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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468519

RESUMO

There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , China , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Paquistão , Filogenia , Zoonoses
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502588

RESUMO

In recent years, small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) have been used widely to monitor animals because of their customizability, ease of operating, ability to access difficult to navigate places, and potential to minimize disturbance to animals. Automatic identification and classification of animals through images acquired using a sUAS may solve critical problems such as monitoring large areas with high vehicle traffic for animals to prevent collisions, such as animal-aircraft collisions on airports. In this research we demonstrate automated identification of four animal species using deep learning animal classification models trained on sUAS collected images. We used a sUAS mounted with visible spectrum cameras to capture 1288 images of four different animal species: cattle (Bos taurus), horses (Equus caballus), Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We chose these animals because they were readily accessible and white-tailed deer and Canada Geese are considered aviation hazards, as well as being easily identifiable within aerial imagery. A four-class classification problem involving these species was developed from the acquired data using deep learning neural networks. We studied the performance of two deep neural network models, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep residual networks (ResNet). Results indicate that the ResNet model with 18 layers, ResNet 18, may be an effective algorithm at classifying between animals while using a relatively small number of training samples. The best ResNet architecture produced a 99.18% overall accuracy (OA) in animal identification and a Kappa statistic of 0.98. The highest OA and Kappa produced by CNN were 84.55% and 0.79 respectively. These findings suggest that ResNet is effective at distinguishing among the four species tested and shows promise for classifying larger datasets of more diverse animals.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Cervos , Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Cavalos , Redes Neurais de Computação
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502709

RESUMO

With the recent advances in deep learning, wearable sensors have increasingly been used in automated animal activity recognition. However, there are two major challenges in improving recognition performance-multi-modal feature fusion and imbalanced data modeling. In this study, to improve classification performance for equine activities while tackling these two challenges, we developed a cross-modality interaction network (CMI-Net) involving a dual convolution neural network architecture and a cross-modality interaction module (CMIM). The CMIM adaptively recalibrated the temporal- and axis-wise features in each modality by leveraging multi-modal information to achieve deep intermodality interaction. A class-balanced (CB) focal loss was adopted to supervise the training of CMI-Net to alleviate the class imbalance problem. Motion data was acquired from six neck-attached inertial measurement units from six horses. The CMI-Net was trained and verified with leave-one-out cross-validation. The results demonstrated that our CMI-Net outperformed the existing algorithms with high precision (79.74%), recall (79.57%), F1-score (79.02%), and accuracy (93.37%). The adoption of CB focal loss improved the performance of CMI-Net, with increases of 2.76%, 4.16%, and 3.92% in precision, recall, and F1-score, respectively. In conclusion, CMI-Net and CB focal loss effectively enhanced the equine activity classification performance using imbalanced multi-modal sensor data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Cavalos
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 665, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to resolve the evolutionary history of species genomes as it has affected both genome organization and chromosomal architecture. The rapid innovation in sequencing technologies and the improvement in assembly algorithms have enabled the creation of highly contiguous genomes. DNA Zoo, a global organization dedicated to animal conservation, offers more than 150 chromosome-length genome assemblies. This database has great potential in the comparative genomics field. RESULTS: Using the donkey (Equus asinus asinus, EAS) genome provided by DNA Zoo as an example, the scaffold N50 length and Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog score reached 95.5 Mb and 91.6%, respectively. We identified the cytogenetic nomenclature, corrected the direction of the chromosome-length sequence of the donkey genome, analyzed the genome-wide chromosomal rearrangements between the donkey and horse, and illustrated the evolution of the donkey chromosome 1 and horse chromosome 5 in perissodactyls. CONCLUSIONS: The donkey genome provided by DNA Zoo has relatively good continuity and integrity. Sequence-based comparative genomic analyses are useful for chromosome evolution research. Several previously published chromosome painting results can be used to identify the cytogenetic nomenclature and correct the direction of the chromosome-length sequence of new assemblies. Compared with the horse genome, the donkey chromosomes 1, 4, 20, and X have several obvious inversions, consistent with the results of previous studies. A 4.8 Mb inverted structure was first discovered in the donkey chromosome 25 and plains zebra chromosome 11. We speculate that the inverted structure and the tandem fusion of horse chromosome 31 and 4 are common features of non-caballine equids, which supports the correctness of the existing Equus phylogeny to an extent.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Equidae , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Equidae/genética , Genoma , Cavalos/genética , Humanos
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 453, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536145

