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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 64(1): 26, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control of strongyle infections presents a global challenge for horse practitioners due to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR), however comprehensive information on AR in Lithuania is still lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of fenbendazole (FBZ) AR in horses at stable level in Lithuania. RESULTS: Faecal samples from 121 horses from six stables were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC method. Of these, 89 horses met the inclusion criteria that included strongyle faecal egg counts (FEC) exceeding 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were performed in these. AR was evaluated at horse stable level based on faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and the lower limit of the 95% credible interval (LLCI) using the Bayesian hierarchical model. This study confirmed that strongylids (Cyathostominae (CYA)) resistant to FBZ are pervasive in Lithuania. FBZ was ineffective in three of the six stables (FECR 77.1-79.0%; 49.8-99.8 LLCI), was suspected to be ineffective in one stable (FECR 93.6%; 85.4-100 LLCI) and was effective (FECR 99.8-100%; 99.8-100 LLCI) in two stables. FEC showed a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the treatment and control groups. Only CYA larvae were detected in larval cultures derived from strongyle-positive faecal samples collected 14 days after treatment of a test group with FBZ. CONCLUSION: This in vivo study showed that resistance to FBZ in the treatment of strongyle nematodes is prevalent in horse stables in Lithuania. These findings should guide the implementation of more sustainable management of strongyle infections in horses in Lithuania.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Nematoides , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107761

RESUMO

Opinion 106 of the Judicial Commission has clarified the nomenclature of the taxon variously named Rhodococcus equi, 'Prescottella equi' and Rhodococcus hoagii. As a consequence, we present here the genus name Prescottella and that of its nomenclatural type species, Prescottella equi comb. nov., for valid publication and propose the reclassification of four rhodococcal species as novel combinations in the genus, namely Prescottella agglutinans Guo et al. 2015 comb. nov., Prescottella defluvii Kämpfer et al. 2014 comb. nov., Prescottella soli Li et al. 2015 comb. nov. and Prescottella subtropica Lee et al. 2019 comb. nov. In addition, we note that a clinical isolate, strain 86-07 (=W8901), likely represents an additional species within the genus Prescottella. Nearly a century after the original description of the type strain of the type species as Corynebacterium equi, we provide a stable home for Prescottella equi and its relatives.


Assuntos
Rhodococcus equi , Rhodococcus , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cavalos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodococcus equi/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 345, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the jugular vein is a major important blood vessel in equine, the literature lacks this vessel's normal B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic examinations in donkeys. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the reference ranges of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic indices of jugular veins in healthy adult donkeys (Equus asinus) and the possible effect of examination side (left and right), gender, and body condition on the ultrasonographic measurements of this vessel. B-mode and Doppler ultrasound imaging of the external jugular vein was conducted on 20 adult healthy donkeys of both sexes. RESULTS: In all donkeys, the jugular vein was 4.01 to 8.1 mm from the body surface. The longitudinal and transverse venous diameters ranged from 3.94 to 10.5 mm and from 0.88 to 1.9 cm, respectively. Moreover, the vein areas varied from 0.61 to 2.83 cm2. The reference values of superficial and deep wall thickness (SWT and DWT) were 0.56 ± 0.2 and 0.6 ± 0.13 mm, respectively. The blood velocity, blood follow rate, and congestion index of the external jugular vein can be expected in adult healthy donkeys as a range value from 8.4 to 13.5 cm/sec, from 0.33 to 1.78 ml/min, and from 0.06 to 0.27 cm.sec, respectively. Generally, the vein showed laminar monophasic waveforms. The examination side and gender have no significant effect on the ultrasound measurements of the vein (P > 0.05). Donkeys with a body condition score (BCS) ≥ 3 revealed increases in the depth of the vein (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can be used as reference values and provide a basis for comparison when evaluating donkeys with diseases that affect blood flow in the external jugular vein.


