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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11498-11507, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544455

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) possess superior antioxidant properties and nutritious value, however, low bioavailability and stability limit their applications. Here, we developed a novel method to encapsulate PA dimers successfully into horse spleen apoferritin (apoHSF) using a disassembly/reassembly method based on pH change. The PA-HSF nanoparticles were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, and high-performance liquid chromatography. One apoferritin cage could approximately encapsulate 25.6 molecules of the PA dimer. The results showed that the encapsulation of the PA dimers protected it from the damage of oxidants and temperature below room temperature would be an appropriate condition for HSF-578 solution storage. Moreover, HepG2 cell monolayer absorption and adhesion analyses indicated that the PA dimers encapsulated within apoHSF cages were more efficient in transport. In addition, it was indicated that the PA-HSF nanoparticles had higher cellular antioxidant activity. The novel strategy provided in this study indicates that the protein cage structures like ferritin have potential to be applied in the field of food nutrition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoferritinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dimerização , Células Hep G2 , Cavalos , Humanos
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107757, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494216

RESUMO

Equine theileriosis is a severe equine disease caused by the protozoan Theileria equi, which is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, a recombinant equi merozoite antigen-2 (rEMA-2) of T. equi was used as an immunogen. Two groups of 10 mice each were divided into control and vaccinated groups. Sixty mares seronegative for theileriosis were divided in two groups, one vaccinated and another group as a control animal. Mice and mares of the vaccinated groups were inoculated with 150 µL of the vaccine containing 50 µg of rEMA-2 and 2 mL of the vaccine containing 200 µg of rEMA-2, respectively, at days 0 and 21. The immunogenicity of rEMA-2 was evaluated by ELISA and fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum from vaccinated mice, mares and antigenicity in naturally infected horse. At every point throughout the ELISA study, there were significant differences between the vaccinated and control groups (p < 0.05). The vaccine induced 3- and 4-fold IgG increases in mice at the 14th and 28th day, respectively, compared to the control group. The horses' IgG dynamics showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the total IgG titer as early as day 7, which increased until day 28 at which time a more significant (p < 0.001) IgG titer was observed. In evaluating the isotypes, we observed a trend similar to that of total IgG, where IgG(T) (IgG3-5) were significantly (p < 0.05) more elevated than the other isotypes analyzed, followed by IgGb (IgG4-7) and IgGa (IgG1). Positive fluorescence was detected by IFAT, suggesting that the protein is immunogenic and conserves some epitopes identical to the native T. equi antigens present in the equine blood smear. Thus, our results suggest that rEMA-2 can be a promising vaccinal antigen.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Pichia/imunologia , Theileria/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/biossíntese , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Cavalos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Merozoítos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 43, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal pain, unexplained hind limb lameness, back pain or behavioural problems in geldings could be attributable to painful neuromas that develop as a consequence of crushing and severing the testicular nerves during castration. The presence of neuroma in this anatomical location has never been reported, hence the knowledge of possible clinical relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to histologically investigate the testicular nerves at the castration site in geldings for the presence of neuromas. Proximal spermatic cord remnants were collected from 20 geldings admitted to routine post mortem examination for various reasons. The time of castration was unknown, but it had not been performed during the last year. Spermatic cord specimens were immersed in 10% formalin, trimmed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) for light microscopy. Identification of nerve tissue was done by immuno-localization of nerve specific enolase (NSE). RESULTS: Neuromas were found in 21 spermatic cords from 13 geldings and were bilateral in eight of the horses. The neuromas consisted of areas with small groups of non-neoplastic proliferations of peripheral neural tissue. The tissue included neurofilaments and Schwann cells, intermingled or surrounded with, epineural, perineural and endoneural fibrous tissue. The neural tissue immunostained positive with NSE. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed neuromas of the remnant testicular nerves at the site of castration. Further studies are required to establish if these neuromas in the castration site are painful and if certain castration methods promote their formation. Future studies should also investigate the clinical consequence of these neuromas for the individual horse.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Neuroma/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Neuroma/diagnóstico , Neuroma/etiologia , Neuroma/patologia , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(9): 545-552, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Animal welfare in equestrian sports is a very current and important topic for animal right groups as well as for the Swiss association for equestrian sports "Schweizerischer Verband für Pferdesport (SVPS)". The penalty commission "Sanktionskomission (SAKO)" of the SVPS reported only few to none cases of infringements of animal welfare provision on horses at a time in the past few years. This fact was criticised several times by different animal right groups in Switzerland. Therefore a survey was sent in 2017 to 544 active officials (horse show judges) of the SVPS. Overall, 146 answered questionnaires could be evaluated. The evaluation of the survey was able to confirm the statement of the animal right groups that the number of infringements of animal welfare provision is much higher than the number -handled by the SAKO. Altogether, 203 offences which are relevant in animal welfare were observed by the officials who participated in this survey in 2017. In contrast to these findings, no handled cases of infringements in animal welfare provision were published in the annual report 2017 of the SAKO. 178 of the 203 offences observed by the officials were addressed and reprimanded directly on the showground. The most common incidents which are relevant in animal welfare named by the officials in the survey were inappropriate, aggressive behaviour of the rider or driver and rough handling with artificial aids. A considerable part of the officials feels that the animal welfare situation on Swiss equestrian showgrounds is unsatisfying. An improvement of animal protection in Swiss equestrian sports can be achieved by raising the awareness for this topic of the officials as well as the equestrians and horse owners.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Cavalos , Esportes/ética , Animais , Suíça
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 39, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412901

