verde/instrumentação , Hidrogenação , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Caules de Planta/química , Quinolinas/síntese química
14.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104912, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933538

RESUMO

The first phytochemical investigation from the stems of Croton krabas resulted in the isolation of three new ent-clerodane diterpenoids, crotonkrabases A-C (1-3), along with two known compounds, 12-oxohardwickiic acid (4) and crotonpyrone B (5). Their structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic methods. The structure of 3 was unambiguously proven by X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were identified by NOESY and the comparison of their experimental ECD spectra with those of calculated ECD spectra reported in the literature. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed antibacterial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis); whereas compound 4 exhibited weak antibacterial against B. cereus. In addition, compound 4 showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which was lower than the reference standard acarbose.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Croton/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Tailândia
15.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104926, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991602

RESUMO

Dengratiol A (1), an unprecedented bibenzyl derivative bearing a tropolone unit together with three pairs of bibenzyl enantiomers (±)-dengratiols B-D [(±)-2-(±)-4], were isolated from Dendrobium gratiossimum Rchb.f. The resolution of enantiomers was performed with chiral HPLC. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 is proposed. Biological assay revealed that (-)-2 showed moderate antiviral effect against IAV with IC50 value of 6.3 µM, and (±)-2 displayed cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 15.5 to 42.5 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Dendrobium/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Bibenzilas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109449, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991727

RESUMO

Trypanosomosis and helminthosis, considered as part of neglected tropical diseases, are parasitic infections of public health importance, especially in Africa. Medicinal plants have been used in most parts of Africa, to treat these parasitic infections. The study aims to determine the anti-trypanosomal and anthelminthic properties of Tetrapleura tetraptera (fruit and stembark). The aqueous extracts of T. tetraptera fruit (TTFaq) and stembark (TTSaq), as well as ethanol extracts of T. tetraptera fruit (TTFe) and stembark (TTSe), were screened for their in vitro anti-trypanosomal and anthelminthic activities against T. b. brucei and Pheretima posthuma worms, respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening of all extracts and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of most active extracts were conducted. TTFaq exhibited anti-trypanosomal activity with IC50 of 18.18 µg/mL. TTSe and TTFe had moderate anti-trypanosomal activity with IC50 of 34.76 and 34.84 µg/mL, respectively. TTSaq had relatively low activity against the parasite with IC50 of 55.03 µg/mL. The SI of T. tetraptera extracts was between the range of 0.14-2.09. TTFaq showed dose-dependent activity causing paralysis and death of the adult worms at all concentrations. At the least concentration of 0.625 mg/mL, TTFaq induced paralysis and death after 101.88 ± 0.8 and 242.64 ± 0.38 min of exposure, respectively compared with the negative control (p < 0.0001). TTFe, TTSe and TTSaq caused paralysis of worms after 318.32 ± 0.74, 422.5 ± 0.72, 422.20 ± 0.55 min of exposure at minimum concentrations of 2.5, 10 and 5 mg/mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). However, no death was observed in worms treated with TTFe, TTSe and TTSaq at all test concentrations. In the presence of sub-minimal inhibitory concentration of the extracts, TTFaq potentiated the anthelminthic activity of albendazole whiles TTFe, TTSaq and TTSe inhibited the activity of albendazole. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, flavonoids (absent in TTFe), steroids (absent in TTFaq) and tannins (absent in TTSe and TTFe) in the extracts. GC-MS revealed the presence of 9-octadecenamide and betulic acid in TTFaq. Hence, there was evidence provided here that Tetrapleura tetraptera may be effective. This gives credence to their folkloric use. However, further study might be necessary to ascertain safety use in both humans and animals.


Assuntos
Albendazol/química , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tetrapleura/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Albendazol/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Etanol , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Tripanossomicidas/química , Água
17.
Food Chem ; 360: 129978, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000635

RESUMO

Qualitative and quantitative composition of non-structural carbohydrates comprising glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) is one of the key determinants of market suitability, storability and technological processability of onions. To develop a cost-effective and rapid tool for carbohydrate profiling, applicability of attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of onion juice was investigated with special regard to FOS patterns. As reference, detailed carbohydrate profiles of onion juices were generated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of ATR-FTIR spectra was successfully applied for classifying onions into fresh market, storage and dehydrator type according to HPLC-ELSD profiles. A bootstrapping method for automatized test-set validation by projection to latent structures (PLS) algorithms using HPLC and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data was developed. Model statistics showed promising perspectives for reliable quantification of individual saccharides and sum parameters. The presented methodology allows estimating the nutritional and pre-biotic value directly during cultivation and processing.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cebolas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química
18.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104901, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794305

RESUMO

A methanolic extract of Thai Piper ribesoides showed preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under a nutrient-deprived condition, with a PC50 value of 24 µg/mL. Phytochemical investigation of this bio-active extract led to the isolation of six compounds (1-6), including two new polyoxygenated cyclohexane derivatives, named ribesoidones A and B (1 and 2). The structural elucidation of the new compounds was achieved by a combination of HREIMS, NMR, and circular dichroism spectroscopic analyses. Isolated compounds were tested for their antiausterity activity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. Among these, compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed potent preferential cytotoxic activity with PC50 values of 5.5-7.2 µM. Ribesoidone A (1) was also found to inhibit PANC-1 colony formation under normal nutrient-rich conditions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Piper/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Tailândia
19.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(14): 582-592, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825664

RESUMO

Styrax camporum Pohl, a typical species from the Brazilian cerrado, commonly known as "benjoeiro", is used to treat gastroduodenal diseases. In previous studies carried out by our research group, hydroalcoholic extract of S. camporum stems (SCHE) exhibited antigenotoxic and antiproliferative effects. For a comparative analysis of the chemopreventive effect of SCHE, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SCHE against carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions in Wistar rat colon. Animals were treated orally with SCHE at 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg body weight in conjunction with a subcutaneous injection of DMH. DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay while tpre-neoplastic lesions by aberrant crypt foci (ACF) assay. The following hepatic oxidative stress markers were determined including activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with SCHE was not genotoxic or carcinogenic at the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg b.w.). The extract effectively inhibited DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions induced by DMH administration at all concentrations tested. Measurement of CAT, and GST activities and levels of GSH showed that SCHE did not reduce oxidative processes. In contrast, treatment with SCHE (1000 mg/kg b.w.) decreased liver MDA levels. Taken together, these findings suggested the chemopreventive effect attributed to SCHE in colon carcinogenesis, may be related to its capacity to inhibit DNA damage as well as an antioxidant action associated with its chemical constituents egonol and homoegonol.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Styrax/química , Animais , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ensaio Cometa , Dimetilidrazinas/farmacologia , Dimetilidrazinas/toxicidade , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
J Nat Med ; 75(3): 449-466, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900535

RESUMO

During our studies characterizing functional substances from food resources for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases, we isolated the active constituents, salacinol (1) and neokotalanol (4), and related thiosugar sulfoniums, from the roots and stems of the genus Salacia plants [Celastraceae (Hippocrateaceae)] such as Salacia reticulata Wight, S. oblonga Wall., and S. chinensis L., and observed their antidiabetic effects. These plant materials have been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as a specific remedy at the early stage of diabetes, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States, and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Here, we review our studies on the antidiabetic effects of plants from the genus Salacia, from basic chemical and pharmacological research to their application and development as new functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Salacia/química , Álcoois Açúcares/farmacologia , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Tioaçúcares/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Medicina Ayurvédica , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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