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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 308, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between vitamin D status and mortality in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) is unknown. This study investigated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among American adults with OA. METHODS: This study included 2556 adults with OA from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2014). Death outcomes were ascertained by linkage to National Death Index (NDI) records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazards model and two-piecewise Cox proportional hazards model were used to elucidate the nonlinear relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and mortality in OA patients, and stratified analyses were performed to identify patients with higher mortality risk. RESULTS: During 16,606 person-years of follow-up, 438 all-cause deaths occurred, including 74 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related and 78 cancer deaths. After multivariable adjustment, lower serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and nonlinearly associated with higher risks of all-cause and CVD mortality among participants with OA. Furthermore, we discovered L-shaped associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and all-cause and CVD mortality, with mortality plateauing at 54.40 nmol/L for all-cause mortality and 27.70 nmol/L for CVD mortality. Compared to participants with 25(OH)D levels below the inflection points, those with higher levels had a 2% lower risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99) and 17% lower risk for CVD mortality (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Nonlinear associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed in American patients with OA. The thresholds of 27.70 and 54.40 nmol/L for CVD and all-cause mortality, respectively, may represent intervention targets for lowering the risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease, but this needs to be confirmed in large clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Osteoartrite , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 994-1000, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the changes in the mortality rate and cause of death of hospitalized neonates in grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province during a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 461 neonates who died in three grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021. The related clinical data were collected to examine the changes of neonatal mortality with time, gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW). The main causes of death of the neonates were compared between the first 5 years (2012-2016) and the last 5 years (2017-2021) in the period. RESULTS: A total of 43 037 neonates were admitted from 2012 to 2021, among whom 461 died, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.07%. The mortality rate in the last 5 years was significantly lower than that in the first 5 years [0.96% (211/22 059 vs 1.19% (250/20 978); P<0.05]. The mortality rate of neonates decreased with the increases in GA and BW (P<0.05). In the first 5 years, the top three main causes of neonatal death were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), sepsis, and pneumorrhagia, while in the last 5 years, the top three causes were sepsis, pneumorrhagia, and RDS. The leading cause of death was severe asphyxia for the neonates with a GA of <26 weeks and a BW of <750 g in both the first and last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 26-<28 weeks, the leading cause of death changed from RDS in the first 5 years to pneumorrhagia in the last 5 years. For the neonates with a BW of 750-<1 000 g, the leading cause of death changed from pneumorrhagia in the first 5 years to RDS in the last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 28-<32 weeks and a BW of 1 000-<1 500 g, the leading cause of death was RDS in both the first and last 5 years. For the neonates with a GA of 32-<37 weeks and a BW of 1 500-<2 500 g, the leading cause of death changed from RDS in the first 5 years to sepsis in the last 5 years. The leading cause of death was sepsis for the neonates with a GA of 37-<42 weeks and a BW of 2 500-<4 000 g in both the first and last 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of neonates in the grade A tertiary hospitals in Weifang City of Shandong Province has been decreasing in the past 10 years, and it decreases with the increases in GA and BW. Sepsis, RDS, and pneumorrhagia are the leading causes of neonatal death. The mortality rate caused by RDS decreases from the first 5 years to the last 5 years, while the mortality rate caused by sepsis or pneumorrhagia increases from the first 5 years to the last 5 years. Therefore, reducing the incidence rates of sepsis, RDS, and pneumorrhagia is the key to reducing neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Sepse , Peso ao Nascer , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e059745, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics and circumstances of infants who died while sleeping or in a sleep environment and compare deaths classified as either unintentional asphyxia or an unexplained cause. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the National Fatality Review Case Reporting System and Florida Vital Statistics databases. PARTICIPANTS: Data on 778 sleep-related infant deaths occurring from 2014 to 2018 in Florida were analysed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Cause of death classification as unintentional asphyxia or unexplained. RESULTS: Overall, 36% (n=276) of sleep-related infant deaths in this study sample were classified as resulting from an unexplained cause compared with unintentional asphyxia. Most infants were reported to be in an adult bed (60%; n=464) and sharing a sleep surface with a person or animal (60%; n=468); less than half (44%; n=343) were reportedly placed to sleep on their back. After controlling for the influence of other independent variables, female sex (adjusted risk ratio: 1.36; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.74) and fully obstructed airway condition (adjusted risk ratio: 0.30; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.50) were associated with an unexplained cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis indicate that sleep environment hazards remain prevalent among infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly, regardless of the cause of death determination. While significant differences were observed for some factors, in many others the distributions of both demographic and incident characteristics were similar between unexplained deaths and those resulting from asphyxia. The results of this study support growing evidence that unsafe sleep environments contribute to all forms of sudden unexpected infant death, underscoring the need for standardising cause of death determination practices and promoting consistent, high-quality forensic investigations to accurately explain, monitor and prevent these deaths.