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae, is a major arbovirus that causes West Nile fever. Previous data showed the prevalence of the WNV serologically and molecular in Turkey, and the presence of lineage 1 in horses and humans has been reported. This is the first notification of partial phylogeny of WNV detected in donkeys in the northeast of Turkey (on the Iranian border). Blood serum samples collected from 25 donkeys without clinical symptoms were tested by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of the sample detected as positive was performed. Multiple sequence alignments of reference sequences taken from GenBank were performed using the ClustalW method using the MEGA6 program. Partial nucleotide sequences of the capsid gene coding region revealed that the strains are closely related to viruses of lineage 1, clade 1a. According to the phylogenetic tree, the TUR/Igdir/donkey strain was included in the same cluster as the strain (KJ958922) previously obtained from horses in Turkey and the strain (GQ851658) from the Central African Republic. This study is the first report to show the circulation of WNV lineage 1 in donkeys in Turkey.


Assuntos
Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Equidae , Cavalos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
6.
J Law Med ; 28(3): 645-654, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369121

RESUMO

The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into health care has been accompanied by uncertainties and regulatory challenges. The establishment of a regulatory framework around AI in health is in its infancy and the way forward is unclear. There are those who argue that this represents a concerning regulatory gap, while others assert that existing regulatory frameworks, policies and guidelines are sufficient. We argue that perhaps the reality is somewhere in between, but that there is a need for engagement with principles and guidelines to inform future regulation. However, this cannot be done effectively until there is more clarity around the reality of AI in health and common misconceptions are addressed. This paper explores some of these misconceptions and argues for a principled approach to the regulation of AI in health.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Equidae , Animais , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Cavalos , Humanos
7.
Waste Manag ; 134: 32-41, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403994

RESUMO

This study examined the combined effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR) and heat pretreatment of manure (70 °C, 1 h) on the fate of E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, C. difficile, and on chemical parameters (volatile fatty acids and ammonia) that may inactivate pathogens. Semi-continuous mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed with pig manure and horse feed. The operating conditions were 2, 3, 4 COD.L-1.d-1 (OLR), 24, 35, 46 days (HRT) and use or not of a thermal pretreatment. The levels of the chemical parameters did not reach concentrations capable of inactivating the four bacteria. Anaerobic digestion led to a Log10 removal > 3 (E. coli), 0.9-2.1 (enterococci), 0.1-0.6 (C. perfringens) and 0-1 (C. difficile). Increasing HRT only reduced the concentration of E. coli in the digestate. Increasing OLR reduced the Log10 removal of enterococci and C. difficile. The heat pretreatment led to non-detection of E. coli in the digestate, reduced the concentration of C. perfringens by 0.8-1.3 Log10 and increased the concentration of C. difficile by 0.04-0.7 Log10. Enterococci, not detected in the heated manure, were present in the digestate. The distribution of genes encoding virulence factors of C. difficile (tcdA and tcdB) and C. perfringens (cpa, cpb2 and cpb) was not impacted by anaerobic digestion or by the heat pretreatment. Enterococci, C. perfringens, C. difficile were present in the digestate at relatively stable concentrations regardless of the operating conditions, indicating that even with heat pretreatment, the biosafety of digestate cannot be guaranteed in mesophilic conditions.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Clostridioides , Clostridium perfringens , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Cavalos , Esterco , Metano , Suínos
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443621

