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1.
Ceska Gynekol ; 86(4): 242-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Description of a case of newborn death after acute caesarean section in 31st week of pregnancy because of mothers syphilitic infection. RESULTS: Fifteen-years-old primigravid woman in 31st week of pregnancy was admitted to a secondary level hospital due to a high risk of preterm labor. The pregnancy was terminated with an acute caesarean section because of pathological cardiotocograph record. The newborn died after 35 min of resuscitation. Blood samples from the umbilical cord and mothers blood taken by her gynecologist were positive for syphilis. In cooperation with a dermatologist, the treatment has been provided and reported to the National Referential Laboratory. The autopsy of the newborn had found severe pneumonia, necrotic lymphadenitis and pyocele. CONCLUSION: The dia-gnosis of congenital syphilis had been determined after the death of a preterm delivered newborn. Resuscitation had no chance to success because of syphilitic damage of the lungs.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita , Sífilis , Adolescente , Causas de Morte , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473711

RESUMO

Excess of deaths is a technique used in epidemiology to assess the deaths caused by an unexpected event. For the present COVID-19 pandemic, we discuss the performance of some linear and nonlinear time series forecasting techniques widely used for modeling the actual pandemic and provide estimates for this metric from January 2020 to April 2021. We apply the results obtained to evaluate the evolution of the present pandemic in Brazil and Spain, which allows in particular to compare how well (or bad) these countries have managed the pandemic. For Brazil, our calculations refute the claim made by some officials that the present pandemic is "a little flu". Some studies suggest that the virus could be lying dormant across the world before been detected for the first time. In that regard, our results show that there is no evidence of deaths by the virus in 2019.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Modelos Teóricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 70(9): 1-114, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520342

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents final 2019 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race and Hispanic origin, and sex. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2019," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Dan Med J ; 68(9)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although women rarely die during pregnancy and childbirth in Denmark, keeping track of the maternal mortality rate and causes of death is vital in identifying learning points for future management of critical illness among obstetric patients and in pinpointing risk factors. METHODS: We identified maternal deaths between 2002 and 2017 by linking four Danish national health registers, using death certificates and reports from hospitals. An audit group then categorised each case by cause of death before identifying any suboptimal care and learning points, which may serve as a foundation for national guidelines and educational strategies. RESULTS: Seventy women died during pregnancy or within six weeks of a pregnancy in the study period. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular disease (n = 14), hypertensive disorder (n = 10), suicide (n = 10) and thromboembolism (n = 7). Suboptimal care was identified in 30 of the 70 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from some of the most important causes of death decreased during the study period. No deaths from preeclampsia or thrombosis, two of the leading causes of death, were identified after 2011. In 2015-2017, suicide was the main cause of maternal death, which indicates that a stronger focus on vulnerability in pregnancy and childbirth is essential. Among the 70 deaths, 34% were potentially avoidable, indicating that it is essential continuously to focus on how to reduce severe maternal morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: none TRIAL REGISTRATION. not relevant.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Suicídio , Causas de Morte , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
6.
Dan Med J ; 68(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477097

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women very rarely die during pregnancy and childbirth in Denmark. Although maternal deaths are registered worldwide, various studies indicate that underreporting does occur. This paper presents validated Danish register data for two periods between 1985 and 2017. METHODS: Maternal deaths were identified from 1985 to 1994 and from 2002 to 2017 by linking four national health registers, death certificates and notifications from maternity wards. A group of obstetricians categorised and assessed all medical records, classifying each case by cause of death. RESULTS: Linkage of four registers yielded valid data, leading to the identification of 143 maternal deaths in the abovementioned periods. From 1985-1994 there were 73 deaths and 618,021 live births, resulting in a maternal mortality rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births with a non-significant 2% annual increase (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.0-11.0%). From 2002 to 2017 there were 70 maternal deaths and 999,206 live births, resulting in a maternal mortality rate of 7.0 per 100,000 live births (95% CI: 5.5-8.9) with a significant 9% annual decrease (95% CI: 4.0-14.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall maternal mortality decreased in the course of the two periods (n = 33 years), with a significant decrease during the last period. This is suggested to be a result of multiple clinical and organisational improvements as discussed in the paper. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Causas de Morte , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Gravidez
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17774, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493763