RESUMO

Congenital portosystemic shunts in foals are rare and only a small number of cases have been described. Detailed description of the course of the shunt is lacking in earlier reports. This is the first detailed description of a computed tomography angiography (CTA) displaying an extra-hepatic splenocaval shunt. A 1-month old colt showing increasing signs of dullness, ataxia, circling, lip-smacking and coordination problems was presented. Hyperammonemia was detected and abdominal CTA revealed an extra-hepatic portocaval shunt. During surgery, ligation of the abnormal vessel could not be achieved, and the foal was euthanized because of complications during surgery. CTA provided a detailed overview of portal vasculature. If a portosystemic shunt is suspected in a foal, CTA can be used to confirm the diagnosis and for surgical planning.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Porta/anormalidades , Sistema Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Masculino , Sistema Porta/cirurgia
7.
Waste Manag ; 99: 1-11, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454594

RESUMO

The increasing numbers of kept horses create problems with processing horse manure as important local waste. This work was focused on horse manure vermicomposting in a real-field continuous-feeding system under controlled conditions, and on the complex study of the maturity and stability of the produced vermicompost. Commonly used simple indicators such as the C/N ratio, N-NH4+/N-NO3- ratio, DOC or ion exchange capacity, and also more advanced spectroscopic and thermoanalytic techniques were used and applied on the humic substances isolated from the vermicompost during its maturation (12 months in total). When compared with the original horse manure, vermicomposting decreased the aliphatic, protein-like, and polysaccharide humic components, whereas vermicomposting increased the aromaticity and contents of oxygen-containing functional groups. The typical tryptophan-like fluorophores in the manure, corresponding to the freshly produced organic matter of biological or microbial origin, were progressively transformed to humic-like fluorophores during vermicomposting. The most thermally labile humic fraction disappeared quickly during the very early vermicomposting stages. The results of spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analyses suggest that stable and mature vermicompost was produced after 6-9 months of vermicomposting, which was also supported by biologically-based maturity indicators.


Assuntos
Esterco , Oligoquetos , Animais , Cavalos , Substâncias Húmicas , Solo
8.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 125-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375025

RESUMO

The emergence of drug resistance among parasites is a side effect of the common use of chemotherapeutic agents in horses. Combating parasites typically involves routine deworming treatments twice a year (before and after the grazing season). However, in grazing farming this treatment may be insufficient. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of programs to combat the invasion of strongyles (Strongylidae) in horses in the selected stables of Western Pomerania. Coprological examination was conducted in 85 horses from three stables located in Western Pomerania. Horses from all three stables remained in the pastures in the period from spring to late autumn, and deworming treatment was performed twice. The examination of horses has found nematodes of the family Strongylidae. The average prevalence of infection in horses in the studs tested was 36.16% for Strongylinae, and 58.49% for Cyathostominae. Administration of the medication twice did not eradicate the invasion of strongyles in the horses investigated. A significant reduction of strongyle invasion was observed directly after treatment, followed by rapid reinvasion. It appears necessary to monitor the effectiveness of deworming treatments by performing parasitological examination of feces. The participating stables should develop and implement new strategies to combat parasitic invasions in horses that will be adapted to the environmental conditions (the life cycle of parasites).