Assuntos
Equidae , Veias Jugulares , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/veterinária
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 325, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is an important neglected tropical illness, which has the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as etiological agent and blood-feeding insects of the Triatominae subfamily as vectors. Despite its importance for disease epidemiology, field studies targeting microgeographic dispersal of triatomines in endemic areas are rare. The ability wingless nymphs have to move (crawl) within peridomestic settings is a key component regarding the design and development of rational control strategies. METHODS: We double-marked Triatoma sordida fourth-instar nymphs (N4) with a reliable fluorescent dye and a trace element. This new methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate (i) nymph dispersal and (ii) the effectiveness of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) trace elements as potential new markers. In the mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiment, 390 T. sordida N4 were released in the peridomicile of a single rural household, 130 individuals at each of three release points, at distances of 2, 5, and 10 m from the chicken coop (CC) and 27, 32, and 35 m away from the horse corral (HC). All specimens were double marked (Cu/blue, Cr/orange, Cd/green). Recaptures occurred in two intervals: 1-3 days and 15-17 days after release. RESULTS: Specimens were successfully recaptured at all distances up to 10 m. A total of 19, 23, and 10 specimens were able to disperse 2, 5, and 10 m, respectively, to reach the CC. No insects were recaptured at the HC. Of the three analyte/paint combinations tested, Cr/orange gave the most promising results; Cu/blue marker and Cd/green marker performed very poorly with only 4/19 and 0/10 analyte/paint ratios, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Triatoma sordida N4 could cover a distance of 10 m in 17 days. This indicates that nymphs seem to have a reduced dispersal capability compared to adults. Ninety-one percent of the 22 recaptured orange-marked nymphs were still Cr positive after the 17-day period evaluated. This makes this analyte a good candidate for future investigations that will apply this marking method in MRR studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Oligoelementos , Triatoma , Animais , Brasil , Cádmio , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Cavalos , Ninfa
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 929922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105804

RESUMO

The transcriptomic profile of a cell population can now be studied at the cellular level using single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). This novel technique provides the unprecedented opportunity to explore the cellular composition of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the horse, a species for which cell type markers are poorly described. Here, scRNA-seq technology was applied to cryopreserved equine BALF cells. Analysis of 4,631 cells isolated from three asthmatic horses in remission identified 16 cell clusters belonging to six major cell types: monocytes/macrophages, T cells, B/plasma cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils and mast cells. Higher resolution analysis of the constituents of the major immune cell populations allowed deep annotation of monocytes/macrophages, T cells and B/plasma cells. A significantly higher lymphocyte/macrophage ratio was detected with scRNA-seq compared to conventional cytological differential cell count. For the first time in horses, we detected a transcriptomic signature consistent with monocyte-lymphocyte complexes. Our findings indicate that scRNA-seq technology is applicable to cryopreserved equine BALF cells, allowing the identification of its major (cytologically differentiated) populations as well as previously unexplored T cell and macrophage subpopulations. Single-cell gene expression analysis has the potential to facilitate understanding of the immunological mechanisms at play in respiratory disorders of the horse, such as equine asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cavalos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15616, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114358

RESUMO

In contrast to other domestic mammals, the embryo-derived signal(s) leading to maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) are still unknow in the mare. We hypothesize that these embryonic signals could be packed into uterine extracellular vesicles (uEVs), acting as multi-signal messengers between the conceptus and the maternal tract, and contributing to MRP. To unveil these signals, the RNA and protein cargos of uEVs isolated from uterine lavages collected from pregnant mares (P; day 10, 11, 12 and 13 after ovulation) and cyclic control mares (C; day 10 and 13 after ovulation) were analyzed. Our results showed a fine-tuned regulation of the uEV cargo (RNAs and proteins), by the day of pregnancy, the estrous cycle, and even the size of the embryo. A particular RNA pattern was identified with specific increase on P12 related to immune system and hormonal response. Besides, a set of proteins as well as RNAs was highly enriched in EVs on P12 and P13. Differential abundance of miRNAs was also identified in P13-derived uEVs. Their target genes were linked to down- or upregulated genes in the embryo and the endometrium, exposing their potential origin. Our study identified for first time specific molecules packed in uEVs, which were previously associated to MRP in the mare, and thus bringing added value to the current knowledge. Further integrative and functional analyses will help to confirm the role of these molecules in uEVs during MRP in the mare.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Cavalos , Mamíferos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo
8.
Open Vet J ; 12(4): 511-518, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118716