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a high burden of morbidity and mortality. In COVID-19, direct lung parenchymal involvement and pulmonary microcirculation dysfunction may entail pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH and direct cardiac injury beget right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) occurrence, which has been frequently reported in COVID-19 patients; however, the prevalence of RVD and its impact on outcomes during COVID-19 are still unclear. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of RVD and associated outcomes in patients with COVID-19, through a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched from inception to 15th July 2021. All studies reporting either the prevalence of RVD in COVID-19 patients or all-cause death according to RVD status were included. The pooled prevalence of RVD and Odds Ratio (OR) for all-cause death according to RVD status were computed and reported. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed. Among 29 studies (3813 patients) included, pooled prevalence of RVD was 20.4% (95% CI 17.1-24.3%; 95% PI 7.8-43.9%), with a high grade of heterogeneity. No significant differences were found across geographical locations, or according to the risk of bias. Severity of COVID-19 was associated with increased prevalence of RVD at meta-regression. The presence of RVD was found associated with an increased likelihood of all-cause death (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.94-5.70). RVD was found in 1 out of 5 COVID-19 patients, and was associated with all-cause mortality. RVD may represent one crucial marker for prognostic stratification in COVID-19; further prospective and larger are needed to investigate specific management and therapeutic approach for these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469474

RESUMO

This paper quantifies the net impact (direct and indirect effects) of the pandemic on the United States population in 2020 using three metrics: excess deaths, life expectancy, and total years of life lost. The findings indicate there were 375,235 excess deaths, with 83% attributable to direct, and 17% attributable to indirect effects of COVID-19. The decrease in life expectancy was 1.67 years, translating to a reversion of 14 years in historical life expectancy gains. Total years of life lost in 2020 was 7,362,555 across the USA (73% directly attributable, 27% indirectly attributable to COVID-19), with considerable heterogeneity at the individual state level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Expectativa de Vida , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 214, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring medically certified causes of death is essential to shape national health policies, track progress to Sustainable Development Goals, and gauge responses to epidemic and pandemic disease. The combination of electronic health information systems with new methods for data quality monitoring can facilitate quality assessments and help target quality improvement. Since 2015, Tanzania has been upgrading its Civil Registration and Vital Statistics system including efforts to improve the availability and quality of mortality data. METHODS: We used a computer application (ANACONDA v4.01) to assess the quality of medical certification of cause of death (MCCD) and ICD-10 coding for the underlying cause of death for 155,461 deaths from health facilities from 2014 to 2018. From 2018 to 2019, we continued quality analysis for 2690 deaths in one large administrative region 9 months before, and 9 months following MCCD quality improvement interventions. Interventions addressed governance, training, process, and practice. We assessed changes in the levels, distributions, and nature of unusable and insufficiently specified codes, and how these influenced estimates of the leading causes of death. RESULTS: 9.7% of expected annual deaths in Tanzania obtained a medically certified cause of death. Of these, 52% of MCCD ICD-10 codes were usable for health policy and planning, with no significant improvement over 5 years. Of certified deaths, 25% had unusable codes, 17% had insufficiently specified codes, and 6% were undetermined causes. Comparing the before and after intervention periods in one Region, codes usable for public health policy purposes improved from 48 to 65% within 1 year and the resulting distortions in the top twenty cause-specific mortality fractions due to unusable causes reduced from 27.4 to 13.5%. CONCLUSION: Data from less than 5% of annual deaths in Tanzania are usable for informing policy. For deaths with medical certification, errors were prevalent in almost half. This constrains capacity to monitor the 15 SDG indicators that require cause-specific mortality. Sustainable quality assurance mechanisms and interventions can result in rapid improvements in the quality of medically certified causes of death. ANACONDA provides an effective means for evaluation of such changes and helps target interventions to remaining weaknesses.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Instalações de Saúde , Causas de Morte , Certificação , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54838