Assuntos
Asfixia , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia
5.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(5): 391-395, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074108

RESUMO

In June, 2022, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) announced an initiative to reduce death due to suicide in US Veterans. This column is based on a proposal written for that initiative, as well as on an earlier psychopharmacology column in this journal that reviewed the statistics and the genetics of suicide, and the US medicolegal death investigation system. This system is composed of 3137 county coroner or medical examiner offices across the country that are responsible under state and local law for investigating deaths that are not explained by natural causes and are suspicious and/or unattended. Thus, this system gathers data concerning all deaths due to suicide. Currently this death investigation system costs US taxpayers ∼$660 million per year, and it has determined that ∼45,000 Americans die from suicide each year. In the conduct of these investigations, a large amount of data is collected, including biological samples. While the demographic data are reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), little-if anything-is done with the collected biological material beyond its use in determining the cause of death of the individual. The earlier column on this topic advocated for the establishment of a central database to retain and utilize this information to further understand the biopsychosocial causes of suicide, with the goal of preventing suicides. This column describes a proposal submitted to the VA system for how such a system could initially be piloted in a small group of VA medical centers and then expanded to the entire system. This initial effort could then, in turn, serve as a model for expanding such data gathering to the entire US medicolegal death investigation system.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Veteranos , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): In press, 2022.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: during 2020, Italy was one of the first nation hit by SARS-CoV-2, but it was not the hardest-hit country in terms of deaths. In absence of the death certificate, the burden of COVID-19 on mortality is usually calculated from overall deaths or from deaths of patients tested positive for COVID-19. However, these measures do not express the real burden of the disease on the population. OBJECTIVES: identify deaths due to or involving COVID-19 in absence of the death certificates. DESIGN: deaths for all causes, cause-specific deaths, COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 confirmed cases between 01.01.2020 and 31.12.2021 observed in subjects residing in the territory of the ATS of Milan. Potential deaths due to or involving COVID-19 as those occurring in an optimal time period between the date of death and the date of positive swab and/or COVID-19 hospitalization, were identified. Optimal time period was defined maximizing sensitivity and specificity, comparing potential COVID-19 deaths with 2020 cause-specific mortality as gold standard, stratifying results by time of deaths, age, and number of comorbidities. Then, this method was further validated using a time-series approach to estimate the excess mortality during the COVID-19 outbreak in comparison with the pre-outbreak period 2015-2019. Accuracy of predictions was evaluated with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 78,202 deaths for all causes, of which 8,815 due to or involving COVID-19 as classified by the Milan Register of Death Causes for 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: from the beginning of the epidemic, 30% (23,495) died in the first semester of 2020, 26% (19,988) in the second semester of 2020, 23% (18,189) in the first semester of 2021, and 21% (16,530) in the second semester of 2021. COVID-19 hospitalizations were 13.826 (17%), while confirmed COVID-19 cases were 17,548 (22%). The optimal time intervals capable to identify a potential death due to or involving COVID-19 were 0-61 between the date of death and the date of positive swab and 0-11 between the date of death and the date of COVID-19 hospitalization, with an overall