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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3738-3744, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602947

RESUMO

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as sapiumin F( 1),kadsulignan C( 2),ciwujiatone( 3),ethylbrevifolin carboxylate( 4),7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin( 5),fraxetin( 6),fraxidin( 7),isofraxidin( 8),6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin( 9),5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin( 10),8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin( 11),3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid( 12),3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid( 13),3'-methoxyellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside( 14),4,5-didehydro-chebulic acid triethyl ester( 15),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol( 16),and abscisic acid( 17) by spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new compound. Except for compounds 4,11,and 13,the remaining compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antineuroinflammatory activities,and the results showed that compounds 6 and 15 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells,with IC50 values of 6. 06 and 6. 05 µmol·L-1,respectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Sapium/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Camundongos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 553, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399836

RESUMO

Pollution has become a problem on a global scale and poses a significant risk in terms of human health and natural ecosystems. Generally, the biggest sources of pollution are municipal and industrial facilities. However, traffic-related air pollution cannot be overlooked as a dangerous source either. There have been various methods of interventions to measure and reduce the risk and effects of traffic-related pollution. In the case of measuring, the use of certain plant species that can accumulate pollutants in their tissues is considered a practical solution. In this study, the aim is to find out the metals that are accumulated in rosemary leaves and stems and the rosemary leaves. In other words, the leaves and the stems are to be used as a biomonitors to reveal the rate of metal pollution along the highway. We try to identify the accumulation ability of traffic-related heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) which is used in the refuge and slopes along the highway connecting Adana with Iskenderun (Hatay). Our findings concluded that the rosemary could have a decent capacity to accumulate Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in both leaves and stem. We therefore believe that R. officinalis is a great tool in determining the amount of traffic-related pollution in urban areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Cidades , Ecossistema , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Turquia
3.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326416

RESUMO

Three new neolignan glycosides, (7R,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneoligna-7,9,9'-triol-4-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7R,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neoligna-9,9'-diol-9'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-4-O-[ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (7R,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,5,5'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neoligna-9,9'-diol-9'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-4-O-[ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), one new phenolic glycoside, securiphenoside B (4) and two new hemiterpene glycosides, securiterpenoside E-F (5-6) were isolated from the stems of Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CD and chemical evidence. Furthermore, compound 2 showed moderate hepatoprotective activity compared with bicyclol in vitro.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Securidaca/química , China , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
4.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104252, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271787

RESUMO

The stems of Fissistigma polyanthoides (A.DC.) Merr. are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism and for recuperating women after childbirth. In our continuous phytochemical investigation of this plant, four new (1, 2, 5, and 19) and fifteen known (3, 4, and 6-18) phenolic compounds were isolated. The structures of all compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS), and in comparison with reported literature data. The new natural products showed to be two poly-methoxylated chalcones (1 and 2) and two flavonoid glycosides, with 19 containing an uncommon sugar moiety (quinovose). Compounds with sufficient amount were tested for their anti-oxidant activity in a cell-based assay using the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. The compounds' capacity to inhibit the peroxyl radical triggered formation of dichlorofluorescein (DCF) was investigated in a dose-dependent manner. Both, anti-oxidant (3, 4, 6, 8-12, and 14) and pro-oxidative (5 and 16) properties were found for the investigated substances. The half maximal concentrations (IC50) for the inhibition of ROS formation ranged between 18.8 µM and 63.5 µM. Compounds, which acted protectively in the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay and did not negatively affect cell viability, could be interesting targets for further investigations.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Chalconas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vietnã
5.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104258, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284017

RESUMO

Four new indole alkaloids (1-4) and twenty known compounds (5-24) were isolated from the leaves and stems, and fruits of Kopsia officinalis. Their structures were confirmed by means of spectroscopic methods. All these isolates were evaluated for their antagonizing high glucose-evoked podocyte injury activity for the first time, and compounds 5-8 showed potent activity with EC50 values of 3.0-12.0 µM.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China , Frutas/química , Glucose , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1793-1798, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342704