RESUMO

Background: Hyperinsulinemia associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and/or equine metabolic syndrome is well documented to put horses at high risk of laminitis. While dietary control of simple sugars and starch is the most effective therapy to control hyperinsulinemia, some horses fail to respond. Case Descriptions: Ten horses with hyperinsulinemia refractory to diet control, metformin, levothyroxine, and pergolide (if diagnosed with PPID) were treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor canagliflozin (Invokana®). Nine horses were hyperglycemic (>5.5 mmol/l) or had a history of hyperglycemia. Before instituting therapy, renal function was assessed by determining serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Canagliflozin was administered orally once a day, with food. Dipstick urinalysis was performed every 2 weeks to confirm glucosuria and screen for proteinuria. Owners were also instructed regarding clinical signs consistent with urinary tract infection. All horses responded with a substantial decrease in serum insulin concentrations to normal or near normal values. Laminitis pain resolved in all cases, with regression of fat deposits. Owner satisfaction with outcomes was 100%. Conclusion: Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin corrected hyperglycemia, reduced insulin to normal or near normal levels, and was 100% effective in reversing or reducing abnormal fat pads and eliminating laminitis pain in horses with refractory hyperinsulinemia and laminitis. The core aspects of therapy-diet control, exercise when possible, and adequate treatment of PPID-must also be maintained if using canagliflozin. Canagliflozin should be reserved for refractory cases. Further controlled trials to investigate canagliflozin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Hiperglicemia , Hiperinsulinismo , Metformina , Doenças da Hipófise , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Animais , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/veterinária , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/veterinária , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperinsulinismo/veterinária , Insulina , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Monossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Dor/complicações , Dor/veterinária , Pergolida/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/complicações , Doenças da Hipófise/veterinária , Sódio/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Amido/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina
9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 477, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors and extracellular matrix proteins that contribute to their ability to support tissue healing and regeneration. Both the transcriptome and the secretome of MSCs can be altered by treating the cells with cytokines, but neither have been thoroughly investigated following treatment with the specific cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß2. METHODS: RNA-sequencing and western blotting were used to compare gene and protein expression between untreated and TGF-ß2-treated equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). A co-culture system was utilized to compare equine tenocyte migration during co-culture with untreated and TGF-ß2-treated BM-MSCs. RESULTS: TGF-ß2 treatment significantly upregulated gene expression of collagens, extracellular matrix molecules, and growth factors. Protein expression of collagen type I and tenascin-C was also confirmed to be upregulated in TGF-ß2-treated BM-MSCs compared to untreated BM-MSCs. Both untreated and TGF-ß2-treated BM-MSCs increased tenocyte migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Treating equine BM-MSCs with TGF-ß2 significantly increases production of paracrine factors and extracellular matrix molecules important for tendon healing and promotes the migration of tenocytes in vitro.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2 , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cavalos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , RNA/metabolismo , Tenascina/genética , Tenascina/metabolismo , Tendões/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores/metabolismo
10.
Theriogenology ; 192: 132-140, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099803

RESUMO

Despite the progress in assisted reproductive techniques, there is still a lack of rapid and minimally invasive in situ approaches for further enhancements of female fertility. Therefore, we synthesized clinically relevant liposome nanoparticles for ovarian intrafollicular injection to allow in vivo cellular imaging for future drug delivery, using the mare as an animal model. Ovarian follicles of living mares were injected in vivo with fluorescently labeled liposomes. Samples of the follicular wall (mural granulosa, theca interna, and theca externa), granulosa cells, and follicular fluid were harvested 24 h post-injection through the follicle wall biopsy (FWB), flushing, and aspiration techniques, respectively, using a transvaginal ultrasound-guided approach. In parallel, post-mortem dissected, and cultured porcine antral follicles were microinjected with doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to assess intracellular delivery potential. All injected mare and pig follicles were macroscopically healthy, and fluorescence imaging revealed successful intrafollicular binding to mural granulosa cells and progressive migration of liposomes to other follicle cell layers (theca interna, and theca externa), regardless of the follicle size. Intracellular delivery of doxorubicin was confirmed in all porcine follicle wall cell types. We conclude that the intrafollicular injection of nanomolecules is a promising approach for real-time monitoring of intrafollicular processes and potential utilization of in vivo cellular drug delivery to assist in follicle disease treatments and fertility improvement.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Gado , Animais , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Cavalos , Folículo Ovariano , Suínos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
11.
J Law Med ; 29(3): 700-706, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056660