sensitivity of 90%, a specificity of 95%, and a RMSE of 3.6. Comparing the method proposed with the time-series approach, a RMSE in 2021 of 15.8 was found. Results showed different optimal time intervals for 2021 vs 2020 and by years of age and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: this study found that deaths due to or involving COVID-19 could be sensitively identified from the date of positive swab and/or COVID-19 hospitalization. This method can be used for public health interventions which provided so far measures in terms of total deaths instead of real numbers of COVID-19 death, in particular those involving the effective reproduction number usually calculated from overall mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atestado de Óbito , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(10): 771-781, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have a mortality rate higher than the general population, living an average of 10-20 years less. Most studies of mortality among people with severe mental illness have occurred in high-income countries (HICs). We aimed to estimate all-cause and cause-specific relative risk (RR) and excess mortality rate (EMR) in a nationwide cohort of inpatients with severe mental illness compared with inpatients without severe mental illness in a middle income country, Brazil. METHODS: This national retrospective cohort study included all patients hospitalised through the Brazilian Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]-Brazil) between Jan 1, 2000, and April 21, 2015. Probabilistic and deterministic record linkages integrated data from the Hospital Information System (Sistema de informações Hospitalares) and the National Mortality System (Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade). Follow-up duration was measured from the date of the patients' first hospitalisation until their death, or until April 21, 2015. Severe mental illness was defined as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depressive disorder by ICD-10 codes used for the admission. RR and EMR were calculated with 95% CIs, comparing mortality among patients with severe mental illness with those with other diagnoses for patients aged 15 years and older. We redistributed deaths using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study methodology if ill-defined causes of death were stated as an underlying cause. FINDINGS: From Jan 1, 2000, to April 21, 2015, 72 021 918 patients (31 510 035 [43·8%] recorded as male and 40 974 426 [56·9%] recorded as female; mean age 41·1 (SD 23·8) years) were admitted to hospital, with 749 720 patients (372 458 [49·7%] recorded as male and 378 670 [50·5%] as female) with severe mental illness. 5 102 055 patient deaths (2 862 383 [56·1%] recorded as male and 2 314 781 [45·4%] as female) and 67 485 deaths in patients with severe mental illness (39 099 [57·9%] recorded as male and 28 534 [42·3%] as female) were registered. The RR for all-cause mortality in patients with severe mental illness was 1·27 (95% CI 1·27-1·28) and the EMR was 2·52 (2·44-2·61) compared with non-psychiatric inpatients during the follow-up period. The all-cause RR was higher for females and for younger age groups; however, EMR was higher in those aged 30-59 years. The RR and EMR varied across the leading causes of death, sex, and age groups. We identified injuries (suicide, interpersonal violence, and road injuries) and cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease) as having the highest EMR among those with severe mental illness. Data on ethnicity were not available. INTERPRETATION: In contrast to studies from HICs, inpatients with severe mental illness in Brazil had high RR for idiopathic epilepsy, tuberculosis, HIV, and acute hepatitis, and no significant difference in mortality from cancer compared with inpatients without severe mental illness. These identified causes should be addressed as a priority to maximise mortality prevention among people with severe mental illness, especially in a middle-income country like Brazil that has low investment in mental health. FUNDING: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, FAPEMIG, and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 984137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017319

