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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17627, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626145

RESUMO

Adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) is recommended without consideration of radical prostatectomy Gleason score (RP GS) for cases with adverse features. We compared the outcomes of pathologically localized high-grade (GS 8-10) prostate cancer (PC) with those of pT3 GS 7 PC.A total of 1585 men who underwent RP between 1995 and 2015 comprised the cohort, which was divided into group 1 (RP GS 7(3 + 4) and pT3; n = 760), group 2 (RP GS 7(4 + 3) and pT3; n = 565), and group 3 (RP GS 8-10 and pT2; n = 260). Biochemical recurrence (BCR), all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM) risk were compared among groups using Cox regression and competing risk analysis.At a median follow-up of 58 months (interquartile range: 37-85), 721 men experienced BCR and 84 died (22 due to PC). BCR-free survival rates were lower in group 3 than in group 1 (P < .001); nevertheless, no difference was observed between groups 2 and 3 (P = .638). Furthermore, no difference in ACM was noted among groups. PCSM rates were higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P = .001 and P = .005, respectively). This association persisted in multivariate models after adjustment for clinicopathological variables.Patients with RP GS 8-10 and pT2 PC had higher BCR and PCSM rates than those with RP GS 7 and pT3 PC. Localized high-grade PC should be considered in decision-making for ART.


Assuntos
Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1209-1217, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564156

RESUMO

AIMS: There is an increasing demand for hip arthroplasty in China. We aimed to describe trends in in-hospital mortality after this procedure in China and to examine the potential risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 210 450 patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty registered in the Hospital Quality Monitoring System in China between 2013 and 2016. In-hospital mortality after hip arthroplasty and its relation to potential risk factors were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: During the study period, 626 inpatient deaths occurred within 30 days after hip arthroplasty. Mortality decreased from 2.9% in 2013 to 2.6% in 2016 (p for trend = 0.02). Compared with their counterparts, old age, male sex, and divorced or widowed patients had a higher rate of mortality (all p < 0.05). Risk ratio (RR) for mortality after arthroplasty for fracture was two-fold higher (RR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 2.6) than that for chronic disease. RRs for mortality were 3.3 (95% CI 2.7 to 3.9) and 8.2 (95% CI 6.5 to 10.4) for patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 1 to 2 and CCI ≥ 3, respectively, compared with patients with CCI of 0. The rate of mortality varied according to geographical region, the lowest being in the East region (1.8%), followed by Beijing (2.1%), the North (2.9%), South-West (3.6%), South-Central (3.8%), North-East (4.1%), and North-West (5.2%) regions. CONCLUSION: While in-hospital mortality after hip arthroplasty in China appears low and declined during the study period, discrepancies in mortality after this procedure exist according to sociodemographic factors. Healthcare resources should be allocated more to underdeveloped regions to further reduce mortality. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1209-1217.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Falha de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17513, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many observational studies have reported an association between weight fluctuation and all-cause mortality. However, the conclusions obtained from these studies have been unclear. OBJECTIVE: The current meta-analysis aimed to clarify the association between weight fluctuation and all-cause mortality. DATA SOURCE: We electronically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for articles reporting an association between weight fluctuation and all-cause mortality that were published before April 30, 2018. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The methodological quality of each study was appraised using the modified Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted from the included studies and pooled using random-effect models. Meta-regression approaches were also performed to explore sources of between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were eligible for the current meta-analysis. The pooled overall HR for all-cause mortality in the group with the greatest weight fluctuations compared with the most stable weight category was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.29-1.63). Considerable between-study heterogeneity was observed, some of which was partially explained by the different follow-up durations used by the included studies. Moreover, publication bias that inflated the risk of all-cause mortality was detected using Egger's test (P = .001). CONCLUSION: Weight fluctuation might be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
6.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1070-1076, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484856