RESUMO

There are few novel therapeutic options available for companion animals, and medications rely heavily on repurposed drugs developed for other species. Considering the diversity of species and breeds in companion animal medicine, comprehensive PK exposures in the companion animal patient is often lacking. The purpose of this paper was to assess the pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous dosing in domesticated animal species (dogs, cats, and horses) of a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, EC1728, being developed for the treatment of pain in animals. Results: Intravenous and oral administration revealed that bioavailability was similar for dogs, and horses (42 and 50% F) but lower in mice and cats (34 and 8%, respectively). Additionally, clearance was similar between cats and mice, but >2× faster in cats vs. dogs and horses. Efficacy with EC1728 has been demonstrated in mice, dogs, and horses, and despite the rapid clearance of EC1728 in cats, analgesic efficacy was demonstrated in an acute pain model after intravenous but not oral dosing. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that exposures across species can vary, and investigation of therapeutic exposures in target species is needed to provide adequate care that addresses efficacy and avoids toxicity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Gatos , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Cavalos , Camundongos , Solubilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11329-11336, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342421

RESUMO

A class of water-soluble electrochemiluminescence (ECL) nanodots were prepared by encapsulating ECL-active iridium complexes into biocompatible horse spleen apoferritin (apoHSF) nanocages for immunoassays. The preparation feasibility was achieved based on the pH-induced disassembly/reassembly nature originated from apoHSF. Two iridium nanodots (1 and 2) with high ECL efficiency were separately prepared by directing the self-assembly of two water-insoluble luminescent complexes, Ir(ppy)3 (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and Ir(ppy)2(acac) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine and acac = acetylacetonate), in the apoHSF cavity. Using tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) as a coreactant, the electrochemistry and "oxidative-reductive" ECL mechanisms for nanodots 1 and 2 were investigated, respectively. After demonstrating the spectroscopic property and relative ECL efficiency, the ECL emission of nanodots 1 and 2 quenched by TPrA• radicals at high potential was further studied and circumvented by optimizing the potential range and TPrA concentration for generating strong and stable ECL emission in aqueous media. The well-inherited biological functions of apoHSF in nanodots allow the convenient external modification of an antibody to act as a signal probe, thus a versatile ECL immunoassay paradigm was established. Acceptable results from this assay enabled the rapid and accurate detection of biomarkers in real samples. The unprecedented use of apoHSF is feasible and applicable for water-insoluble iridium complexes to fabricate a wide variety of biocompatible ECL nanodots for potential bioanalysis.


Assuntos
Apoferritinas , Irídio , Animais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Cavalos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes
10.
Inorg Chem ; 60(17): 13284-13298, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357751

RESUMO

Supramolecular one-step self-assembly of dimanganese decacarbonyl, diaryl diselenide, and linear dipyridyl ligands (L = pyrazine (pz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe)) has resulted in the formation of selenolato-bridged manganese(I)-based metallorectangles. The synthesis of tetranuclear Mn(I)-based metallorectangles [{(CO)3Mn(µ-SeR)2Mn(CO)3}2(µ-L)2] (1-6) was facilitated by the oxidative addition of diaryl diselenide to dimanganese decacarbonyl with the simultaneous coordination of linear bidentate pyridyl linker in an orthogonal fashion. Formation of metallorectangles 1-6 was ascertained using IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopic techniques, and elemental analyses. The molecular mass of compounds 2, 4, and 6 were determined by ESI-mass spectrometry. Solid-state structural elucidation of 2, 3, and 6 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods revealed a rectangular framework wherein selenolato-bridges and pyridyl ligands define the shorter and longer edges, respectively. Also, the guest binding capability of metallorectangles 3 and 5 with different aromatic guests was studied using UV-vis absorption and emission spectrophotometric titration methods that affirmed strong host-guest binding interactions. The formation of the host-guest complex between metallorectangle 3 and pyrene has been explicitly corroborated by the single-crystal X-ray structure of 3•pyrene. Moreover, select metallorectangles 1-4 and 6 were studied to explore their anticancer activity, while CO-releasing ability of metallorectangle 2 was further appraised using equine heart myoglobin assay.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/toxicidade , Células HEK293 , Cavalos , Humanos , Manganês/química , Manganês/toxicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Mioglobina/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/síntese química , Compostos Organosselênicos/toxicidade
11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 218, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TNF-α-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) protein, a TNF-α-responsive hyaladherin, possesses enzymatic activity that can catalyze covalent crosslinks of the polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) to another protein to form heavy chain-hyaluronic acid (HC-HA) complexes in pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we examined HA synthase and inflammatory gene expression; synovial fluid HA, TNF-α, and viscosity; and TSG-6-mediated HC-HA complex formation in an equine OA model. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the TNF-α-TSG-6-HC-HA signaling pathway across multiple joint tissues, including synovial membrane, cartilage, and synovial fluid, and (2) determine the impact of OA on synovial fluid composition and biophysical properties. METHODS: HA and inflammatory cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IL-1ß, CCL2, 3, 5, and 11) were analyzed in synovial fluid from 63 OA and 25 control joints, and HA synthase (HAS1-3), TSG-6, and hyaluronan-degrading enzyme (HYAL2, HEXA) gene expression was measured in synovial membrane and cartilage. HA molecular weight (MW) distributions were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis and solid-state nanopore measurements, and HC-HA complex formation was detected via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. SEC-MALS was used to evaluate TSG-6-mediated HA crosslinking, and synovial fluid and HA solution viscosities were analyzed using multiple particle-tracking microrheology and microfluidic measurements, respectively. RESULTS: TNF-α concentrations were greater in OA synovial fluid, and TSG6 expression was upregulated in OA synovial membrane and cartilage. TSG-6-mediated HC-HA complex formation was greater in OA synovial fluid and tissues than controls, and HC-HA was localized to both synovial membrane and superficial zone chondrocytes in OA joints. SEC-MALS demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of low MW HA in the presence of TSG-6 and inter-α-inhibitor with concurrent increases in viscosity. CONCLUSIONS: Synovial fluid TNF-α concentrations, synovial membrane and cartilage TSG6 gene expression, and HC-HA complex formation were increased in equine OA. Despite the ability of TSG-6 to induce macromolecular aggregation of low MW HA with resultant increases in the viscosity of low MW HA solutions in vitro, HA concentration was the primary determinant of synovial fluid viscosity rather than HA MW or HC-HA crosslinking. The TNF-α-TSG-6-HC-HA pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target in OA.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Osteoartrite , Animais , Condrócitos , Cavalos , Osteoartrite/genética , Líquido Sinovial , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
Theriogenology ; 173: 221-229, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399386

