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2.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 542-547, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058645

RESUMO

Practice of sports in the general population. According to several surveys, it is estimated that 33 to 46% of French people never do sport or physical exercise, and this proportion tends to increase over the years. Men generally do more sport than women, and the frequency of participation tends to decrease with advancing age. The sport is mainly practiced outdoors, and the practice in commercial health and sport centers remains very minority (on average 5% of the participants). More than half of the people who exercise or play sport practice sport alone, without supervision, in total autonomy; however, this form of practice varies according to the type of sport. The most popular sport activities are walking and running, followed by fitness activities (fitness, resistance exercises, yoga, etc.). Women are particularly attracted to sports such as horse riding, tennis or gymnastics. The regularity of practice depends on the type of sport, and among people who report playing sports, 57% follow at least 2 sessions per week, for most of the year. For the general population, it is mainly the maintenance of health, the need for general wellbeing and relaxation that motivate people who do exercise or play sport, much more than the taste for competition and the need to perform.


Assuntos
Esportes , Animais , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada
3.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 32(4): 583-591, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004149

RESUMO

Preprosthetic surgery remains a work horse of dentoalveolar surgery. Advances in rehabilitation of the edentulous mouth with the use of endosseous osseointegrating dental implants and dermal matrix substitutes have changed the narrative of traditional preprosthetic surgery while maintaining some fundamental principles. An outline of the basic techniques in preprosthetic dentoalveolar surgery is discussed in the setting of these technological and tissue engineering advances.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 776-780, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020362

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the ability of osteogenic culture media in comparison with regular growth culture media in enhancing the osteoblastic cell differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro cultures of commercially obtained hPDLSCs were seeded onto xenograft bone blocks in both regular and osteogenic media. Confocal laser microscope images were obtained for cellular differentiation and adhesion, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained to validate the osteogenic differentiation by showing the morphological characteristics of the newly formed cells. RESULTS: Confocal laser microscope analysis showed positive staining for new bone cells with an increased signal intensity when samples were cultured in osteogenic culture media compared with regular culture media. These findings indicate the effect of the active ingredients of the osteogenic culture media in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation hPDLSC. Scanning electron microscopy images validated the osteogenic differentiation showing a flattened, polygonal morphology with multiple extending cytoplasmic processes of new cells. CONCLUSION: Xenograft bone blocks are biocompatible scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of seeded hPDLSCs. Osteogenic culture media enhances and increases the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs into new bone cells more than regular growth culture media. Periodontal ligament stem cells are a predictable biological input as a cell-based tissue-engineered construct and biologically acceptable when it is cultured in a suitable growth media that mimics the intended environment. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Consideration of the clinical use of equine bone blocks and periodontal ligament stem cells in a suitable biological environment as a potential new option for bone regeneration techniques.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura , Cavalos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Células-Tronco
6.
Equine Vet J ; 52(6): 775-778, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017491

Assuntos
Esportes , Animais , Marcha , Cavalos
9.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e002320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935768

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw/undercooked meat is considering an important route of infection. Consumption of meat from equids is common in European and Asian countries and an increase in Brazil has been observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of anti-T. gondii antibodies and risk factors relating to infection in equids slaughtered for human consumption in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 192 horses and 208 donkeys were collected in the exsanguination area during the slaughter. Serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Association analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test, to evaluate risk factors relating to the prevalence of seroreagents. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 13.5% of the equids, with higher occurrence in horses (18.75%) than in donkeys (8.65%). Associations between seropositivity and the following variables were found (p ≤ 0.05): species, animal origin, purpose of rearing and source of water for animal consumption and contact with cats. Farms need to implement preventive measures to control T. gondii infection in these species and avert transmission of the parasite to the human population that will consume their meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Gatos , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
11.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953089