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. COVID-19 vaccination began in São Paulo, Brazil in January 2021, first targeting healthcare workers (HCWs) and the elderly, using the CoronaVac vaccine (Sinovac/Butantan) and subsequently the Oxford/AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) vaccine (AstraZeneca/FIOCRUZ-RJ). Studies on such vaccines have shown efficacy in preventing severe cases and deaths, but there is a lack of information regarding their effectiveness. This manuscript presents data from the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL), a public health laboratory located in São Paulo City that receives samples from 17 Regional Health Departments under the Secretary of Health of São Paulo, for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance. Through May 15, 2021 IAL received 20 samples for analysis from COVID-19 vaccinated individuals who needed hospitalization and/or died from COVID-19. Next-generation sequencing was performed on an Ion Torrent S5 platform using the AmpliSeq™ SARS-CoV-2 kit. Almost all cases were vaccinated with CoronaVac and presented the gamma variant of concern (VOC). Cases of death were observed mostly in the elderly in nursing homes, and severe cases in younger frontline HCWs. This data confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant is highly transmissible, severe, and lethal for COVID-19 in these groups of individuals, thereby highlighting the importance of continuous vaccination and non-pharmacological prevention measures to avoid virus dissemination and the emergence of new VOCs.


[RESUMEN]. La vacunación contra la COVID-19 empezó en São Paulo (Brasil) en enero del 2021 con los trabajadores de atención de salud (personal de salud) y las personas mayores, empleando la vacuna de CoronaVac (Sinovac/Butantan) y posteriormente la vacuna de Oxford/AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) (AstraZeneca/FIOCRUZ-RJ). Los estudios sobre estas vacunas han mostrado su eficacia en la prevención de los casos graves y las muertes, pero existe falta de información con respecto a su efectividad. En este artículo se presentan datos del Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL), un laboratorio de salud pública ubicado en la ciudad de São Paulo que recibe muestras de 17 departamentos regionales de salud bajo la Secretaría de Salud de São Paulo, relativos a la vigilancia genómica del SARS-CoV-2. Hasta el 15 de mayo del 2021, el IAL había recibido 20 muestras para su análisis de personas vacunadas contra la COVID-19 que necesitaron hospitalización o murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una secuenciación de nueva generación en una plataforma Ion Torrent S5 mediante el kit para el SARS-CoV-2 AmpliSeq™. Casi todos los pacientes se habían vacunado con CoronaVac y presentaban la variante de preocupación gamma. Se observaron muertes principalmente de personas mayores en residencias y casos graves en personal de salud más joven de primera línea. Estos datos confirmaron que la variante gamma del SARS-CoV-2 es sumamente transmisible, grave y letal para la COVID-19 entre estos grupos y destacan la importancia de continuar con la vacunación y las medidas preventivas no farmacológicas para evitar la propagación del virus y la aparición de nuevas variantes de preocupación.