RESUMO

Aiming at the phenomenon of heavy metal Cd exceeding the standard of Chuanxiong medicinal materials,the accumulation of 12 inorganic elements,including heavy metals,in Ligusticum chuanxiong was studied in this paper. It was found that the contents and distribution of most inorganic elements in the stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were higher than those in the rhizomes at seedling and shooting stages. The content of most elements in rhizome reached the highest at harvest stage,and the distribution ratio of some elements in rhizome was higher than that in stem and leaf at harvest stage. But rhizome,stem and leaf of L. chuanxiong have relatively stable absorption capacity and enrichment effect on different elements,and are less affected by growth period and position. Rhizomes and stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were enriched with Cd,and stems and leaves also accumulated Pb at seedling stage and stem stage. The absorption capacity of Pb in stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong was higher than that of rhizomes,and the ability of absorbing Cd was less than that of rhizomes at harvest time. The total uptake of Cd and Pb by L. chuanxiong decreased with the prolongation of growth time,but the proportion of Cd and Pb in rhizome increased,so that the content of Cd and Pb increased with the prolongation of growth time.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Ligusticum/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Rizoma/química
7.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 675-689, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257323

RESUMO

An Orobanchaceae plant Cistanche tubulosa (SCHENK) WIGHT (Kanka-nikujuyou in Japanese), which is one of the authorized plant resources as Cistanches Herba in both Japanese and Chinese Pharmacopoeias, is a perennial parasitic plant growing on roots of sand-fixing plants. The stems of C. tubulosa have traditionally been used for treatment of impotence, sterility, lumbago, and body weakness as well as a promoting agent of blood circulation. In recent years, Cistanches Herba has also been widely used as a health food supplement in Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries. Here we review our recent studies on chemical constituents from the stems of C. tubulosa as well as their bioactivities such as vasorelaxtant, hepatoprotective, and glucose tolerance improving effects.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Cistanche/química , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cistanche/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/química , Vasodilatadores/isolamento & purificação , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2552-2558, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359723

RESUMO

This study aimed to comprehensively assess the difference of alkaloid components between old stems and tender stems of Gelsemium elegans by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF/MS~E) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector( HPLC-UV). Firstly,the different components in old stems and tender stems were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MSEcombined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA),respectively. As a result,17 major different components were found. At the same time,the distribution of these alkaloids in old stems and tender stems was determined,and the alkaloids with higher polarity are relatively higher in the tender stems,while the old stems are in the opposite case. In addition,three main components in the G. elegans were quantified by HPLC-UV. The results showed that the contents of koumine and humantenmine in old stems were higher than those in tender stems,and the content of gelsemine in tender stems was relatively high. This study systematically evaluated the differences of alkaloids between the old stems and tender stems of G. elegans,and quantified the main three alkaloids. It laid the foundation of the safe and effective application of G. elegans.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Gelsemium/química , Caules de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2096-2101, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355567

RESUMO

The chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Clausena emarginata were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and PR-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of C. emarginata,which were identified as siamenol( 1),murrastanine A( 2),3-formyl-1,6-dimethoxycarbazole( 3),3-methoxymethylcarbazole( 4),3-methylcarbazole( 5),murrayafoline A( 6),3-formylcarbazole( 7),3-formyl-1-hydroxycarbazole( 8),3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole( 9),murrayanine( 10),murrayacine( 11),girinimbine( 12),nordentatin( 13),chalepin( 14),8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin( 15) and ethyl orsellinate( 16). Compounds 1-4,14-16 were isolated from C. emarginata for the first time. Among them,compounds 1,2,15 and 16 were isolated from the genus Clausena for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60,SMMC-7721,A-549,MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro. Compounds 12 and 14 showed significant inhibitory effects against various human cancer cell lines with IC_(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Clausena/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 220: 110-117, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196528