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/epidemiologia , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/prevenção & controle , Strongyloidea , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 52-59, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442894

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites, Parascaris sp. and strongyles, are common in young horses worldwide and control of these parasites is challenged by increasing anthelmintic resistance. Our aim was to identify risk factors for these infections as well as to assess the efficacy of fenbendazole (dose 7.5 mg/kg) and pyrantel embonate (dose 19 mg/kg) against Parascaris sp. We also evaluated association between owner observed symptoms and patent infections with these parasites. Fecal samples were collected from 367 young horses in Finland and a questionnaire study was conducted. Fecal egg counts were performed by Mini-FLOTAC® method. Univariable logistic regression models using patent infection status (Yes/No), separately for Parascaris sp. and strongyle infections as an outcome were run initially to screen potential risk factors collected by the questionnaire. After the initial screening, multiple logistic regression models were constructed and run to account for correlated data structure, risk factors and potential confounders simultaneously. Two significant risk factors for a patent Parascaris sp. infection were found: breeding farm size (p = 0.028) and frequency of horse movements (p = 0.010). Horses originating from large breeding farms were more likely (OR = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-5.51) to shed Parascaris sp. eggs upon relocation to training stables compared to horses originating from small breeding farms. Horses living in farms with frequent horse movements to other premises had higher odds (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.35-9.39) of a patent Parascaris sp. infection compared to farms with less frequent horse movements. Risk factors for patent strongyle infection included age (p < 0.001) and season (p = 0.017). Horses were less likely (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.66) to shed strongylid eggs during the spring compared to the winter. Horses excreting over 200 ascarid eggs per gram were included in the anthelmintic efficacy trial. A mean FECR less than 90% was interpreted as presence of anthelmintic resistance. The mean FECR was 98.5% (95% CI: 95.8-100) and 68.0% (95% CI: 52.7-83.3) in the fenbendazole (n = 31) and pyrantel (n = 26) treatment groups, respectively. In conclusion, we identified two new risk factors for patent Parascaris sp. infection; breeding farm size and frequency of horse movements. Reduced efficacy of pyrantel against Parascaris sp. was observed for the second time in Europe. A relatively high Parascaris sp. prevalence in yearlings (34%) and two-year-olds (20%) was observed, which has not been reported earlier. An association between symptoms and a patent Parascaris sp. infection was observed in foals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Pamoato de Pirantel/farmacologia , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 71-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446256

RESUMO

Tick-borne diseases (TBD) constitute an important group of illness affecting animals and humans worldwide. In Brazil, carthorses are frequently exposed to ticks and tick-borne pathogens, leading to impairment of horse performance and imposing restrictions by the international veterinary authorities for the importation of horses. Accordingly, this study has aimed to i) determine the prevalence of the TBD agents Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Ehrlichia spp., and hemotropic mycoplasmas in carthorses, ii) identify the tick species parasitizing the animals, and iii) determine factors associated with exposure/infection in Foz do Iguaçu City, Parana state, southern Brazil. A total of 103 carthorses were screened for anti-T. equi and anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody assays (IFA). Samples were also tested by PCR assays targeting the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi and B. caballi, and 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas. Additionally, PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, disulfide bond formation protein (dsb) and tandem repeat proteins 36 (trp36) genes of Ehrlichia spp. were also performed. Antibodies to T. equi and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in 43/103 (41.75%; 95% CI: 32.10-51.88%) and 5/103 (4.85%; 95% CI: 1.59-10.97%) horses by IFA, respectively. DNA of T. equi and B. caballi were found in 25/103 (24.27%; 95% CI: 16.36-33.71%) and 10/103 (9.71%; 95% CI: 4.75-17.13%) carthorses, respectively, and all tested negative for Ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasmas. All sequences showed ≥99% identity with multiple T. equi and B. caballi 18S rRNA gene sequences deposited in GenBank. Overall, 191 Dermacentor nitens ticks were collected from 25/103 (24.27%) animals. Carthorses older than 5 years were more likely to be positive for T. equi (p < 0.05). In conclusion, equine piroplasmosis agents are highly prevalent in carthorses from Foz do Iguaçu City. The low prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. found may be due to the absence of Amblyomma ticks infesting animals, which should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Cavalos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 86-89, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449972