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to play an important role in maintaining basal and stress-related homeostasis by interacting with endocrine mediators and prostaglandins (PGs). Although a growing body of evidence shows that GCs exert their regulatory action at a multitude of sites in the reproductive axis through corticosteroid receptors, little is known about the direct role of cortisol, an active form of GCs, in the equine endometrium. Thus, the study aimed to determine the effect of cortisol on PGF2α synthesis in the endometrial tissue and cells in vitro. In Exp.1, the immunolocalization and the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle were established. In Exp. 2 and 3, the effects of cortisol on PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in endometrial tissues, and cells were defined. Endometrial tissues obtained from the early, mid, and late luteal phases and the follicular phase of the estrous cycle were exposed to cortisol (100, 200, and 400 nM) for 24 h. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (early phase of estrous cycle) were exposed to cortisol (100 nM) for 24 h. Then, PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the AA cascade (PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, PTGS2, and PGFS) were assessed. GCR was expressed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus in the luminal and glandular epithelium as well as in the stroma. Endometrial GCR protein abundance was up-regulated at the late luteal phase compared to the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Cortisol dose-dependently decreased PGF2α secretion, PLA2G2A and PLA2G4A transcripts in endometrial tissues. Additionally, cortisol treatment decreased PGF2α secretion from endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Moreover, it affected PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, and PTGS2 transcripts in endometrial stromal cells. These findings suggest that cortisol suppresses the synthesis of PGF2α by affecting the AA cascade in the equine endometrium during the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Cavalos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
13.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372536

RESUMO

Equine rotavirus group A (ERVA) is one of the most common causes of foal diarrhea. Starting in February 2021, there was an increase in the frequency of severe watery to hemorrhagic diarrhea cases in neonatal foals in Central Kentucky. Diagnostic investigation of fecal samples failed to detect evidence of diarrhea-causing pathogens including ERVA. Based on Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, we identified a novel equine rotavirus group B (ERVB) in fecal specimens from the affected foals in the absence of any other known enteric pathogens. Interestingly, the protein sequence of all 11 segments had greater than 96% identity with group B rotaviruses previously found in ruminants. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the ERVB with group B rotaviruses of caprine and bovine strains from the USA. Subsequent analysis of 33 foal diarrheic samples by RT-qPCR identified 23 rotavirus B-positive cases (69.69%). These observations suggest that the ERVB originated from ruminants and was associated with outbreaks of neonatal foal diarrhea in the 2021 foaling season in Kentucky. Emergence of the ruminant-like group B rotavirus in foals clearly warrants further investigation due to the significant impact of the disease in neonatal foals and its economic impact on the equine industry.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Kentucky , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Rotavirus/classificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária
14.
Theriogenology ; 174: 20-26, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416560