RESUMO

Zoonotic diseases are those which originate in animals but are transmitted to humans often through an intermediate host such as a wild animal. In Australia Hendra virus (HeV) is a disease of horses with occasional human fatalities and which is spread by the fruit bat. This article explores the lessons learnt from managing the Queensland outbreak of HeV in 1994. The legal framework for the notification and management of prohibited matter including zoonotic diseases in Queensland and New South Wales has been strengthened by provisions in the Biosecurity Act 2015 (NSW) which create strong penalties for failure to notify outbreaks and failure to isolate infected stock and prevent their removal from premises within 24 hours. The response of at least 20% of Queensland equine veterinarians to the new legal obligations has been to cease practising equine medicine. There may be scope for enhanced education of veterinary students in legal obligations under the biosecurity legislation.


Assuntos
Vírus Hendra , Infecções por Henipavirus , Doenças dos Cavalos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Vírus Hendra/fisiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Humanos , Zoonoses
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 599, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056975

RESUMO

A new Nocardiopsis species that degrades polylactic acid (PLA) was isolated from pig dung-based compost from a municipal composting facility in Japan. To obtain strains capable of efficient PLA degradation, the effect of non-enzymatic degradation of PLA was minimized by maintaining the temperature at or below 37 °C. Screening 15 animal waste-based compost samples, consisting of pig dung, cow dung, horse dung, or chicken droppings, revealed that compost derived from pig dung was most efficient for degradation of PLA films. Hence, pig waste-based compost was used to isolate PLA-degrading microorganisms by screening for PLA-degrading microorganisms in compost using an agar plate-based method in which an emulsifier was omitted to avoid selecting strains that assimilated the emulsifier instead of PLA in the medium. Repeated enrichment obtained six strains. The one that exhibited stable PLA degradation on agar plates was subjected to genomic analysis and identified as Nocardiopsis chromatogenes, an actinomycete.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Ágar , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cavalos , Nocardiopsis , Poliésteres , Solo , Suínos
13.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 137, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovitis (SI) is one of the most common and serious orthopedic diseases in horses of different age, breed and sex, which contributes to the development of osteoarthritis. The burden of SI includes economic loss and represents a real challenge for current veterinary health care. At the molecular level, fibroblasts-like synoviocytes (FLS) are recognized as major cell populations involved in SI pathogenesis. In the course of SI, FLSs are losing their protective and pro-regenerative cytological features, become highly proliferative and initiate various stress signaling pathways. METHODS: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes were treated with LPS in order to generate SI in vitro model. Mitochondria were isolated from peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells and co-cultured with FLS. After 24 h of culture, cells were subjected to RT-qPCR, western blot, cytometric and confocal microscopy analysis. RESULTS: Mitochondrial transfer (MT) was observed in vitro studies using confocal microscopy. Further studies revealed, that MT to LPS-treated FLS reduced cell proliferation, modulated apoptosis and decreased inflammatory response. Overall, MT Resulted in the considerable recovery of recipient cells cytophysiological properties. CONCLUSIONS: Presented data provides evidence that mitochondria transfersignificantly modulate FLS proliferative and metabolic activity through improved mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in activated FLS. Obtained results for the first time demonstrate that horizontal MT might be considered as a therapeutic tool for synovitis treatment; however, further clinical studies are strongly required. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Sinoviócitos , Sinovite , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Sinovite/metabolismo
14.
Theriogenology ; 192: 52-61, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049382

RESUMO

Nocardioform placentitis (NP) has been associated with mid to late pregnancy loss in mares. To date, disease outbreaks have been described only in central Kentucky, although sporadic, isolated cases have been reported globally. This study describes a series of cases of NP that occurred in a sample population of 299 mares foaling in southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland in 2020. These cases coincided with an outbreak of NP that occurred in Kentucky that same year. On farms that reported information on both normal and abnormal foalings, nocardioform organisms/DNA were isolated from 6.3% of placental samples based on aerobic culture and/or PCR. In cases with characteristic gross lesions of the chorion, 41% of cases were positive on aerobic culture and/or PCR. NP was confirmed in 16 mares that had not resided in Kentucky for breeding or any part of gestation. Characteristics of mares confirmed positive for NP, including age, gestation length, and problems during gestation are described. Standardbred mares bred by artificial insemination were less likely to be affected than Thoroughbred mares bred by natural cover. Affected mares had prolonged Stage III labor compared with normal mares. These findings suggest that regional increases in NP may occur outside of Kentucky, potentially in parallel with Kentucky outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças Placentárias , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Placenta/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/veterinária , Gravidez
15.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 118(2): 302-315, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053983