[RESUMO]. A vacinação contra a COVID-19 começou em São Paulo, Brasil, em janeiro de 2021, primeiramente dirigida a profissionais da saúde e idosos, utilizando a vacina CoronaVac (Sinovac/Butantan), e posteriormente a vacina Oxford/AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) (AstraZeneca/Fiocruz-RJ). Os estudos sobre tais vacinas revelaram eficácia na prevenção de casos graves e mortes, mas há falta de informação em relação à sua efetividade. Este manuscrito apresenta dados do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL), um laboratório de saúde pública localizado no município de São Paulo, que recebe amostras de 17 Departamentos Regionais de Saúde da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de São Paulo para vigilância genômica do SARS-CoV-2. Até 15 de maio de 2021, o IAL recebeu 20 amostras para análise de indivíduos vacinados contra a COVID-19 que necessitaram de hospitalização e/ou morreram por COVID-19. O sequenciamento de nova geração foi realizado em plataforma Torrente de íon S5, utilizando o kit AmpliSeq™ SARS-CoV-2. Quase todos os casos foram vacinados com CoronaVac e apresentaram a variante de preocupação (VOC) gama. Os óbitos foram observados principalmente nos idosos de casas de repouso, e os casos graves em profissionais de saúde mais jovens da linha de frente. Esses dados confirmaram que a variante SARS-CoV-2 gama é altamente transmissível, grave e letal para COVID-19 nesses grupos de indivíduos, destacando, assim, a importância da vacinação contínua e de medidas preventivas não farmacológicas para evitar a disseminação viral e o surgimento de novas VOC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Grupos de Risco , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Grupos de Risco , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Grupos de Risco
12.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 168, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal invasive tissue sampling (MITS) has emerged as a suitable alternative to complete diagnostic autopsy (CDA) for determination of the cause of death (CoD), due to feasibility and acceptability issues. A formative research was conducted to document the perceptions of parents, community and religious leaders on acceptability of MITS. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted at and around the Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi, India. Participants for in-depth interview included the parents who had either child or neonatal death or stillbirth and the key community and religious representatives. The focus group discussions (FGDs) involved community members. Process of obtaining consent for MITS was observed. Data were analyzed inductively manually for emerging themes and codes. RESULTS: A total of 104 interviews (parents of deceased children, neonates or stillbirths, n = 93; community members, n = 8 and religious leaders, n = 7), 8 FGDs (n = 72) were conducted and process of obtaining consent for MITS (n = 27) was observed. The participants were positive and expressed willingness to accept MITS. The key determinants for acceptance of MITS were: (1) understanding and willingness to know the cause of death or stillbirth, (2) experience of the healthcare received and trust, (3) the religious and sociocultural norms. Parents and community favored for MITS over CDA when needed, especially where in cases with past stillbirths and child deaths. The experience of treatment, attitude and communication from healthcare providers emerged as important for consent. The decision making process was collective involving the elders and family. No religious leader was against the procedure, as both, the respect for the deceased and need for medical care were satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Largely, MITS appeared to be acceptable for identifying the causes of child deaths and stillbirths, if the parents and family are counseled appropriately considering the sociocultural and religious aspects. They perceived the quality of care, attitude and communication by the healthcare providers as critical factors for acceptance of MITS.


Assuntos
Percepção , Natimorto , Idoso , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048689, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353801