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal, hormonal, and fetal factors on early fetal volume (FV) measurements in mares obtained by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. Furthermore, postpartum parameters were explored in regard to their association with early FV. For this purpose, 149 German warmblood mares that were artificially inseminated and confirmed to be pregnant between days 14-16 of gestation, were examined transrectally at day 45 ± 1 of gestation with the portable 3D ultrasound device Voluson® i (GE, Zipf, Austria). FV was calculated by using the extension software Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™). Two different mixed linear models were used to analyze associations between the investigated maternal and fetal factors and the FV. Explanatory variables investigated in the first model were: maternal age, parity, maternal weight, and body condition score, type of pregnancy (recipient or biological mother), barren status (lactating or non-lactating), fetal sex, progesterone (P4) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) concentrations; and in the second model outcome variables such as gestational length, birth weight, placental weight, fetal sex, and abortion were included in the analysis. The final models revealed a significant relation between FV and eCG (b = 0.011, P = 0.030), as well as with P4 (b = -0.053, P = 0.016), but interestingly P4 was negatively related to FV. Fetal sex showed the most prominent effect on FV (b = -0.256, P = 0.039), with female fetuses being smaller than male fetuses. In the second model none of the investigated parameters were related to early FV except for fetal sex (b = -0.328, P = 0.047), again with female fetuses being smaller. In summary, it was found that FV is related with eCG, P4 and fetal sex, but was no suitable predicting factor for the investigated outcome parameters. Furthermore, the findings suggest that sex specific growth differences exist already in early gestation. The detailed biological mechanism by which P4 and eCG affect fetal size has to be investigated in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Lactação , Aborto Animal , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Paridade , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Theriogenology ; 174: 131-138, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450564

RESUMO

The equine embryo or embryonic vesicle on Days 11-15 postovulation travels with profound physiologic purpose throughout the lumen of the two uterine horns and uterine body making 12 to 22 trips between the two uterine horns per day. This phenomenon is termed embryo mobility and is unique in equids among domestic species. Apparently, the embryo first reaches the uterine body on Days 8 or 9. Mobility increases to maximum by Days 11 or 12 and continues until an abrupt cessation of mobility (fixation) on Days 15 (ponies) or 16 (horses and donkeys). The embryo is propelled by uterine contractions in response to the production of apparently both PGF2α and PGE2 by both the embryo and uterus. An increase in endometrial vascular perfusion accompanies the mobile embryo as it moves from horn to horn. Restricting the embryo to one uterine horn by a ligature has indicated that specific roles of the traveling embryo include the stimulation of uterine contractions, tone, vascularity, and edema and to curtail the production of the luteolysin (PGF2α) by the uterus. The increase in uterine tone, decrease in diameter of the uterine horns, and a flexure in the caudal portion of each horn collaborate in the selection of a horn of fixation. Embryo mobility is a game changer that has solved several long-time enigmas in mare reproduction and has provided a needed and effective finger/thumb compression method for eliminating one member of a twin set.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Endométrio , Animais , Equidae , Feminino , Cavalos , Gravidez , Contração Uterina , Útero
16.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
17.
Postepy Biochem ; 67(2): 172-176, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378888

RESUMO

The research concerned the determination of the frequency of occurrence of selected virulence genes (cadF, flaA, iam) and genes responsible for the formation of the CDT cytotoxin (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC) in Campylobacter spp. The research object consisted of 100 faecal samples collected from stallions showing no symptoms of campylobacteriosis. The presence of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter spp. Was found in 25 individuals (25%). The molecular biology techniques used in the research allowed us to distinguish the following species from the positive samples: C. jejuni (68%); C. coli (28%) and C. lari (4%). In total, the following genes were found within the marked species: cadF (n=10); flaA (n=5); iam (n=3); cdtA (n=1); cdtB (n=10) and cdtC (n=2). In none of the obtained isolates, the simultaneous presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of CDT toxin was found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Cavalos , Masculino , Virulência/genética
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378036