RESUMO

Positive reinforcement is becoming more common in horse training. Identifying effective reinforcers is critical for training success. The aim of this study was to determine relative reinforcer efficacy of different grains. Four horses learned to muzzle touch a target, after which they were tested using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement with different grains as the consequence. Break points were used to determine relative reinforcer efficacy of each grain and were also converted into unit price per kilocalorie to determine if caloric value impacted reinforcer efficacy. Condition 1 compared three textured grains that spanned industry-accepted standards of low to high nonstructural carbohydrate content. Condition 2 compared three pelleted grains that similarly differed in nonstructural carbohydrate content, comparable to Condition 1, but that had a different texture than those of Condition 1. Finally, Condition 3 directly compared one grain each from Conditions 1 and 2. Results showed overall little difference in reinforcer efficacy or unit price between grains but found that all grains tested functioned as reinforcers for the horses. This suggests that a range of commercially available grains can maintain behavior and therefore be used for training. We also identified possible extraexperimental factors that impact reinforcer efficacy.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Reforço Psicológico , Animais , Cavalos , Esquema de Reforço
16.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 118(2): 261-277, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054597

RESUMO

Functional analysis data and previous studies on animal training have demonstrated that social interaction with humans can serve as a reinforcer for animals. Yet, some studies have demonstrated that tactile interaction (e.g., patting, petting, or scratching) is less effective or ineffective when compared to food. However, the reinforcement procedures used may account for these discrepancies. The current study investigated whether tactile interaction, in the form of petting and scratching, could be used as a reinforcer to train behaviors to two horses and a mule. First, each equine learned when reinforcement would be available and what behaviors to engage in during reinforcement delivery. Next, a series of shaping steps and a changing-criterion design were used to test whether tactile interaction could be used to shape two new behaviors, stay and come. All three equines completed reinforcement training and met the mastery criteria for training stay and come. These results demonstrate that tactile interaction can be used as a reinforcer to train equines and also suggest that details of the reinforcement delivery process may be an important consideration when tactile interaction is used as a reinforcer.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante , Interação Social , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Poaceae , Esquema de Reforço , Reforço Psicológico
17.
Theriogenology ; 192: 81-88, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063673

RESUMO

Leptospirosis may be associated with important syndromes in equines, including reproductive ones. Recently, our group demonstrated a reproductive syndrome of leptospirosis in ruminants (Bovine Genital Leptospirosis - BGL), that presents its own agent, particular diagnostic methods, and specific treatment and prevention, requiring special attention. We realized that the genital syndrome of leptospirosis may not be exclusive to ruminants and may also affect horses. The aim of the present study is to gather the available data on leptospirosis in equine reproduction and propose a new genital leptospirosis syndrome in horses, which we have named Equine Genital Leptospirosis (EGL). The main agent is most probably serovar Bratislava (serogroup Australis), whose role has been increasingly recognized in the etiology of infection, presenting a worldwide distribution. The most probable relevant transmission route in the EGL context is the sexual transmission. Subfertility, estrus repetition, and, less commonly, late-term abortions are the most common effects. Serology may not be adequate to diagnose this chronic silent reproductive leptospiral infection. As most studies regarding equine leptospirosis investigate urinary samples, EGL is vastly underdiagnosed, and the disease is little studied and underestimated. Therefore, PCR, particularly from cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and uterine fragments, turns out to be a rapid and definitive diagnosis choice. In order to mitigate the effects of the disease in equines, triad antibiotic therapy, vaccination, and environmental management are essential. Adequate recognition of the particularities of this syndrome may help to highlight its occurrence and contribute to a broader understanding of its clinical manifestations, use of a correct diagnosis, and development of novel approaches for its control.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Feminino , Genitália , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução
18.
J Inorg Biochem ; 236: 111962, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075159