RESUMO

Cyathostomins are pervasive equine parasites in horses across the world, and larval stages are known to cause the deadly disease larval cyathostominosis. The mucosal digestion technique is widely used for enumeration of encysted larval stages. Previous studies have investigated the spatial variation of encysted larvae, however current protocols lack a description of a standardized area from which to take the tissue sample. This study sought to evaluate spatial variation in encysted cyathostomin larval counts among the large intestinal organs and their subsections. Following humane euthanasia, ceca, ventral, and dorsal colons were harvested from 8 foals (aged 4-8 months) raised in an anthelmintic naïve parasitology research herd. Each organ was weighed and separated into 3 equal sections by length: the orad, intermediate, and aborad portions. From each of those sections, two 5% weight tissue samples were collected and digested to quantify the early third stage larvae (EL3) and late third stage larvae/fourth stage larvae (LL3/L4). A mixed model statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate for differences of larval counts among the different organs, sections, and the interaction term between the organs and sections. There were significant differences among organs (P < 0.0001), with the ceca having higher counts than the ventral and dorsal colons. However, there were no significant differences among the three defined organ sections (P = 0.1076). Coefficients of variation (CV) were all calculated to be greater than 1, suggesting a high level of variability among the samples; the least amount of variation can be found in the cecal data with a CV of 1.4024 compared with the ventral colon's 1.529845 and dorsal colon's 3.339135 within the respective organ. The following sections had the highest mean counts of encysted larvae: intermediate cecum, orad ventral colon, and aborad dorsal colon. Though only a portion of the results were significant, trends were observed and these should be investigated further in future studies and potentially employed in larvicidal efficacy evaluations.


Assuntos
Intestino Grosso/parasitologia , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Animais , Cavalos , Larva , Membrana Mucosa/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Strongyloidea
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1383-1386, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411826

RESUMO

Equestrian sports are widely practiced in Switzerland as hobbies. Horses are imposing and unpredictable. As a result, traumatisms associated with horseback riding are common and cause serious injuries. Cranial traumatisms are among the most frequently encountered injuries and are associated with high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Helmet use decreases the severity of intracranial lesions. Close contact with horses can lead to the development of infectious diseases and respiratory allergies. Although infrequent in Europe, these infections occur sporadically and should be known by general practitioners. Finally, horse's allergens sensitization is frequent in allergic patients with or without direct contact with horses.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Cavalos , Esportes , Animais , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suíça
13.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(8): 498-500, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441290

RESUMO

Bridging the 'know-do' gap is not new but considerably greater attention is being focused on the issue as governments and research funders seek to demonstrate value for money and impact on policy and practice. Initiatives like the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Health System Impact (HSI) Fellowship are therefore both timely and welcome. However, they confront major obstacles which, unless addressed, will result in such schemes remaining the exception and having limited impact. Context is everything and as long as universities and research funders privilege peer-reviewed journal papers and traditional measures of academic performance and success, novel schemes seeking to break down barriers between researchers and end users are likely to have limited appeal. Indeed, for some academics they risk being career limiting. The onus should be on universities to welcome greater diversity and nurture and value a range of academic researchers with different skills matched to the needs of applied health system research. One size does not fit all and adopting a horses for courses approach would go a long way to solving the conundrum facing higher education institutions. At the same time, researchers need to show greater humility and acknowledge that scientific evidence is only one factor shaping policy and practice. To help overcome a risk of ideology and opinion triumphing over evidence, attention should be devoted to encouraging citizens to get actively involved in research. Research funders also need to give higher priority to how policy can be made to stick if the 'know-do' gap is to be closed.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Pesquisadores , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Canadá , Cavalos , Humanos , Universidades
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 443-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390438