RESUMO

High quality cellulose nanoparticles (CNP) were isolated from water hyacinth stem cellulose (Cel-WH) extracted via successive thermochemical and alkaline-peroxide treatments, and further enzymatically hydrolysed using the commercial cellulase complex, NS22086, at 50ºC. The maximum CNP concentration was reached after 120 min of enzymatic hydrolysis, with a hydrodynamic diameter in the order of 200-250 nm and an increase of 5% in crystallinity as compared with Cel-WH. The obtained rod-shaped cellulose nanocrystals, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), exhibited a nominal diameter of 15.6-29.4 nm, a length of 56-184.8 nm, and a height of 2.85-6.43 nm, indicating a low tendency to form aggregates. In the present study, it was found that water hyacinth stems are a valuable source for the isolation of high-quality CNP using an environmentally friendly procedure, with potential applications in nanomedicine and nanopharmacology.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Eichhornia/química , Nanopartículas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Celulase/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Nanomedicina/instrumentação , Difração de Raios X/métodos
11.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104247, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247217

RESUMO

A new sesquiterpene glycoside and a new amide have been isolated from the stems of Tinospora sinensis. Their structures were established by 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (1H,1H-COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were subjected to evaluate neuroprotective activities in vitro. The pre-treatment of two new compounds can significantly ameliorate damage of oxidative stress induced by Aß25-35 and improve PC12 cells survival.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Tinospora/química , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Células PC12 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Tibet
12.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 148, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson, SBT) is a valuable plant because of its medical and therapeutic potential. Different bioactive compounds in SBT berries are of special interest to various researchers. However, not only sea buckthorn berries, but also leaves of this plant (both fresh and dried) contain a lot of nutrients and bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds. The present study was carried out in order to investigate antioxidant and anticoagulant properties of sea buckthorn twig and leaf extracts (0.5-50 µg/mL) by using various in vitro models. Moreover, the aim of present experiments was to compare the biological activity of SBT leaf extract and SBT twig extract with selected berry extracts (a rich source of phenolic compounds): SBT berry extract (flavonoids being the dominant components), a commercial extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), and a grape seed extract. METHODS: We determined the effect of plant extracts on the oxidative stress using selected markers of this process, i.e. the level of carbonyl groups in proteins. Additionally, we analysed the potential mechanism of modulation of hemostatic properties of human plasma (using selected coagulation times). RESULTS: SBT twig and leaf extracts were observed to exhibit an antioxidant activity against two strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe (the donor of hydroxyl radicals), which induced human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Both extracts also showed anticoagulant properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our present results have demonstrated that extracts from different parts of SBT, especially berries and twigs, in comparison to well-known berries (aronia and grape), may also be viewed as a good source of active substances - antioxidants for pharmacological or cosmetic applications. Moreover, it is very important from an economic point of view to know that there is a possibility of obtaining phenolic compounds not only from the berries or leaves, but also from twigs, which constitute a production waste.


