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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272201, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084028

RESUMO

The prevalence of pseudoscientific beliefs in our societies negatively influences relevant areas such as health or education. Causal illusions have been proposed as a possible cognitive basis for the development of such beliefs. The aim of our study was to further investigate the specific nature of the association between causal illusion and endorsement of pseudoscientific beliefs through an active contingency detection task. In this task, volunteers are given the opportunity to manipulate the presence or absence of a potential cause in order to explore its possible influence over the outcome. Responses provided are assumed to reflect both the participants' information interpretation strategies as well as their information search strategies. Following a previous study investigating the association between causal illusion and the presence of paranormal beliefs, we expected that the association between causal illusion and pseudoscientific beliefs would disappear when controlling for the information search strategy (i.e., the proportion of trials in which the participants decided to present the potential cause). Volunteers with higher pseudoscientific beliefs also developed stronger causal illusions in active contingency detection tasks. This association appeared irrespective of the participants with more pseudoscientific beliefs showing (Experiment 2) or not (Experiment 1) differential search strategies. Our results suggest that both information interpretation and search strategies could be significantly associated to the development of pseudoscientific (and paranormal) beliefs.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Causalidade , Humanos , Ilusões/fisiologia
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 44-47, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085760

RESUMO

Isolated effective coherence (iCoh) is a measure of neural causal functional connectivity from EEG signals that was proven to overperform the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (gPDC). However, iCoh sensitivity in the identification of reliable functional neural connections with respect to random links was not investigated. This study aims to compare the sensitivity of iCoh and gPDC with a statistical surrogates' approach. The cerebral motor network topology of a cohort of subjects in sub-acute stage after stroke was investigated. iCoh showed enhanced statistical discriminative power of the relevant connections within the motor network with respect to gPDC. This property influenced the assessment of ipsilesional intra-hemispheric topographic variations occurring in the population after a physical rehabilitation program.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Causalidade , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 876470, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093076

RESUMO

In this review after a lifelong research career, my personal opinion on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from its very start to clinical manifestation will be described. T1D is a disease of an increased intestinal permeability and a reduced pancreas volume. I am convinced that virus might be the initiator and that this virus could persist on strategically significant locations. Furthermore, intake of gluten is important both in foetal life and at later ages. Disturbances in sphingolipid metabolism may also be of crucial importance. During certain stages of T1D, T cells take over resulting in the ultimate destruction of beta cells, which manifests T1D as an autoimmune disease. Several preventive and early treatment strategies are mentioned. All together this review has more new theories than usually, and it might also be more speculative than ordinarily. But without new ideas and theories advancement is difficult, even though everything might not hold true during the continuous discovery of the etiology and pathogenesis of T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Causalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15320, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097179

RESUMO

The detection of cause-effect relationships from the analysis of paleoclimatic records is a crucial step to disentangle the main mechanisms at work in the climate system. Here, we show that the approach based on the generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation, complemented by the analysis of the Transfer Entropy, allows the causal links to be identified between temperature, CO[Formula: see text] concentration and astronomical forcing during the glacial cycles of the last 800 kyr based on Antarctic ice core records. When considering the whole spectrum of time scales, the results of the analysis suggest that temperature drives CO[Formula: see text] concentration, or that are both driven by the common astronomical forcing. However, considering only millennial-scale fluctuations, the results reveal the presence of more complex causal links, indicating that CO[Formula: see text] variations contribute to driving the changes of temperature on such time scales. The results also evidence a slow temporal variability in the strength of the millennial-scale causal links between temperature and CO[Formula: see text] concentration.


Assuntos
Clima , Regiões Antárticas , Causalidade , Temperatura
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0268705, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rising morbidity amongst patients with COVID-19 clinical syndrome. The updated RUCAM causality assessment scale is validated for use in the general population, but its utility for causality determination in cohorts of patients with COVID-19 and DILI remains uncertain. METHODS: This retrospective study was comprised of COVID-19 patients presenting with suspected DILI to the emergency department of Weill Cornell medicine-affiliated Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. All cases that met the inclusion criteria were comparatively adjudicated by two independent rating pairs (2 clinical pharmacist and 2 physicians) utilizing the updated RUCAM scale to assess the likelihood of DILI. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients (mean age 48.96 (SD ± 10.21) years) were examined for the determination of DILI causality. The majority had probability likelihood of "possible" or "probable" by the updated RUCAM scale. Azithromycin was the most commonly reported drug as a cause of DILI. The median R-ratio was 4.74 which correspond to a mixed liver injury phenotype. The overall Krippendorf's kappa was 0.52; with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.79 (IQR 0.72-0.85). The proportion of exact pairwise agreement and disagreement between the rating pairs were 64.4%, kappa 0.269 (ICC 0.28 [0.18, 0.40]) and kappa 0.45 (ICC 0.43 [0.29-0.57]), respectively. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of patients with COVID-19 clinical syndrome, we found the updated RUCAM scale to be useful in establishing "possible" or "probable" DILI likelihood as evident by the respective kappa values; this results if validated by larger sample sized studies will extend the clinical application of this universal tool for adjudication of DILI.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Causalidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078308