RESUMO

The efficacy of drug-coated balloons (DCB) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains unclear.We retrospectively evaluated 153 consecutive patients who underwent DCB for ISR with follow-ups for up to 3 years after the procedure between February 2014 and June 2017. Patients were divided into an HD group (n = 39) and a non-HD group (n = 114). The primary endpoint was target lesion revascularization (TLR). The secondary endpoints were all revascularizations and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction. Kaplan-Meier curves of survival free from TLR were compared between the two groups. We also performed propensity score matching and then compared the two matched groups (n = 27 in each group). The acute procedure success rate was similar for the two groups (100% versus 99.1%, P = 0.56). The incidence of TLR was higher in the HD group than in the non-HD group (41.0% versus 9.6%, P < 0.0001). The rate of revascularizations and MACE combined was significantly higher in the HD group than in the non-HD group (64.1% versus 17.5%, P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that survival free from TLR was significantly lower in the HD group than in the non-HD group both before and after propensity score matching (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.005, respectively; log-rank test).Contrary to the similar acute procedure success, recurrent ISR and MACE occurred more frequently in HD patients than in non-HD patients after DCB, which indicates poorer long-term efficacy of DCB in HD patients.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Reestenose Coronária/terapia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Reestenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/mortalidade , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1037-1042, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484863

RESUMO

Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been used to predict the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), little is known about the association between hs-CRP and long-term outcomes in patients with preserved renal function.Here, we studied 1,153 patients with stable CAD and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate: > 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) who underwent their first PCI between 2000 and 2011. Those with available data on preprocedural hs-CRP were included. Patients were assigned to tertiles according to preprocedural hs-CRP levels. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death and nonfatal myocardial infarction, was evaluated. During a median follow-up period of 7.5 years, Kaplan-Meier curves showed ongoing divergence in the rates of MACE among the hs-CRP tertiles (hs-CRP < 0.05 mg/L, 12.1%; 0.05-0.17 mg/L, 12.1%; > 0.17 mg/L, 21.6%; log-rank P = 0.003). After adjusting for the established cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP levels were found to be associated with a higher incidence of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77-7.07; P = 0.0008) and a higher rate of all-cause mortality (HR: 5.14, 95% CI: 2.38-10.30; P < 0.0001).In conclusion, this long-term registry showed that preprocedural hs-CRP measurement is clinically useful for long-term risk assessments in patients with stable CAD and preserved renal function.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1043-1049, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484867

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The relationship between the findings from the study of coronary images and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) interval is still unknown. Hence, we investigated this relationship in ACS patients with OHCA.A cohort of 2779 patients was admitted to our emergency center due to cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) between April 2011 and March 2015. We included ACS patients who had CPA with ventricular fibrillation (VF) as an initial rhythm, were successfully resuscitated, underwent coronary angiography (CAG), had a culprit lesion, and were diagnosed with ACS (n = 58; age, 63.7 ± 12.0 years; 93.1% male).We divided the 58 patients into two groups, an early ROSC group (ROSC ≤ 20 minutes: E-ROSC) and a late ROSC group (ROSC > 20 minutes: L-ROSC), and then analyzed their characteristics.The finding of a collateral artery for the culprit lesion location, Rentrop II-III, and TIMI III flow on CAG on arrival presented no significant differences between the two groups (Rentrop II-III: 25.0% versus 23.5%, P = 0.90; TIMI III: 33.3% versus 35.3%, P = 0.88). The incidence of multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) was lower in the E-ROSC group than in the L-ROSC group (16.7% versus 58.8%, P = 0.001).Collateral and TIMI flow were not associated with ease of resuscitation, but MVD may have a negative impact on resuscitation, especially in VF patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1147-1153, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484872