RESUMO

Nitrobindins (Nbs) are all-ß-barrel heme-proteins present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the physiological role(s) of Nbs are still unclear, it has been postulated that they are involved in the NO/O2 metabolism, which is particularly relevant in fishes for the oxygen supply. Here, the reactivity of ferrous Danio rerio Nb (Dr-Nb(II)) towards NO has been investigated from the spectroscopic and kinetic viewpoints and compared with those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nb, Arabidopsis thaliana Nb, Homo sapiens Nb, and Equus ferus caballus myoglobin. Between pH 5.5 and 9.1 at 22.0 °C, Dr-Nb(II) nitrosylation is a monophasic process; values of the second-order rate constant for Dr-Nb(II) nitrosylation and of the first-order rate constant for Dr-Nb(II)-NO denitrosylation are pH-independent ranging between 1.6 × 106 M-1 s-1 and 2.3 × 106 M-1 s-1 and between 5.3 × 10-2 s-1 and 8.2 × 10-2 s-1, respectively. Interestingly, both UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the heme-Fe(II) atom of Dr-Nb(II)-NO is five-coordinated. Kinetics of Dr-Nb(II) nitrosylation may reflect the ligand accessibility to the metal center, which is likely impaired by the crowded network of water molecules which shields the heme pocket from the bulk solvent. On the other hand, kinetics of Dr-Nb(II)-NO denitrosylation may reflect an easy pathway for the ligand escape into the outer solvent.


Assuntos
Mioglobina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Heme/química , Cavalos , Cinética , Ligantes , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Oxigênio/química , Solventes , Água
19.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(2): 890, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050184

RESUMO

For simple, safe, portable, and inexpensive evaluation suitable for leg bone diseases of racehorses in the field, an ultrasonic measurement technique was applied to evaluate wave velocities. A digital model of the third metacarpal bone with the bucked shin was fabricated using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography data of a racehorse. This model was anisotropic and heterogeneous, and was constructed using the measured ultrasonic wave velocities in the bone. With this model, ultrasonic wave propagation along the bone axis was simulated using the elastic finite-difference time-domain method. We found two main waves with different propagation velocities. The fast-waves showed a wave velocity close to the longitudinal wave in the axial direction. However, the apparent velocities changed dramatically owing to bone surface irregularities (changes of the shape) in the area of bucked shin. The slow-waves showed a wave velocity close to the shear wave, which was unaffected by the bone surface irregularities. The simple comparison of different wave behaviors may be a suitable parameter for the initial in vivo screening of bucked shin in the legs of racehorses, which can be performed in the field.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Animais , Anisotropia , Osso e Ossos , Cavalos , Ossos da Perna , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Ultrassonografia
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As part of the "Model- und Demonstrationsvorhaben Tierschutz (MuD-Tierschutz)-project, supported by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL), an animal owner survey was conducted to collect data on various aspects of keeping South American camelids (NWC). This publication covers the population structure of NWC in Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 550 owners participated in the survey, of which 421 (76.5 %) completed the survey in full. The different sets of questions were evaluated using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The participating farms divided up into 365 (66.4 %) alpaca, 89 (16.2 %) llama and 93 (16.9 %) farms which kept both animal species. Three farms failed to provide any information on the animal species. A total of 7739 NWC were recorded, including 6295 alpacas and 1444 llamas. The most popular breeds are the Huacaya alpaca and the Classic llama. Mares represent the greatest part of both the alpaca and the llama population (53.8 % of the alpaca and 45.0 % of the llama population). The herd size amounted to a mean of 14.9 animals of which the majority are kept in a constant group (56.6 %). Most owners stated, that they had acquired their animals within the past decade (84.1 % of alpaca and 62.6 % of llama husbandries). The majority of NWC are found in south-west Germany; in Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Wuerttemberg. These farms are typically hobby businesses (51.0 %), in most cases, the animals serve as hiking companions or their wool is processed (58.0 % and 52.3 %, respectively). 76.6 % of the animals possess an identification, most often by means of a microchip. 84.2 % of the farms stated, that they were registered at the local veterinary office. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present investigation, a significant increase in NWC husbandries and animal numbers is evident in recent years. The design of husbandry structures was evaluated by the present study, however, despite the existing registration obligation the exact number of the South American camelid population in Germany remains unknown. Systematic central recording under the supervision of an official body is therefore warranted.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Animais , Feminino , Alemanha , Cavalos , América do Sul
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