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia (AA) in its severe form has historically been associated with high mortality. With limited supportive care and no effective strategy to reverse marrow failure, most patients diagnosed with severe AA (SAA) died of pancytopenia complications. Since the 1970s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) have changed SAA's natural history by improving marrow function and pancytopenia. Standard IST with horse anti-thymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine produces a hematologic response rate of 60 to 70%. In the long term, about one-third of patients relapse, and 10 to 15% can develop cytogenetic abnormalities. Outcomes with either HSCT or IST are similar, and choosing between these modalities relies on age, availability of a histocompatible donor, comorbidities, and patient preference. The introduction of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, improved SAA outcomes as both salvage (second-line) and upfront therapy combined with IST. As a single agent, eltrombopag in doses up to 150 mg daily improved cytopenias in 40 to 50% in those who failed initial IST, which associated with higher marrow cellularity, suggesting a pan-stimulatory marrow effect. When eltrombopag was combined with IST as upfront therapy, overall (about 90%) and complete responses (about 50%) were higher than observed extensively with IST alone of 65% and 10%, respectively. Not surprisingly, given the strong correlation between hematologic response rates and survival in SAA, most (>90%) were alive after a median follow-up of 18 months. Longer follow-up and real-word data continue to confirm the activity of this agent in AA. The use of eltrombopag in different combinations and doses are currently being explored. The activity of another thrombopoietin receptor agonist in AA, romiplostim, suggests a class effect. In the coming years, the mechanisms of their activity and the most optimal regimen are likely to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Terapia de Salvação
12.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 783-789, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine plasma pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and imipenem following administration of a single dose PO (metronidazole, 15 mg/kg) or IV (imipenem, 10 mg/kg) in healthy Thoroughbreds and simulate pleural fluid concentrations following multiple dose administration every 8 hours. ANIMALS: 4 healthy Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES: Metronidazole and imipenem were administered, and samples of plasma and pleural fluid were collected at predetermined time points. Minimum concentrations of metronidazole and imipenem that inhibited growth of 90% of isolates (MIC90), including 22 clinical Bacteroides isolates from horses with pleuropneumonia, were calculated. For the computer simulation, the target ratio for area under the pleural fluid concentration-versus-time curve during 24 hours to the MIC90 for metronidazole was > 70, and the target percentage of time per day that the pleural fluid concentration of imipenem exceeded the MIC90 was > 50%. RESULTS: Mean ± SD pleural fluid concentrations of metronidazole and imipenem were 12.7 ± 3.3 µg/mL and 12.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively, 1 hour after administration and 4.9 ± 0.85 µg/mL and 0.3 ± 0.08 µg/mL, respectively, 8 hours after administration. For both antimicrobials, concentrations in the pleural fluid and plasma were similar. The ratio for area under the pleural fluid concentration-versus-time curve during 24 hours to the MIC90 for metronidazole was 84.9, and the percentage of time per day the pleural fluid concentration of imipenem exceeded the MIC90 was 70.9%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that administration of metronidazole (15 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) or imipenem (10 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h) resulted in their accumulation in the pleural fluid in healthy horses and concentrations were likely to be effective for the treatment of pneumonia and pleuropneumonia caused by Bacteroides spp.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Metronidazol , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Simulação por Computador , Cavalos , Imipenem
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761714

RESUMO

There are currently eight native horse populations in Japan, namely, Hokkaido, Kiso, Noma, Taishu, Misaki, Tokara, Miyako, and Yonaguni horses. Since locomotion traits, including gaitedness, are important for riding and packing horses, the genetic properties associated with these traits could be informative for understanding the characteristics and history of these horses. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the mutant allele of DMRT3 gene (DMRT3:p.Ser301Ter) associated with ambling gaits in the Japanese native horse. We also examined haplotypes of SNPs in the 83-kb region including DMRT3 gene by genotyping four SNPs in this region. The results revealed the presence of DMRT3:p.Ser301Ter in the Hokkaido and Yonaguni populations at allele frequencies of 0.18 and 0.02, respectively, and the observed haplotype associated with DMRT3:p.Ser301Ter was estimated as the most common haplotype in the horses in the world. Since DMRT3:p.Ser301Ter has been hypothesized to spread across Eurasian continent from Medieval England after 850 to 900 CE, our findings of the presence of DMRT3:p.Ser301Ter with the common haplotype in the Japanese native horses will provide a new insight into the history of the Japanese native horse, such as considerable level of gene flow from Eurasian continent after 850 to 900 CE.


Assuntos
Alelos , Marcha/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Cavalos/genética , Cavalos/fisiologia , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Japão
16.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111244, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841789

RESUMO

Public participation is critical for planning and management of protected areas. With people increasingly using social media, including Twitter, to obtain news and express opinions, park agencies should recognize the utility of monitoring and engaging with this public discourse. We used a conservation culturomics approach to analyse Tweets during a period of controversy about the management of large mammals (horses) in a park (Kosciuszko National Park in Australia), including examining who talked about what, when and what emotions were expressed. An automated programming interface was used to collect metadata for Tweets about the Park, with keywords coded while sentiments and emotions were analysed using a standard lexicon of terms. The debate over introduced wild/feral horses in the Park dominated the discourse, accounting for 56% of the 2085 Tweets referring by name to the Park over 275 days. Many Tweets referred to horses (44.8%) and/or used the alternative term, brumbies (15%). They were more likely to be Retweets, be sent by Australians, with a potential reach of over 5 million followers. Peaks in Tweets related to specific events in the news, with Tweets sent by journalists and others in a professional capacity or specific organisations engaged in the debate more likely to be retweeted. Despite considerable polarisation in the broader debate, including in the traditional media and on other social media platforms, the discourse on Twitter focused mainly on the environmental impacts of horses, and ways to reduce their numbers, rather than wanting to keep horses in the Park. There are important issues with the use of Twitter data including challenges in identifying relevant Tweets, biases in who Tweets and what is retweeted, limited text in Tweets, and increasing focus of the rights to privacy online. Twitter, however, remains a relatively fast, timely and often free way to listen into public debate with a large potential audience, is simple to analyse and hence provides valuable insights into public reactions to park management decisions complementing other data sources.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Animais , Austrália , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cavalos , Parques Recreativos
17.
Virus Res ; 288: 198113, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771430