RESUMO

Heart failure causes increased venous pressure, leading to liver dysfunction. The fibrosis-4 index is a simple index for liver fibrosis and has been reported to be useful for predicting prognosis in heart failure; however, its impact on patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) has not yet been fully elucidated.We enrolled consecutive 230 hospitalized patients who had been diagnosed as having PH-LHD. The fibrosis-4 index was calculated as follows: [aspartate transaminase (U/L) × age]/[alanine transaminase 1/2 (U/L) × platelet count (109/L) ]. We followed patients for all-cause mortality during the follow-up period (mean 1112 ± 822 days).The patients were divided into tertiles based on their fibrosis-4 index: the first tertile 0.335 to 1.381; the second tertile 1.391 to 2.311; and the third tertile 2.323 to 14.339. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile had lower estimated glomerular filtration rates and hemoglobin levels. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the third than in the first tertile. In a Cox proportional hazard model, the fibrosis-4 index was a predictor of all-cause mortality in PH-LHD patients (HR 1.212, 95% CI 1.099-1.337, P < 0.001).The fibrosis-4 index is associated with kidney function, anemia, and high mortality in PH-LHD patients.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibrose/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue
10.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1106-1112, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484874

RESUMO

A useful biomarker for detecting cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has not been fully established. We aimed to investigate the utility of several biomarkers to detect CA in patients with amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis.We examined the plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal fragment of the pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), serum amyloid A, and the difference between kappa and lambda free light chain (dFLC) between CA patients (n = 30, 47.6%) and non-CA patients (n = 33, 52.4%). Levels of BNP were significantly higher in the CA group compared to the non-CA group (1200.0 versus 224.0 pg/mL, P = 0.001). From the ROC analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of BNP for detecting CA (with a cut-off value of 412 pg/mL) were 83% and 70%, respectively, and the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.75 (95% CI 0.61-0.90, P < 0.001) in all AL amyloidosis patients (n = 63). In contrast, other markers such as NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, serum amyloid A, and dFLC were not useful for detecting CA in AL amyloidosis patients. Additionally, in the Cox proportional hazard analysis, BNP was a predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.266, 95% confidence interval 1.498-7.119, P = 0.003).BNP is a useful biomarker for detecting cardiac involvement and predicting prognosis in AL amyloidosis patients.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/fisiopatologia , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1098-1105, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484875