RESUMO

Optimal control of diabetes and relevant risk factors substantially reduce the risks of chronic complications and mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality rate and major causes of death between 2007 and 2018 in patients with diabetes in Taiwan. This study was conducted using data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We selected patients with diabetes diagnosed between 2007 and 2017 (grouped according to the year of diabetes diagnosis 2007-2010 vs. 2011-2017). Information on mortality and causes of death by the end of 2018 was confirmed through linking to the National Death Registry. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) were calculated by weighting the World Health Organization (WHO) standard population (WHO 2000-2025). More than 2.7 million of patients with diabetes were analyzed and a total of 566121 deaths were identified. Overall, the SMR was 11.72 per 1000 person-years. Patients with diabetes diagnosed in 2011-2017 had a lower SMR (8.42 vs. 12.92 per 1000 person-years) than those diagnosed in 2007-2010. Similar finding were noted regarding the major causes of death (cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertensive disease, and cerebrovascular disease). Compared with patients who were diagnosed in 2008-2010, those who were diagnosed in 2011-2014 and 2015-2018 had a higher 3-year survival rate (0.9356 vs. 0.9438 vs. 0.946, log-rank test p<0.001) after the diagnosis of diabetes. Patients who were diagnosed with diabetes after 2011 had a lower rate of all-cause mortality and major causes of death, compared with those who were diagnosed before 2010 in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e059370, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate smoking-related mortality and its contribution to educational inequalities in life expectancy in Spain. DESIGN: Nationwide, observational study from 2016 to 2019. Population-attributable fractions were used to estimate age, sex and education-specific cause-of-death smoking-attributable mortality. Life table techniques and decomposition methods were used to estimate potential gains in life expectancy at age 35 and the cause-specific contributions of smoking-related mortality to life expectancy differences across educational groups. SETTING: Spain. PARTICIPANTS: We use cause-specific mortality data from population registers and smoking prevalence from the National and the European Health Survey for Spain from 2017 and 2019/2020, respectively. RESULTS: We estimated 219 086 smoking-related deaths during 2016-2019, equalling 13% of all deaths, 83.7% of those in men. In the absence of smoking, potential gains in male life expectancy were higher among the low-educated than the high-educated (3.1 vs 2.1 years). For women, educational differences were less and also in the opposite direction (0.6 vs 0.9 years). The contribution of smoking to life expectancy differences between high-educated and low-educated groups accounted for 1.5 years among men, and -0.2 years among women. For men, the contribution of smoking to these differences was mostly driven by cancer in middle age, cardiometabolic diseases at younger ages and respiratory diseases at older ages. For women, the contribution to this gap, although negligible, was driven by cancer at older ages among the higher educated. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains a relevant preventable risk factor of premature mortality in Spain, disproportionately affecting life expectancy of low-educated men.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 18-24, 20220801.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380292

RESUMO

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte. El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es un problema de salud pública. Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de los pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos durante el periodo de ventana terapéutica en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo 2018 - 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes de sexo masculino y femenino, mayores de 18 años admitidos en la Unidad de Ictus del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo de ventana terapéutica comprendido entre junio del año 2018 y septiembre del año 2020. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio 512 pacientes. La media de edad fue 65 ± 12,1 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino con (58,7%) y la mayoría proceden del Departamento Central (61,3%). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (83,3%), el sobrepeso (34,7%) y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (27,3%). Presentaron infarto moderado (41,8%) y la trombólisis fue realizada en el (16%) de los pacientes. Conclusión: Los pacientes que presentaron accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos en el periodo de ventana terapéutica fueron en su mayoría del sexo masculino, edad media de 65 años, los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial, el sobrepeso y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, el infarto moderado fue la más frecuente y escasa cantidad recibieron trombólisis.


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke is a public health problem. Objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke admitted during the therapeutic window period in the Emergency Department of the Hospital de Clínicas in the period 2018 - 2020. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The subjects were male and female patients, over 18 years of age admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Emergency Service of the Hospital de Clínicas in the therapeutic window period between June 2018 and September 2020. Results: Included 512 patients in the study. The mean age was 65 ± 12,1 years. The most frequent sex was male with (58.7%), most of them come from the central department (61.3%). The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (83.3%), overweight (34.7%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.3%). They presented moderate infarction (41,8%). Thrombolysis was performed in (16%) of the patients. Conclusion: The patients who presented ischemic stroke admitted in the therapeutic window period were mostly male, mean age 65 years, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were arterial hypertension, overweight and mellitus diabetes type 2, moderate infarction was the most frequent and few received thrombolysis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sobrepeso , AVC Isquêmico , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Causas de Morte , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0265709, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925908