RESUMO

Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Colite/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Tiflite/parasitologia , Animais , Colite/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Cavalos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Tiflite/mortalidade
15.
Life Sci ; 233: 116710, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369762

RESUMO

AIMS: The naturally occurring compound curcumin has been proposed for a number of pharmacological applications. In spite of the promising chemotherapeutic properties of the molecule, the use of curcumin has been largely limited by its chemical instability in water. In this work, we propose the use of water soluble proteins to overcome this issue in perspective applications to photodynamic therapy of tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Curcumin was bound to bovine serum albumin and its photophysical properties was studied as well as its effect on cell viability after light exposure through MTT assay and confocal imaging. KEY FINDINGS: Bovine serum albumin binds curcumin with moderate affinity and solubilizes the hydrophobic compound preserving its photophysical properties for several hours. Cell viability assays demonstrate that when bound to serum albumin, curcumin is an effective photosensitizer for HeLa cells, with better performance than curcumin alone. Confocal fluorescence imaging reveals that when curcumin is delivered alone, it preferentially associates with mitochondria, whereas curcumin bound to bovine serum albumin is found in additional locations within the cell, a fact that may be related to the higher phototoxicity observed in this case. SIGNIFICANCE: The higher bioavailability of the photosensitizing compound curcumin when bound to serum albumin may be exploited to increase the efficiency of the drug in photodynamic therapy of tumors.


Assuntos
Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoproteínas/química , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular , Curcumina/química , Células HeLa , Cavalos , Humanos , Mioglobina/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 53-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395205

RESUMO

The detection and quantification of nematode eggs using fecal egg count techniques have an irreplaceable role in equine parasitic control. The reliability, particularly precision and accuracy, of individual techniques have been described only for strongylid infections. The aim of this study was to compare three fecal egg count techniques used for the detection of the two most common equine nematode infections: strongylid and ascarid. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques were tested on spiked fecal samples with various levels of egg concentration (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 3000 eggs per gram) and naturally infected mixed strongylid-ascarid samples with 30 replicates. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques had precision coefficients of variation of 44.33, 35.64 and 18.25% for the strongylid infection and 62.95, 35.71 and 18.95% for the ascarid infection, and percent accuracies (mean count/number of eggs spiked) of 97.53, 88.39 and 74.18% for the strongylid infection and 65.53, 83.18 and 90.28% for the ascarid infection, respectively. Accuracy depended greatly on the type of nematode, but precision did not. The Mini-FLOTAC technique was more precise than the Simple and Concentration McMaster techniques regardless of nematode type. Simple McMaster was the most accurate technique for detecting strongylid eggs, and Mini-FLOTAC was the most accurate technique for detecting ascarid eggs. Our results indicated that none of the current techniques were universally and sufficiently reliable for the simultaneous quantification of both of these common equine nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/diagnóstico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridíase/diagnóstico , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Cavalos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104706, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311639