RESUMO

The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs or arms for relief of uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations. Prevalence and prognostic impact of RLS on patients with heart failure (HF) remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of RLS on HF patients.Consecutive 338 HF patients were evaluated for RLS and divided into two groups on the basis of presence of RLS: HF patients with RLS (RLS group, n = 29) and HF patients without RLS (non-RLS group, n = 309). We compared clinical characteristics, parameters of laboratory data and echocardiography, and rate of follow-up cardiac events including worsening HF and cardiac death between the two groups. Compared with the non-RLS group, the RLS group had higher prevalence of anemia (65.5% versus 40.8%, P = 0.010), higher usage of inotropic agents (31.0% versus 15.2%, P = 0.028), higher levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (570.8 versus 215.8 pg/mL, P = 0.018), and lower levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (40.4% versus 48.4%, P = 0.019). By contrast, age, gender, prevalence of other co-morbidities and medications were comparable between the groups. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cardiac event rate was significantly higher in the RLS group than in the non-RLS group (log-rank P = 0.034). In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, RLS was a predictor for cardiac events in HF patients (hazard ratio: 1.783, 95% confidence interval: 1.038-3.063).RLS is associated with adverse prognosis in HF patients.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/diagnóstico , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/terapia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013438, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in an unselected population remains a controversial issue. A previous version of this review assessing the effectiveness of perioperative beta-blockers in cardiac and non-cardiac surgery was last published in 2018. The previous review has now been split into two reviews according to type of surgery. This is an update, and assesses the evidence in non-cardiac surgery only. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for the prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis Previews and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science on 28 June 2019. We searched clinical trials registers and grey literature, and conducted backward- and forward-citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-randomized studies comparing beta-blockers with a control (placebo or standard care) administered during the perioperative period to adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. If studies included surgery with different types of anaesthesia, we included them if 70% participants, or at least 100 participants, received general anaesthesia. We excluded studies in which all participants in the standard care control group were given a pharmacological agent that was not given to participants in the intervention group, studies in which all participants in the control group were given a beta-blocker, and studies in which beta-blockers were given with an additional agent (e.g. magnesium). We excluded studies that did not measure or report review outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 83 RCTs with 14,967 participants; we found no quasi-randomized studies. All participants were undergoing non-cardiac surgery, and types of surgery ranged from low to high risk. Types of beta-blockers were: propranolol, metoprolol, esmolol, landiolol, nadolol, atenolol, labetalol, oxprenolol, and pindolol. In nine studies, beta-blockers were titrated according to heart rate or blood pressure. Duration of administration varied between studies, as did the time at which drugs were administered; in most studies, it was intraoperatively, but in 18 studies it was before surgery, in six postoperatively, one multi-arm study included groups of different timings, and one study did not report timing of drug administration. Overall, we found that more than half of the studies did not sufficiently report methods used for randomization. All studies in which the control was standard care were at high risk of performance bias because of the open-label study design. Only two studies were prospectively registered with clinical trials registers, which limited the assessment of reporting bias. In six studies, participants in the control group were given beta-blockers as rescue therapy during the study period.The evidence for all-cause mortality at 30 days was uncertain; based on the risk of death in the control group of 25 per 1000, the effect with beta-blockers was between two fewer and 13 more per 1000 (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 1.54; 16 studies, 11,446 participants; low-certainty evidence). Beta-blockers may reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction by 13 fewer incidences per 1000 (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.87; 12 studies, 10,520 participants; low-certainty evidence). We found no evidence of a difference in cerebrovascular events (RR 1.65, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.81; 6 studies, 9460 participants; low-certainty evidence), or in ventricular arrhythmias (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.47; 5 studies, 476 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Beta-blockers may reduce atrial fibrillation or flutter by 26 fewer incidences per 1000 (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.79; 9 studies, 9080 participants; low-certainty evidence). However, beta-blockers may increase bradycardia by 55 more incidences per 1000 (RR 2.49, 95% CI 1.74 to 3.56; 49 studies, 12,239 participants; low-certainty evidence), and hypotension by 44 more per 1000 (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.51; 49 studies, 12,304 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).We downgraded the certainty of the evidence owing to study limitations; some studies had high risks of bias, and the effects were sometimes altered when we excluded studies with a standard care control group (including only placebo-controlled trials showed an increase in early mortality and cerebrovascular events with beta-blockers). We also downgraded for inconsistency; one large, well-conducted, international study found a reduction in myocardial infarction, and an increase in cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality, when beta-blockers were used, but other studies showed no evidence of a difference. We could not explain the reason for the inconsistency in the evidence for ventricular arrhythmias, and we also downgraded this outcome for imprecision because we found few studies with few participants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for early all-cause mortality with perioperative beta-blockers was uncertain. We found no evidence of a difference in cerebrovascular events or ventricular arrhythmias, and the certainty of the evidence for these outcomes was low and very low. We found low-certainty evidence that beta-blockers may reduce atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarctions. However, beta-blockers may increase bradycardia (low-certainty evidence) and probably increase hypotension (moderate-certainty evidence). Further evidence from large placebo-controlled trials is likely to increase the certainty of these findings, and we recommend the assessment of impact on quality of life. We found 18 studies awaiting classification; inclusion of these studies in future updates may also increase the certainty of the evidence.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Bradicardia/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Hipotensão/mortalidade , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
13.
BMJ ; 366: l5125, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment reduce persistent cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. DESIGN: Propensity matched cohort study. SETTING: Population based cohort in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: 29 771 adults with metabolic syndrome (≥40 years) receiving statin treatment. 2156 participants receiving combined treatment (statin plus fenofibrate) were weighted based on propensity score in a 1:5 ratio with 8549 participants using statin only treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was composite cardiovascular events including incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: The incidence rate per 1000 person years of composite cardiovascular events was 17.7 (95% confidence interval 14.4 to 21.8) in the combined treatment group and 22.0 (20.1 to 24.1) in the statin group. The risk of composite cardiovascular events was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group compared with statin group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.93; P=0.01). The significance was maintained in the on-treatment analysis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.02). The risk of incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and cardiovascular death was lower in the combined treatment group than statin group but was not significant. Participant characteristics did not appear to be associated with the low risk of composite cardiovascular events with combined treatment. CONCLUSION: In this propensity weighted cohort study of adults with metabolic syndrome, the risk of major cardiovascular events was significantly lower with fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment than with statin treatment alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 885-890, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474068