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recognized as one of the life-threatening viruses causing the most destructive pandemic in this century. The genesis of this virus is still unknown. To elucidate its molecular evolution and regulation of gene expression, the knowledge of codon usage is a pre-requisite. In this study, an attempt was made to document the genome-wide codon usage profile and the various factors influencing the codon usage patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in human and dog. The SARS-CoV-2 genome showed relative abundance of A and U nucleotides and relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed that the preferred synonymous codons mostly end with A/U. The analysis of ENc-GC3s, Neutrality and Parity rule 2 plots indicated that natural selection and other undefined factors dominate the overall codon usage bias in SARS-CoV-2 whereas the impact of mutation pressure is comparatively minor. The codon adaptation index and relative codon deoptimization index of SARS-CoV-2 deciphered that human is more favoured host for adaptation compared to dog. These results enhance our understanding of the factors involved in evolution of the novel human SARS-CoV-2 and its adaptability in dog.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Uso do Códon , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Seleção Genética , Suínos
18.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1058-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777833

RESUMO

Viruses have a high mutation rate, and, thus, there is a continual emergence of new antiviral-resistant strains. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore and develop new antiviral compounds continually. The search for pharmacological substances of plant origin that are effective against animal viruses, which have a high mortality rate or cause large economic losses, has garnered interest in the last few decades. This systematic review compiles 130 plant species that exhibit antiviral activity on 37 different virus species causing serious diseases in animals. The kind of extract, fraction, or compound exhibiting the antiviral activity and the design of the trial were particularly considered for review. The literature revealed details regarding plant species exhibiting antiviral activities against pathogenic animal virus species of the following families-Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Poxviridae, Nimaviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae-that cause infections, among others, in poultry, cattle, pigs, horses, shrimps, and fish. Overall, 30 plant species exhibited activity against various influenza viruses, most of them causing avian influenza. Furthermore, 30 plant species were noted to be active against Newcastle disease virus. In addition, regarding the pathogens most frequently investigated, this review provides a compilation of 20 plant species active against bovine herpesvirus, 16 against fowlpox virus, 12 against white spot syndrome virus in marine shrimps, and 10 against suide herpesvirus. Nevertheless, some plant extracts, particularly their compounds, are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral remedies, which are urgently required.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Antivirais , Orthomyxoviridae , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cavalos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos , Medicina Veterinária
19.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111152, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777644

RESUMO

Romanian grasslands have high nature value, being among the most important biodiversity hotspots at the European level. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) contradicts the Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 objectives by hindering coordinated grassland governance and collaboration among the involved actors. At the European level, few attempts have been made in creating conceptual strategies for implementing conservation measures in a multi-actor and multi-scale governance setting. Our paper focuses on a comparative network analysis of grassland governance of three Romanian regions (Iron Gates Natural Park - SW; Sighisoara - Tarnava Mare - center; and Dobrogea - SE), representatives for grassland management in mountain and lowland landscapes. We investigated the structural characteristics of one-mode directed governance networks in the three protected areas (standard cohesion and reciprocity metrics, exponential random graph models), the position of actors participating in networks (node-level centrality metrics), and the perception of CAP influence on grassland governance by farmers benefiting of CAP agri-environmental payments. In Sighisoara, grassland governance has been centralized but biodiversity-friendly, while in Iron Gates, grasslands were traditionally managed through a decentralized, community-level system, and this type of governance continues to date. In Dobrogea, grassland governance was performed in an intensive, centralized state-run management regime during the communist time and by large landowners after the transition period ended. Our findings illustrate the structure of the three governance networks and dissimilar patterns of collaboration, indicating distinct particularities to be considered when exploring barriers to and options for successful governance in traditionally managed grasslands in the context of CAP measures-driven management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pradaria , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos
20.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 517-522, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783186

RESUMO

There are several skin grafting methods described in the human and animal literature. Currently, there are five types of free grafts used in horses: pinch and punch grafts, split and full-thickness sheet or mesh grafts and tunnel grafts. Published methods of tunnel grafting describe the use of alligator forceps. The alligator forceps create a poor tunnel and are excessively traumatic to the granulation bed. This technique utilised a 13G Jamshidi needle that was placed across the granulation bed and created a uniform tunnel. The Jamshidi needle was atraumatic to the granulation bed increasing the opportunity for graft survival. A twin bladed scalpel allowed for the quick creation of uniform width grafts. Removal of the overlying tunnel 'roof' took place 5-14 days later to allow graft expansion. This case series included five horses with distal limb wounds and one with a wither injury. Four horses required general anaesthesia for graft placement and three required general anaesthesia for the removal of the tunnel roof. The acceptance of the grafts varied from 70% to 100%. Graft expansion to cover the granulation tissue took 2-5 months. This case series demonstrates that this technique of graft production and placement is an easy method for achieving successful skin grafting. Compared to other graft types, tunnel grafts are more readily accepted. Cosmetic and functional results achieved are better than those with pinch and punch grafts. Tunnel grafting does not require expensive equipment or advanced training, and in some cases can be performed under standing sedation.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Cicatrização , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transplante de Pele/veterinária
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