Assuntos
Elaeagnaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tempo de Protrombina
13.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 140-144, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of the black buckwheat leaf (BBL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and its effects on pancreas and spleen. METHODS: Forty male C57 / B16 mice (SPF) were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (n=10) and the experimental group (n=30), the experimental group were fed with high sugar and high fat, combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in small dose to establish the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Those thirty model mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10), diabetes mellitus group (DM), low dose of BBL (DM+L) treated group, high dose of BBL (DM+H) treated group. The mice in the NC group and the DM group were given normal saline per day, and the DM+L group and DM+H group were treated with black tartary buckwheat at the doses of 0.21g/kg·d-1 and 0.42g/kg·d-1 respectively. After 14 days. All mice were executed by cervical dislocation, then blood samples were collected, pancreas and spleen were removed for subsequent experiments. The serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and insulin were detected. TNF-α protein in spleen tissue was detected by ELISA kit. The morphology of pancreas tissue was observed by HE staining, and the spleen coefficient was calculated. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue were detected. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH in the model group were increased significantly, while the serum level of insulin was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TNF-α protein in spleen tissues was obviously raised, the expressions of IRS-1 mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue in model group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH were decreased significantly in the BBL treated groups. The serum insulin level, spleen coefficient, TNF-α protein expression level in spleen tissue, IRS-1 mRNA expression and IRS-1 protein expression levels in pancreatic tissue in BBL treated group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). High-dose black tartary buckwheat leaves (0.42g/kg·d-1) exerted a more significant effect. CONCLUSION: Stem and leaf of black bitter buckwheat has significant therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and blood fat in type 2 diabetic mice, and has certain protective effects on pancreas and spleen of diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fagopyrum/química , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Estreptozocina
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) accumulates in the environment due to anthropogenic influences. It is unessential and harmful to all life forms. The plant cell wall forms a physical barrier against environmental stress and changes in the cell wall structure have been observed upon Cd exposure. In the current study, changes in the cell wall composition and structure of Medicago sativa stems were investigated after long-term exposure to Cd. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for quantitative protein analysis was complemented with targeted gene expression analysis and combined with analyses of the cell wall composition. RESULTS: Several proteins determining for the cell wall structure changed in abundance. Structural changes mainly appeared in the composition of pectic polysaccharides and data indicate an increased presence of xylogalacturonan in response to Cd. Although a higher abundance and enzymatic activity of pectin methylesterase was detected, the total pectin methylation was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: An increased abundance of xylogalacturonan might hinder Cd binding in the cell wall due to the methylation of its galacturonic acid backbone. Probably, the exclusion of Cd from the cell wall and apoplast limits the entry of the heavy metal into the symplast and is an important factor during tolerance acquisition.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Parede Celular/química , Medicago sativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Monossacarídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteoma
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7082-7086, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199642

RESUMO

Vitamins are important nutrients for many fermentations, but they are generally costly. Agricultural lignocellulose biomass contains considerable amounts of vitamin B compounds, but these water-soluble vitamins are easily lost into wastewater discharge during pretreatment or detoxification of lignocellulose in biorefinery processes. Here, we showed that the dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification process allowed the preservation of significant amounts of vitamin B, which promoted l-lactic acid fermentation efficiency significantly. Supplementation with specific vitamin B compounds, VB3 and VB5, into corn stover hydrolysate led to further increases of cellulosic l-lactic acid yield and fermentation rates. This study provided a new solution for the enhancement of biorefinery fermentation efficiency by using vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Pediococcus acidilactici/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Resíduos/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 233: 149-156, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173952

RESUMO

Based on the "waste-treat-waste" concept, biochars were produced from cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice straw (CRSBs) at 300, 500, and 700 °C (CRSB300, CRSB500, and CRSB700). The risks of the Cd remaining in CRSBs were evaluated and the optimal biochar pyrolysis temperature for Cd removal was investigated. It was observed that 41% of the total Cd in the raw rice straw was exchangeable, which may pose significant risks to crops and humans. Pyrolyzing at 300 °C did not significantly alter the Cd fractions, while the exchangeable fraction of Cd greatly dropped to 5.79% at 500 °C and further to 2.12% at 700 °C. Increasing the highest pyrolysis temperature resulted in CRSBs with higher pH values, greater surface area, and smaller pore sizes, thus providing more rapid and efficient removal of Cd from aqueous solutions. For Cd removal tests, increasing pyrolysis temperature (300-700 °C) increased the total (24.8-55.1 mg/g) and non-exchangeable (18.9-52.8 mg/g) Cd concentrations immobilized on the CRSBs and significantly decreased the exchangeable Cd fraction (23.7%-4.85%). It is suggested based on the study from aqueous solutions that CRSB700 was the most suitable for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil on site due to the lowest risks of remained Cd from feedstock, fastest and highest Cd removal, and most stable immobilization of Cd.