RESUMO

This paper aims to apply the time-varying Granger causality test (TVGC) and the DY Spillover Index (Diebold and Yilmaz, 2012) to measure the Granger causality and dynamic risk spillover effects of the international crude oil futures market on China's agricultural commodity futures market from the perspectives of return and volatility spillovers. Empirical evidence relating to the TVGC test suggests the existence of unidirectional Granger causality between crude oil futures and agricultural product futures. This relationship shows a strong time-varying property, in particular for sudden or extreme events such as financial crises and natural disasters. On the other hand, the volatility spillover in crude oil and agricultural product futures markets responds asymmetrically and bidirectionally according to the result of the DY Spillover index, and the periodicity of total volatility spillover correlates closely with the occurrence of global economic events, which indicates that the spillover effect between crude oil and agricultural commodity futures markets will be exacerbated in turbulent financial and economic times. Such findings are expected to help in formulating policy recommendations, portfolio design, and risk-management decisions.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Causalidade , China , Previsões , Gestão de Riscos
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 355-358, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085711

RESUMO

Four different Granger causality-based methods - one linear and three nonlinear (Granger Causality, Kernel Granger Causality, large-scale Nonlinear Granger Causality, and Neural Network Granger Causality) were used for assessment and causal-based quantification of the respiratory sinus arrythmia (RSA) in the group of pediatric cardiac patients, based on the single-lead ECG and impedance pneumography signals (the latter as the tidal volume curve equivalent). Each method was able to detect the dependency (in terms of causal inference) between respiratory and cardiac signals. The correlations between quantified RSA and the demographic parameters were also studied, but the results differ for each method. Clinical relevance- The presented methods (among which NNGC seems to be the most valid) allow for quantification of RSA and study of dependency between tidal volume and RR intervals which may help to better understand association between respiratory and cardiovascular systems in different populations.


Assuntos
Arritmia Sinusal , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória , Causalidade , Criança , Coração , Humanos , Taxa Respiratória
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 1028-1031, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086313

RESUMO

Drug overdose has become a public health crisis in the United States with devastating consequences. However, most of the drug overdose incidences are the consequence of recitative polysubstance usage over a defined period of time which can be happened by either the intentional usage of required drug with other drugs or by accident. Thus, predicting the effects of polysubstance usage is extremely important for clinicians to decide which combination of drugs should be prescribed. Recent advancement of structural causal models can provide ample insights of causal effects from observational data via identifiable causal directed graphs. In this paper, we propose a system to estimate heterogeneous concurrent drug usage effects on overdose estimation, that consists of efficient co-variate selection, sub-group selection and heterogeneous causal effect estimation. We apply our framework to answer a critical question, 'can concurrent usage of benzodiazepines and opioids have heterogeneous causal effects on the opioid overdose epidemic?' Using Truven MarketScan claim data collected from 2001 to 2013 have shown significant promise of our proposed framework's efficacy. Latest paper and codes can be found here https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.07224.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Causalidade , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(12)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute uterine inversion is a rare, but serious, obstetric complication in the third stage of labour, commonly resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A total or partial invagination of the uterine fundus occurs, followed by profuse bleeding and circulatory instability. The case presented here illustrates a typical clinical course of the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: After giving birth to a large, healthy boy, a woman developed acute uterine inversion. The uterus was successfully repositioned using Johnson's manoeuvre under general anaesthesia, and significant transfusion was needed to combat the resulting haemorrhage. INTERPRETATION: Acute inversion of the uterus should be suspected based on purely clinical signs. Treatment should commence without delay by a multidisciplinary team of obstetricians, anaesthesiologists and surgeons.


Assuntos
Inversão Uterina , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Inversão Uterina/diagnóstico , Inversão Uterina/etiologia , Inversão Uterina/cirurgia
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 277: 97-100, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055048

RESUMO

AIM: To examine whether hiatal expansion and levator avulsion have a role in the causation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Data from studies which showed a strong association of hiatal expansion and levator avulsion were analysed for causation against an alternative view, POPcausation by ligament/connective tissue damage. RESULTS: Some studies potentially fitted the "Regularity Theory of Causality"; i.e., an apparent cause, occurred with such regularity as to be considered a cause. However, these studies failed the logical requirement of "unconditional": all levator avulsions were to be followed directly by occurrence of POP, if the association were to be considered valid. Two studies which placed a large mesh behind the rectum and around puborectalis muscle greatly diminished levator expansion, but POP recurred in 78% of the women by 12 months. These results invalidated hypotheses of cause (levator expansion) and effect (prolapse). CONCLUSIONS: Levator avulsion/hiatal expansion co-occurs with POP. The cause for both is likely inability of the birth canal to plasticize" sufficiently to prevent simultaneous damage to the hiatal muscles and surrounding fascias and ligaments, which explains the co-occurrence. Greater than 90% cure of POP by site-specific repair of up to 4 pelvic ligaments supported the alternative hypothesis of simultaneous damage to pelvic ligaments to cause prolapse.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/epidemiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/etiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Vagina
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084061