RESUMO

The international nature of the equine industry provides opportunities for the spread of infectious diseases between countries. While incursions of exotic diseases into the United Kingdom (UK) equine population have been rare, the potential socioeconomic and welfare impacts are a significant concern. However, little is known about leisure horse owners' ability or willingness to prepare for an exotic disease incursion. The objectives of this study were to describe UK leisure horse owners' awareness and perceptions of exotic diseases, and to identify clusters of horse owners characterised by their awareness and perceived risk of exotic diseases. A cross-sectional study of leisure horse owners in the UK was conducted between April and July 2018. Participants (n = 403) completed an online questionnaire with questions pertaining to demographics, experiences with endemic diseases, and awareness and perceptions of exotic diseases. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify groups of participants that were similar in regard to their awareness and perceived risk of exotic diseases. Participants identified a median of 3 (IQR 2-4) exotic diseases, with the most recognised exotic diseases being African horse sickness and West Nile virus. The most frequently mentioned clinical signs that participants thought were associated with exotic diseases included high temperature (57.2%), discharge (46.5%), and lack of energy (41.2%). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three clusters of participants: 1) those who were aware of exotic diseases and perceived a high amount of risk (n = 78); 2) those who were aware of exotic diseases but perceived a low amount of risk (n = 111); and 3) those who were less aware of exotic diseases and perceived a low amount of risk (n = 214). Efforts to communicate the relevance and consequences of exotic diseases to horse owners should consider the potential difference in receptiveness among horse owners in each cluster. Further investigations are required to determine the implications of horse owners' perceived risk on exotic disease preparedness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Equina Africana/psicologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/psicologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
18.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(4): 274-281, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of fracture location and horse sporting discipline as prognostic indicators after a pelvic fracture in a referral centre caseload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected for the short- and long-term follow-up of all cases with a diagnosis of pelvic fracture in a 7-year period. Information was obtained for 75 horses through a postal and internet survey. The proportion of horses returning to competition following fractures was compared between groups according to the competition discipline and the characteristics of the fracture. RESULTS: Forty-six of 75 horses returned to or began their intended activity. This proportion was significantly lower in the group of horses that sustained a comminuted fracture irrespective of the fracture location (11/25, p = 0.05). The proportion of Standardbred trotter racehorses returning to a sporting career after pelvic fracture (9/20) was not significantly different from horses competing in other disciplines (37/55). Cases of multiple pelvic fractures in the study population, and particularly those involving the acetabulum, had the worst sports prognosis (2/8 and 0/4). Nevertheless, two foals and one yearling (3/5) with isolated fracture of the acetabulum went on to race. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A clear characterization of the fracture is essential for prognosis, as comminuted fractures seem to entail a poorer athletic prognosis. Despite a lack of significance, prognosis seems poorer for Standardbred trotter racehorses and for cases with acetabulum involvement in multiple fractures. These results should be confirmed in larger samples.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Cavalos/lesões , Ossos Pélvicos , Animais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/reabilitação , Masculino , Prognóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esportes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 347-357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257665

RESUMO

Durability traits in Thoroughbred horses are heritable, economically valuable and may affect horse welfare. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that (i) durability traits are heritable and (ii) genetic data may be used to predict a horse's potential to have a racecourse start. Heritability for the phenotype 'number of 2- and 3-year-old starts' was estimated to be h m 2  = 0.11 ± 0.02 (n = 4499). A genome-wide association study identified SNP contributions to the trait. The neurotrimin (NTM), opioid-binding protein/cell adhesion molecule like (OPCML) and prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) genes were identified as candidate genes associated with the trait. NTM functions in brain development and has been shown to have been selected during the domestication of the horse. PRCP is an established expression quantitative trait locus involved in the interaction between voluntary exercise and body composition in mice. We hypothesise that variation at these loci contributes to the motivation of the horse to exercise, which may influence its response to the demands of the training and racing environment. A random forest with mixed effects (RFME) model identified a set of SNPs that contributed to 24.7% of the heritable variation in the trait. In an independent validation set (n = 528 horses), the cohort with high genetic potential for a racecourse start had significantly fewer unraced horses (16% unraced) than did low (27% unraced) potential horses and had more favourable race outcomes among those that raced. Therefore, the information from SNPs included in the model may be used to predict horses with a greater chance of a racecourse start.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/fisiologia , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Cryo Letters ; 40(4): 231-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of extenders to thawed semen could improve fertility. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficiency of extenders to increase viability of thawed semen, measured by sperm parameters in vitro and pregnancy rates after artificial insemination (AI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sperm motility and acrosin activity were measured during a thermoresistance test (TRT). RESULTS: Progressive motility decreased (P<0.05) after 30 min in thawing semen treated with saline solution (SS) and only after 60 min with Tyrode's solution (TS) or freezing diluent (FD). The total motility decreased (P<0.05) after 60 min in thawed semen treated with SS, and after 90 min in thawed semen containing TS or FD. The acrosin activity decreased (P<0.05) after 60 min during the TRT, but there was no difference among treatments throughout the TRT. The pregnancy rates were similar among thawed-semen supplemented with SS, TS or FD. CONCLUSION: The extenders neither improve sperm parameters nor enhance AI results.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Gravidez , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
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