RESUMO

The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a widely used data resource, representative in demographic profile, with accurate death recordings but it is unclear if mortality rates within CPRD GOLD are similar to rates in the general population. Rates may additionally be affected by selection bias caused by the requirement that a cohort have a minimum lookback window, i.e. observation time prior to start of at-risk follow-up. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated incorporating published population reference rates from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), using Poisson regression with rates in CPRD GOLD contrasted to ONS rates, stratified by age, calendar year and sex. An overall SMR was estimated along with SMRs presented for cohorts with different lookback windows (1, 2, 5, 10 years). SMRs were stratified by calendar year, length of follow-up and age group. Mortality rates in a random sample of 1 million CPRD GOLD patients were slightly lower than the national population [SMR = 0.980 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.973, 0.987)]. Cohorts with observational lookback had SMRs below one [1 year of lookback; SMR = 0.905 (0.898, 0.912), 2 years; SMR = 0.881 (0.874, 0.888), 5 years; SMR = 0.849 (0.841, 0.857), 10 years; SMR = 0.837 (0.827, 0.847)]. Mortality rates in the first two years after patient entry into CPRD were higher than the general population, while SMRs dropped below one thereafter. Mortality rates in CPRD, using simple entry requirements, are similar to rates seen in the English population. The requirement of at least a single year of lookback results in lower mortality rates compared to national estimates.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Viés de Seleção
13.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 341-353, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001567

RESUMO

Aim: Reports of fatal incidents in recreational scuba divers from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are rare. This study aimed to identify scuba fatalities in the Asia-Pacific region caused by breathing-gas contamination to better understand the likely sources of contamination and reduce such preventable deaths. Methods: A hand search of Project Stickybeak reports, subsequent Australian fatality series reports, and of published New Zealand diving fatality reports and associated data was conducted, as well as key word searches of the National Coronial Information System for scuba fatalities in Australia and New Zealand. Cases identified were matched with the Australasian Diving Safety Foundation diving fatality database. Available reports were examined. Results: Four scuba deaths resulting from CO poisoning were identified from 645 scuba fatalities, including one report from each of Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and the Maldives. A near-fatal incident was also identified in Indonesia. Two of the fatal incidents and the near-fatal incident involved internal combustion engine exhaust gases from the compressor system or elsewhere entering the air intake. Two deaths likely resulted from combustion within compressor systems. Conclusions: Scuba fatalities from CO poisoning are uncommon, albeit likely under-reported. Sources of CO include exhaust gases entering the compressor and CO production by pyrolysis or gasification within the compressor or its filter system. Preventive measures include proper installation (including positioning of the air intake relative to combustion exhaust), appropriate maintenance, fitting of pressure-maintaining valves and avoidance of overheating. Formal training of compressor operators, improved diver education, mandatory requirements for installation compliance assessments, safety inspections, and the use of carbon monoxide alarms are recommended.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono , Mergulho , Afogamento , Austrália , Monóxido de Carbono , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/etiologia , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Emissões de Veículos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031332