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the common factors in serious case reviews (SCRs) where a child has died of a medical cause. DESIGN: Qualitative thematic analysis. BACKGROUND: SCRs take place when neglect or abuse results in children dying or being seriously harmed. Known key factors within SCRs include parental substance misuse, mental health problems and domestic abuse. To date, there has been no investigation of children who die of a medical cause where there are concerns about child maltreatment. DATA SOURCES: A list of SCRs relating to deaths through medical causes was provided from previous coded studies and accessed from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children National Case Review Repository. Twenty-three SCRs with a medical cause of death from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2017 were sourced. RESULTS: 20 children died of an acute condition and 12 of a chronic condition; 20 of the deaths were unexpected and maltreatment contributed to the deaths of 18 children. Most children were aged either <1 year or >16 years at the time of death. Many parents were caring for a child with additional vulnerabilities including behavioural issues (6/23), learning difficulties (6/23), mental health issues (5/23) or a chronic medical condition (12/23). Common parental experiences included domestic violence/abuse (13/23), drug/alcohol misuse (10/23), mental ill health or struggling to cope (7/23), criminal history (11/23) and caring for another vulnerable individual (8/23). Most children lived in a chaotic household characterised by missed medical appointments (18/23), poor school attendance (11/23), poor physical home environment (7/23) and disguised compliance (12/23). All 23 SCRs reported elements of abusive or neglectful parenting. In most, there was an evidence of cumulative harm, where multiple factors contributed to their premature death. At the time of death, 11 children were receiving social care support. CONCLUSION: Although the underlying medical cause of the child's death was often incurable, the maltreatment that often exacerbated the medical issue could have been prevented.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Violência Doméstica , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Família , Humanos , Pais
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD014962, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is an antiviral medicine with properties to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. Positive results from early studies attracted media attention and led to emergency use authorisation of remdesivir in COVID-19.  A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effects of remdesivir as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of remdesivir compared to placebo or standard care alone on clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to maintain the currency of the evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (which comprises the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and medRxiv) as well as Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Index) and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions. We conducted the searches on 16 April 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included RCTs evaluating remdesivir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised adults compared to placebo or standard care alone irrespective of disease severity, gender, ethnicity, or setting.  We excluded studies that evaluated remdesivir for the treatment of other coronavirus diseases. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess risk of bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool for RCTs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for outcomes that were reported according to our prioritised categories: all-cause mortality at up to day 28, duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation, duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen, new need for mechanical ventilation (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation), new need for invasive mechanical ventilation, new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen, new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs, quality of life, adverse events (any grade), and serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included five RCTs with 7452 participants diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a mean age of 59 years, of whom 3886 participants were randomised to receive remdesivir. Most participants required low-flow oxygen (n=4409) or mechanical ventilation (n=1025) at baseline. We identified two ongoing studies, one was suspended due to a lack of COVID-19 patients to recruit. Risk of bias was considered to be of some concerns or high risk for clinical status and safety outcomes because participants who had died did not contribute information to these outcomes. Without adjustment, this leads to an uncertain amount of missing values and the potential for bias due to missing data. Effects of remdesivir in hospitalised individuals  Remdesivir probably makes little or no difference to all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.06; risk difference (RD) 8 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 21 fewer to 7 more; 4 studies, 7142 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Considering the initial severity of condition, only one study showed a beneficial effect of remdesivir in patients who received low-flow oxygen at baseline (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.66, 435 participants), but conflicting results exists from another study, and we were unable to validly assess this observations due to limited availability of comparable data. Remdesivir may have little or no effect on the duration to liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation (2 studies, 1298 participants, data not pooled, low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases the chance of clinical improvement in terms of duration to liberation from supplemental oxygen at up to day 28 (3 studies, 1691 participants, data not pooled, very low-certainty evidence).   We are very uncertain whether remdesivir decreases or increases the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for mechanical ventilation at up to day 28 (high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.24; RD 29 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 68 fewer to 32 more; 3 studies, 6696 participants; very low-certainty evidence); new need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.98; RD 72 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 118 fewer to 5 fewer; 1 study, 573 participants; very low-certainty evidence); and new need for oxygen by mask or nasal prongs (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.22; RD 84 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 204 fewer to 98 more; 1 study, 138 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that remdesivir may decrease the risk of clinical worsening in terms of new need for invasive mechanical ventilation (67 fewer participants amongst 1000 participants; RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.77; 2 studies, 1159 participants; low-certainty evidence).  None of the included studies reported quality of life. Remdesivir probably decreases the serious adverse events rate at up to 28 days (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.90; RD 63 fewer per 1000, 95% CI 94 fewer to 25 fewer; 3 studies, 1674 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain whether remdesivir increases or decreases adverse events rate (any grade) (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.27; RD 29 more per 1000, 95% CI 82 fewer to 158 more; 3 studies, 1674 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the currently available evidence, we are moderately certain that remdesivir probably has little or no effect on all-cause mortality at up to day 28 in hospitalised adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We are uncertain about the effects of remdesivir on clinical improvement and worsening. There were insufficient data available to validly examine the effect of remdesivir on mortality in subgroups depending on the extent of respiratory support at baseline.  Future studies should provide additional data on efficacy and safety of remdesivir for defined core outcomes in COVID-19 research, especially for different population subgroups. This could allow us to draw more reliable conclusions on the potential benefits and harms of remdesivir in future updates of this review. Due to the living approach of this work, we will update the review periodically.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Viés , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Intervalos de Confiança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Desmame do Respirador
16.
S D Med ; 74(5): 220-226, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437780