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of suicide death and self-harm/suicide in China from 2006 to 2016. Methods: Data in this study are from the datasets of National Death Cause Surveillance from 2006 to 2016 and the National Injury Surveillance Dataset 2016. The age-standardized death rate based on the population census in 2000 was used to describe the trend of suicide over years. This study also described the epidemiological characteristics of suicide death and the demographic characteristics, suicide methods and severity of patients who sought medical help after committing suicide or self-inflicted injury in 2016. Results: Age-standardized suicide mortality had been declining from 9.23/100 000 in 2006 to 5.33/100 000 in 2016 by 42.25%. Suicide mortality increased with age. In 2016, the suicide mortality in China was 7.05/100 000, and among people over 85 years old was 49.49/100 000. In 2016, the dominant two suicide methods were poisoning (39.12%) and sharp injury (25.62%). The first leading method of suicide in rural population, urban population and young people aged 10-to 17-year-old was poisoning (65.13%), sharp injury (29.90%) and fall (25.47%), respectively. As age increased, the severity of suicide/self-inflicted injury increased. The proportions of serious cases among young people aged 10-to 17-year-old and older people aged 60 years old and above who sought medical help after committing suicide or self-inflicted injury were 4.88% and 26.86%, respectively. Conclusion: China's suicide mortality has been declining and special attention should be given to the suicide of old people.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , China , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 924-929, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484255

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the mortality trend of major malignant tumors in Shandong province, from 1970 to 2013. Methods: Data related to cancer mortality were obtained from the Shandong Death Registration System and three nationwide retrospective cause-of-death surveys. Trends of overall mortality and major causes of death were described using the indicators as: mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates, through comparing the three large-scale mortality surveys in Shandong province. Difference decomposing method was applied to estimate the contribution of demographic and non-demographic factors for the change of mortality. Results: From 1970 to 2013, the crude mortality rate of malignant tumors in Shandong was increasing. The age standard mortality rate was increasing and then decreasing. The composition of cancer deaths in the all-cause-deaths was seen increasing and then decreasing as well. Both demographic and non-demographic factors contributed to the increase of crude cancer mortality rate. With the gradual increase of the proportion of population, its role exceeded the non-demographic factors. The age-standardized mortality rate of malignant tumors in 2011-2013 was lower than that in 2004-2005. Lung cancer mortality rose from the fifth to the first place, with an increase of 6.81 times from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013. Ranking of gastric cancer mortality dropped from first to the third place, with esophageal cancer dropped from second to the fourth. After adjusted by China's standard population in 1964, the mortality rate of lung cancer was still rapidly increasing, but the age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer was gradually decreasing. The crude and age-standardized mortality rates of cervical cancer showed a rapid downward trend, reduced 87.00% and 93.00% respectively from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013. Conclusions: Malignant tumors were still major threats to the residents of Shandong province. The changing trend of different malignant tumors presented an inconsistent nature which called for different intervention strategies be carried out, accordingly.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Demografia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 192-203, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of victims of fatal snorkelling and breath-hold diving accidents in Australia from 2001-2013, inclusive, to determine underlying factors and risks associated with such activities and inform appropriate countermeasures. METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) was searched to identify snorkelling and breath-hold diving-related cases reported to Australian coroners for the years 2001-2013, inclusive. Coronial data in the form of findings, witness and police reports, medical histories and autopsies were collected and collated, and descriptive statistics were used to analyse these data. A chain of events analysis was used to determine the likely sequence of events. RESULTS: There were 175 identified snorkelling-related fatalities during the study period. Most victims were middle-aged males (mean age 49 years). Pre-existing health conditions were possible contributors to 41% of the deaths, the main being ischaemic heart disease. The majority of deaths occurred in Queensland in inexperienced snorkellers, often in commercial settings. The victim's plight often went unnoticed as they were alone, or poorly supervised, when the incident occurred. Apnoeic hypoxia appeared to have been associated with at least 12.5% of the deaths. The main disabling injuries were asphyxia (40%) and cardiac incidents (35%). CONCLUSION: Human factors, such as chronic health conditions, poor skills and inexperience and poor planning can play a substantial role throughout the chain of events leading to a snorkelling fatality. It is important to educate the community, doctors and dive industry professionals about potential problems associated with the interaction between certain health-related conditions, especially cardiovascular conditions, and snorkelling. Close supervision is strongly recommended for inexperienced snorkellers due to their likely poor skills, as well as for experienced breath-hold divers due to the potential for apnoeic hypoxia.