RESUMO

The comet assay is used to measure DNA damage induced by chemical and physical agents. High concentrations of test agents may cause cytotoxicity or cell death, which may give rise to false positive results in the comet assay. Systematic studies on genotoxins and cytotoxins (i.e. non-genotoxic poisons) have attempted to establish a threshold of cytotoxicity or cell death by which DNA damage results measured by the comet assay could be regarded as a false positive result. Thresholds of cytotoxicity/cell death range from 20% to 50% in various publications. Curiously, a survey of the latest literature on comet assay results from cell culture studies suggests that one-third of publications did not assess cytotoxicity or cell death. We recommend that it should be mandatory to include results from at least one type of assay on cytotoxicity, cell death or cell proliferation in publications on comet assay results. A combination of cytotoxicity (or cell death) and proliferation (or colony forming efficiency assay) is preferable in actively proliferating cells because it covers more mechanisms of action. Applying a general threshold of cytotoxicity/cell death to all types of agents may not be applicable; however, 25% compared to the concurrent negative control seems to be a good starting value to avoid false positive comet assay results. Further research is needed to establish a threshold value to distinguish between true and potentially false positive genotoxic effects detected by the comet assay.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Mutagênicos , Causas de Morte , Morte Celular , Ensaio Cometa
15.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(3): 419-422, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide among males is a major public health challenge. In 2019, males accounted for nearly 80% of the suicide deaths in the U.S., and suicide was the eighth leading cause of death for males aged ≥10 years. Males who die by suicide are less likely to have known mental health conditions than females; therefore, it is important to identify prevention points outside of mental health systems. The purpose of this analysis was to compare suicide characteristics among males with and without known mental health conditions by age group to inform prevention. METHODS: Suicides among 4 age groups of males were examined using the 3 most recent years of data at the time of the analysis (2016-2018) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Violent Death Reporting System. Decedents with and without known mental health conditions were compared within age groups. The analysis was conducted in August 2021. RESULTS: Most male suicide decedents had no known mental health conditions. More frequently, those without known mental health conditions died by firearm, and many tested positive for alcohol. Adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged males without known mental health conditions more often had relationship problems, arguments, and/or a crisis as a precipitating circumstance than those with known mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stressors more often precipitated suicides of males without known mental health conditions, and they more often involved firearms. These findings underscore the importance of mitigating acute situational stressors that could contribute to emotionally reactive/impulsive suicides. Suicide prevention initiatives targeting males might focus on age-specific precipitating circumstances in addition to standard psychiatric markers.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Adolescente , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1607, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Indonesia has not optimally provided complete and reliable civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS). Death certification is one of the elements of the CRVS system. Reliable data on death rates and causes serve as the basis for building a strong evidence base for public health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. This study aims to implement an approach to identifying the cause of death through verbal autopsy by empowering community health workers during the pandemic. METHOD: This study is implementation research with the empowerment of the community, in this case, health cadres and health facilitators/workers, to identify the cause of death through a mobile-based verbal autopsy. This implementation research consisted of four main activities: community-based verbal autopsy, mobile-based verbal autopsy development, data collection, and analysis of the suspected causes of death using InterVA-5. RESULT: From October to November 2020, a total of 143 respondents were willing to do a verbal autopsy interview (response rate of 58%). Of 143 respondents, most of them were women (112 or 78.3%), was the child of the deceased (61 or 42.7%) and lived with the deceased until before he/she died (120 or 83.9%). Based on the characteristics of the deceased, of 143 deceased, 78 (54.5%) were male, 134 (93.7%) were adults, 100 (69.9%) died at home, and 119 (83.2%) did not have a death certificate stating the cause of death. The cause of death of 143 deceased mainly was infectious disease (92 or 64.3%), followed by non-communicable disease (39 or 27.3%), external factors (5 or 3.5%), and unknown factors (4 or 2.8%). In sequence, the top five suspected causes of death are acute respiratory infection, including pneumonia (72 or 50.3%), other and unspecified infectious disease (18 or 12.6%), other and unspecified cardiac disease (17 or 11.9%), acute cardiac disease (4 or 2.8%), and Digestive neoplasms (4 or 2.8%). CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the mobile-based verbal autopsy using a community-based mechanism was feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Cardiopatias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Vigilância da População
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1201-1211, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tea is frequently consumed worldwide, but the association of tea drinking with mortality risk remains inconclusive in populations where black tea is the main type consumed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality and potential effect modification by genetic variation in caffeine metabolism. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 498 043 men and women aged 40 to 69 years who completed the baseline touchscreen questionnaire from 2006 to 2010. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported tea intake and mortality from all causes and leading causes of death, including cancer, all cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease, stroke, and respiratory disease. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, higher tea intake was modestly associated with lower all-cause mortality risk among those who drank 2 or more cups per day. Relative to no tea drinking, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for participants drinking 1 or fewer, 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 or more cups per day were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.00), 0.87 (CI, 0.84 to 0.91), 0.88 (CI, 0.84 to 0.91), 0.88 (CI, 0.84 to 0.92), 0.91 (CI, 0.86 to 0.97), and 0.89 (CI, 0.84 to 0.95), respectively. Inverse associations were seen for mortality from all CVD, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Findings were similar regardless of whether participants also drank coffee or not or of genetic score for caffeine metabolism. LIMITATION: Potentially important aspects of tea intake (for example, portion size and tea strength) were not assessed. CONCLUSION: Higher tea intake was associated with lower mortality risk among those drinking 2 or more cups per day, regardless of genetic variation in caffeine metabolism. These findings suggest that tea, even at higher levels of intake, can be part of a healthy diet. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cafeína , Causas de Morte , Café , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Chá , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011568