RESUMO

Stigmatizing attitudes toward children with psychopathology represent a barrier to treatment and well-being, yet almost no research has investigated what contributes to these attitudes. This study examines the effects of medication treatment and genetic etiology on stigmatizing attitudes toward a relatively new and controversial disorder-Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD). Participants (159 parents, 225 non-parents) completed a vignette study on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) in which a child displayed behaviors consistent with DMDD. The child was described as either taking psychiatric medication or not, and the vignette described the child's condition as either genetic or did not mention etiology. Participants who were parents reported greater stigma when the etiology (genetic prime vs. no prime) matched the perceived appropriate treatment (medication vs. no medication). Among parents, a child treated with medication who had a genetic disorder, and a child who was not treated with medication and for whom genetic etiology was not primed, were most stigmatized. No differences emerged among non-parents. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple factors (parental status, congruence between treatment and perceived disorder etiology) when investigating mental health stigma and underscore the need to further investigate such nuances to inform anti-stigma interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Humor Irritável , Causalidade , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Pais
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2547: 1-20, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068458

RESUMO

Making drug development more efficient by identifying promising drug targets can contribute to resource savings. Identifying promising drug targets using human genetic approaches can remove barriers related to translation. In addition, genetic information can be used to identify potentially causal relationships between a drug target and disease. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a class of approaches used to identify causal associations between pairs of genetically predicted traits using data from human genetic studies. MR can be used to prioritize candidate drug targets by predicting disease outcomes and adverse events that could result from the manipulation of a drug target. The theory behind MR is reviewed, including a discussion of MR assumptions, different MR analytical methods, tests for violations of assumptions, and MR methods that can be robust to some violations of MR assumptions. A protocol to perform two-sample MR (2SMR) with summary genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is described. An example of 2SMR examining the causal relationship between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is provided as an illustration of the protocol.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Causalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094926

RESUMO

This paper empirically investigates the relationship between tourism and economic growth by using a panel data cointegration test, Granger causality test and Wavelet coherence analysis at the global level. This analysis examines 105 nations utilising panel data from 2003 to 2020. The findings indicates that in most regions, tourism contributes significantly to economic growth and vice versa. Developing trade across most of the regions appears to be a major influencer in the study, as a bidirectional association exists between trade openness and economic growth. Additionally, all regions other than the American region showed a one-way association between gross capital formation and economic growth. Therefore, it is crucial to highlight that using initiatives to increase demand would advance tourism while also boosting the economy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Turismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Causalidade , Estados Unidos
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011311

RESUMO

Laypersons have a strong need to explain critical life events, such as the development of an illness. Expert explanations do not always match the beliefs of patients. We therefore assessed causal attributions made by women with a pathogenic germline variant in BRCA1/2 (gBRCA1/2-PV), both with and without a cancer diagnosis. We assumed that attributions would be associated with the control experience. We conducted a cross-sectional study of N = 101 women with a gBRCA1/2-PV (mean age 43.3 ± 10.9). Women answered self-report questionnaires on perceived causes and control. Most women (97%) named genes as a causal factor for the development of cancer. Surprisingly, the majority of women also named stress and health behavior (both 81%), environment (80%), and personality (61%). Women with a cancer diagnosis tended to endorse more causes. The attributions to personality (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.01) health behavior (ρ = 0.44, p < 0.01), and environment (ρ = 0.22, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with personal control, whereas attribution to genes showed a small, albeit significant association with treatment control (ρ = 0.20, p < 0.05). Discussing causal beliefs in clinical counseling may provide a "window of opportunity" in which risk factors and health behaviors could be better addressed and individually targeted.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias , Adulto , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273728, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006996

RESUMO

An accurate therapeutic diet can help people improve their medical condition. Any discrepancy in this regard could jeopardize a patient's clinical condition. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of dietary errors among in-patients at an international private hospital's food department, and to explore causes of error to suggest strategies to reduce such errors in the future. Thus, a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was carried out. For the quantitative part, secondary data were collected on a daily basis over one-month. For qualitative data, errors arising during the meal flow process were traced to the source on the same day of error followed by qualitative interviews with person responsible. Quantitative data were analyzed in SPSS v.25 as percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed by deductive-inductive thematic analysis. Out of a total of 7041 diets, we found that only 17 had errors. Of these, almost two-thirds were critical. Majority of these errors took place during diet card preparation (52.94%), by dietitians (70.59%), during weekdays (82.35%), breakfasts (47.06%), and in the cardiac care ward (47.06%). The causes identified through interviews were lack of backup or accessory food staff, and employee's personal and domestic issues. It was concluded that even though the prevalence of dietary errors was low in this study, critical errors formed majority of these errors. Adopting organizational behavior strategies in the hospital may not only reduce dietary errors, but improve patients' well-being, and employee satisfaction in a long run.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hospitais , Causalidade , Humanos
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