Assuntos
Suspensão da Respiração , Mergulho , Afogamento , Austrália , Causas de Morte/tendências , Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 925-929, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438059

RESUMO

Timely mortality surveillance in France is based on the monitoring of electronic death certificates to provide information to health authorities. This study aims to analyze the performance of a rule-based and a supervised machine learning method to classify medical causes of death into 60 mortality syndromic groups (MSGs). Performance was first measured on a test set. Then we compared the trends of the monthly numbers of deaths classified into MSGs from 2012 to 2016 using both methods. Among the 60 MSGs, 31 achieved recall and precision over 0.95 for either one or the other method on the test set. On the whole dataset, the correlation coefficient of the monthly numbers of deaths obtained by the two methods were close to 1 for 21 of the 31 MSGs. This approach is useful for analyzing a large number of categories or when annotated resources are limited.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , França , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1978-1979, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438437

RESUMO

IRIS is an automated coding software for the causes of death. It is used in many European countries for the production of death statistics. The purpose of our work was to study the usability of this software in Africa where the quality of statistics is insufficient. For this, we have developed a device consisting of two software: "collector" and "encoder" cooperating via the same database.


Assuntos
Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , África , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)
19.
Arkh Patol ; 81(4): 11-16, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the structure and significance of comorbidities and polymorbidity in maternal death. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five autopsy protocols of maternal deaths in the Novosibirsk Region in the period of 1994 to 2018 were analyzed. RESULTS: Extragenital diseases are the leading diseases in the nosological structure in maternal mortality. Preeclampsia/exlampsia and obstetric hemorrhages lost their leading positions. The increasing role of extragenital pathology in the structure of maternal mortality is due to many factors, such as a larger number of comorbidities and polymorbidity, in pregnant women. Infectious diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the main diseases in the structure of extragenital diseases.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 735, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has decreased in South Korea, the mortality rate remains high. TB mortality is a key indicator for TB control interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess early and TB-related mortality during anti-TB treatment and describe the associated clinical characteristics. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed across South Korea. Patients with pulmonary TB who died during anti-TB treatment and whose records were submitted to the national TB surveillance system between 2015 and 2017 were enrolled. All TB deaths were categorized based on cause (TB-related or non-TB-related) and timing (early or late). We identified statistical associations using the frequency table, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 5595 notifiable mortality cases, 3735 patients with pulmonary TB were included in the analysis. There were 2541 (68.0%) male patients, and 2935 (78.6%) mortality cases were observed in patients older than 65 years. There were 944 (25.3%) cases of TB-related death and 2545 (68.1%) cases of early death. Of all cases, 187 (5.0%) patients were diagnosed post-mortem and 38 (1.0%) patients died on the first day of treatment. Low body mass index (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.48), no reported illness (aOR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.10-1.68), bilateral disease on chest X-ray (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.11-1.52), and positive acid-fast bacilli smear result (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.11-1.52) were significantly associated with early death, as well as TB-related death. Acute respiratory failure was the most common mode of non-TB-related death. Malignancy was associated with both late (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.59-0.89) and non-TB-related (aOR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.26-0.46) death. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of TB death was observed in elderly patients and attributed to non-TB-related causes. Many TB-related deaths occurred during the intensive phase, particularly within the first month. Further studies identifying risk factors for different causes of TB death at different phases of anti-TB treatment are warranted for early targeted intervention in order to reduce TB mortality.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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