Assuntos
Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/química , Cádmio/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluição Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Caules de Planta/química , Pirólise , Fatores de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química
17.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1002-1010, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146306

RESUMO

One attraction of using hydrochar (HC) and biochar (BC) in soil is their intrinsic affinity for organic contaminants. Oxidative ageing is likely to induce changes in physicochemical properties and functionality. To explore the long-term potential trajectories for corn stalk HC and BC to adsorb organic pollutants, we employed HC and BC exposure in 5% H2O2 to simulate oxidative ageing and get insights into mechanisms of atrazine adsorption on fresh and artificially aged materials. The physicochemical properties of fresh and aged materials were systematically compared using elemental analysis, SSA, FTIR, XPS and SEM-EDS, alongside K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 treatment to assess chemical oxidation stability. Atrazine is a typical herbicide chemical and hydrophobic organic pollutant. Adsorption isotherms of atrazine were used to reveal differences in mechanisms of sorption to BC and HC, by assessment before and ageing. BC freshly produced at 650 °C displayed higher capacity for atrazine sorption than BC produced at 500 °C, with a dominant role for π-π EDA interactions. The sorption capacity of HC freshly produced at 250 °C was higher than for HC produced at 200 °C HC, owing to higher C content and atrazine partitioning into the organic phase. Ageing increased the surface abundance of oxygenated functional groups for BC and HC and diminished bulk aromaticity. After ageing, atrazine sorption by high temperature BC was lower, but for HC it was increased. Such divergent effects must be considered when developing strategies to co-manage contaminants and carbon through the addition of carbonized materials to land.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Herbicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , China , Temperatura Alta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Caules de Planta/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Zea mays/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21849-21857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134549

RESUMO

Incorporation of organic amendments is one of the most eco-friendly and economic strategies for the restoration of contaminated soils through diminishing mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in these soils. This study was carried out under field conditions during the summer season of 2017 on a clay loam soil naturally polluted with Cd (7.61 mg kg-1) due to successive irrigations with wastewater. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar (SBDB) at different rates on fractionation of Cd in soil and its implications on the growth of soybean and concentrations of Cd within the different plant parts. Incorporation of SBDB into the chosen contaminated soil caused noticeable changes in soil pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter, especially with increasing the rate of application. Immobilization of Cd in the used soil was highly influenced by soil properties. According to the sequential extraction procedure, application of SBDB had an efficient role in reducing the soluble/exchangeable fraction. Moreover, it declined both the reducible and oxidizable forms of Cd. The dry weight of soybean organs (roots, seeds, and straw) improved significantly with SBDB additions. The highest dry weight values of straw and seeds for soybean plants were recorded when the soil was treated with SBDB at rates of 15 and 30 t ha-1. Concentrations of Cd in straw and seeds of soybean were markedly affected by its availability in the soil. They decreased from 2.77, 0.96, and 0.62 mg kg-1 at the control treatment (CK) to 1.75, 0.47, and 0.20 mg kg-1 at B4 treatment (30 t SBDB) ha-1 in roots, straw, and seeds of soybean, respectively. In conclusion, the use of SBDB showed high efficiency in the amelioration of Cd-polluted soils and in decreasing Cd toxicity on soybean plants.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Celulose/química , Argila/química , Egito , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Saccharum/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(4): 298-302, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076133

RESUMO

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC50 of 13.44 ± 0.28 µmol·L-1, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC50 17.00 ± 2.10 µmol·L-1).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Diterpenos/química , Jatropha/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carbono/análise , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052298

RESUMO

The present work aimed to characterize leaves, stems, and flowers of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC., by performing an analysis of the phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, correlating them with bioactive properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. Thirty polyphenols were identified in the hydroethanolic extract, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides derivatives (which presented the highest number of identified compounds). However, flavan-3-ols showed the highest concentration in stems (mainly owing to the presence of dimers, trimmers, and tetramers of type B (epi)catechin). Leaves were distinguished by their high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as their bactericidal effect against E. coli, while stems presented a higher cytotoxic activity and bactericidal effect against Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, a high correlation between the studied bioactivities and the presence of phenolic compounds was also verified. The obtained results bring added value to the studied plant species.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Solventes
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