RESUMO

Infant deaths that occur unexpectedly during sleep have been attributed over generations to various explanations for this shocking and tragic loss of life. Historically, these deaths have been coded as caused by sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which defied prevention. This paper explores the evolution of understanding SIDS to the current use of the term sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) defined by the Centers for Disease Control as including three causes: SIDS, accidental strangulation and suffocation in bed (ASSB) and unknown. Data presented in this paper demonstrate that with enhanced death scene investigations there has been a shift over the past three decades in how SUIDs are coded. In 1990-4, nationally, 84 percent of post neonatal deaths were attributed to SIDS, 12 percent to unknown, and 3 percent to ASSB. Most current data (2014-18) show that 42 percent are now attributed to SIDS, 34 percent to unknown, and 25 percent to ASSB. While there has been stalled progress in the decrease of SUIDs, the diagnostic shift observed yields promise for the prevention of these deaths with public health measures that educate the public on the hazards of safe sleep for babies.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita do Lactente , Animais , Asfixia/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sono , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Suínos
17.
FP Essent ; 507: 19-25, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410093

RESUMO

Unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide were the leading causes of deaths among US individuals ages 10 to 24 years in 2017. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death by unintentional injury among US adolescents. Family physicians can encourage adolescent patients who drive to use safe driving practices (eg, seat belt use, cell phone-free driving, sober driving). Poisoning and drowning are the second and third most common causes of death by unintentional injury among adolescents, respectively. Suicide is the second overall leading cause of death among adolescents and is a growing problem. Depression is a risk factor. The Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) suicide risk screening tool has been validated for use in patients ages 10 to 21 years in all medical settings. Screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of adolescent patients for depression and development of safety plans are key to suicide prevention. Homicides are the third leading cause of death among adolescents, and firearms are a clear contributor. Family physicians should assess adolescent patients for risk factors for violence, provide trauma-informed care, promote resilience and strong relationships with adults, and empower adolescents to use their strengths and skills to reduce their risk of involvement in violence.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Criança , Homicídio , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Violência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(9): e1286-e1295, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in humanitarian emergencies are likely to experience excess mortality but information on the causes of death is often unreliable or non-existent. This study aimed to provide evidence on the causes of death among children younger than 5 years in camps for internally displaced people in southern Somalia, during periods of protracted displacement and emergency influx amid the 2017 drought and health emergency. METHODS: We did a prospective, cohort study in 25 camps in the Afgooye corridor, on the outskirts of Mogadishu, Somalia. All internally displaced children aged 6-59 months were included and followed up with monthly household visits by community health workers. Nutrition, health, and vaccination status were ascertained and verbal autopsy interviews were done with the caregivers of deceased children. We calculated death rates in these children and used verbal autopsy to establish the cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF). Bayesian InterVA software was used to assign likely causes to each death. FINDINGS: Between March, 2016, and March, 2018, 3898 children were followed up. 153 deaths were recorded during 34 746 person-months of observation. The death rate among children younger than 5 years exceeded emergency thresholds (>2 deaths per 10 000 children per day), reaching a peak of seven deaths per 10 000 children per day during the emergency influx. Verbal autopsy data were gathered for 80% of deaths, and the CSMF for the three leading causes of death were diarrhoeal diseases (25·9%), measles (17·8%), and severe malnutrition (8·8%). Coverage of measles vaccination during the first 3 months of the emergency was 42% and the CSMF for measles doubled during the influx. During protracted displacement, symptoms that could be attributable to HIV/AIDS related deaths accounted for 1·6% of the CSMF. INTERPRETATION: It is feasible to establish a health and nutrition surveillance system that ascertains causes of death, using verbal autopsy, in this humanitarian context. These data can inform policy, response planning, and priority setting. The high mortality rate from infectious diseases and malnutrition among children younger than 5 years suggests the need for strengthening a range of public health interventions, including vaccination and provision of water, sanitation, and hygiene. FUNDING: UK Department of International Development.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Mortalidade da Criança , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Somália/epidemiologia
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