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between a healthy lifestyle with all-cause, cause-specific mortality, and cancer incidence among individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Healthy lifestyle scores were created based on MetS management guidelines, including never/quitting smoking, moderate drinking, good sleep, healthy diet, sufficient exercise, social support, and less sedentary behaviour. Weighted healthy lifestyle scores were further constructed and classified into three groups: unfavourable (lowest quintile), intermediate (quintiles 2-4), and favourable (highest quintile) lifestyles. We included 87,342 MetS participants from the UK Biobank. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 12.54 years, 6739 deaths were reported; during a median follow-up of 10.69 years, 10,802 new cancer cases were documented. We found a favourable lifestyle was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.53-0.62), cause-specific mortality from respiratory disease, cancer, digestive disease, cardiovascular disease (HR < 1; p-trend < 0.001), and overall cancer incidence (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79-0.90). Our results indicate that adherence to healthy lifestyles is associated with lower overall cancer incidence and all-cause mortality risk among MetS individuals. However, causality cannot be made due to the nature of observational studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013751, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is more prevalent with lower levels of kidney function. Anaemia in CKD is associated with death related to cardiovascular (CV) disease and infection. Established treatments include erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), iron supplementation and blood transfusions. Oral hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) stabilisers are now available to manage anaemia in people with CKD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the benefits and potential harms of HIF stabilisers for the management of anaemia in people with CKD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 22 November 2021 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to our review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised studies evaluating hypoxia-inducible factors stabilisers compared to placebo, standard care, ESAs or iron supplementation in people with CKD were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Five authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Treatment estimates were summarised using random effects pair-wise meta-analysis and expressed as a relative risk (RR) or mean difference (MD), with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Evidence certainty was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 51 studies randomising 30,994 adults. These studies compared HIF stabilisers to either placebo or an ESA. Compared to placebo, HIF stabiliser therapy had uncertain effects on CV death (10 studies, 1114 participants): RR 3.68, 95% CI 0.19 to 70.21; very low certainty evidence), and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) (3 studies, 822 participants): RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.31 to 5.36; I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence), probably decreases the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion (8 studies, 4329 participants): RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.60; I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and increases the proportion of patients reaching the target haemoglobin (Hb) (10 studies, 5102 participants): RR 8.36, 95% CI 6.42 to 10.89; I² = 37%; moderate certainty evidence). Compared to ESAs, HIF stabiliser therapy may make little or no difference to CV death (17 studies, 10,340 participants): RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.26; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), nonfatal MI (7 studies, 7765 participants): RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.10; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), and nonfatal stroke (5 studies, 7285 participants): RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.56; I² = 8%; low certainty evidence), and had uncertain effects on fatigue (2 studies, 3471 participants): RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.16; I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence). HIF stabiliser therapy probably decreased the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion (11 studies, 10,786 participants): RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00; I² = 25%; moderate certainty evidence), but may make little or no difference on the proportion of patients reaching the target Hb (14 studies, 4601 participants): RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.07; I² = 70%; low certainty evidence), compared to ESA. The effect of HIF stabilisers on hospitalisation for heart failure, peripheral arterial events, loss of unassisted dialysis vascular access patency, access intervention, cancer, infection, pulmonary hypertension and diabetic nephropathy was uncertain. None of the included studies reported life participation. Adverse events were rarely and inconsistently reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: HIF stabiliser management of anaemia had uncertain effects on CV death, fatigue, death (any cause), CV outcomes, and kidney failure compared to placebo or ESAs. Compared to placebo or ESAs, HIF stabiliser management of anaemia probably decreased the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusions, and probably increased the proportion of patients reaching the target Hb when compared to placebo.


Assuntos
Anemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Fadiga , Humanos , Hipóxia , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
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