RESUMO

The effect of hay type on the microbiome of the equine gastrointestinal tract is relatively unexplored. Our objective was to characterize the cecal and fecal microbiome of mature horses consuming alfalfa or Smooth Bromegrass (brome) hay. Six cecally cannulated horses were used in a split-plot design run as a crossover in two periods. The whole plot treatment was ad libitum access to brome or alfalfa hay fed over two 21-d acclimation periods with subplots of sampling location (cecum and rectum) and sampling hour. Each acclimation period was followed by a 24-h collection period where cecal and fecal samples were collected every 3 h for analysis of pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Fecal and cecal samples were pooled and sent to a commercial lab (MR DNA, Shallowater, TX) for the amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq. The main effects of hay on VFA, pH, and taxonomic abundances were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 with fixed effects of hay, hour, location, period, and all possible interactions and random effect of horse. Alpha and beta diversities were analyzed using the R Dame package. Horses fed alfalfa had greater fecal than cecal pH (P ≤ 0.05), whereas horses fed brome had greater cecal than fecal pH (P ≤ 0.05). Regardless of hay type, total VFA concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the cecum than in feces, and alfalfa resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) VFA concentrations than brome in both sampling locations. Alpha diversity was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in fecal compared with cecal samples. Microbial community structure within each sampling location and hay type differed from one another (P ≤ 0.05). Bacteroidetes were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the cecum compared with the rectum, regardless of hay type. Firmicutes and Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the feces compared with cecal samples of alfalfa-fed horses. In all, fermentation parameters and bacterial abundances were impacted by hay type and sampling location in the hindgut.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Fermentação , Cavalos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20190443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378632

RESUMO

This study evaluated the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in circulating blood and in the ovarian follicular fluid of mares, after supplementation of the diet with linseed oil. Six Mangalarga Marchador mares, weighing 397.00±31.89 kg, were kept on native pasture, and assigned to the current study. In a switch over design, mares were randomly allocated to receive 150 ml of vegetable oil daily, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids n3 (62.23 g ALA, 20.34 g LA, 2.27 g EPA, 2.32 g DHA), (n=3) or no supplementation (n=3) in two replicates. Blood and follicular fluid samples were taken on the first day (D0) and every 30 days until the end of the supplementation period (D60). After 60 days of supplementation, mares were switched across the treatments. Plasma concentrations of linolenic acid in total fatty acids were higher (P=0.006) in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.89±0.13 vs. 1.49±0.13%). There were positive correlations between plasma linoleic acid and follicular fluid arachidonic acid (P=0.0106; r2=0.13) and between plasma alpha linolenic acid and follicular fluid EPA (P=0.0004; r2=0.2544). Data indicated a low to moderate relationship between the dietary linseed-based oil supplementation studied and circulating and follicular fluid polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in mares.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe , Líquido Folicular , Cavalos
20.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(9): 770-776, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the ultrastructure of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were harvested from the adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs) of horses and transfected with green fluorescent protein. SAMPLE: MSCs from adipose tissue and bone marrow of 6 adult female Hispano-Bretón horses. PROCEDURES: Harvested equine MSCs were cultivated and transfected with green fluorescent protein, and the immunophenotypes of the MSCs were characterized by use of anti-CD90 and anti-CD105 monoclonal antibodies. When stable transfection of MSCs was achieved, the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of transfected and nontransfected AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs were compared with electron microscopy. RESULTS: The protocols for transfection and subsequent isolation of transfected cells with use of G418 were suitable for obtaining transfected MSCs. Transfection efficiency was 5% in AT-MSCs and 4% in BM-MSCs. Characterization of transfected and nontransfected MSCs revealed that they share immunocytochemical and morphological profiles. Expression of CD90 was significantly higher for transfected versus nontransfected AT-MSCs (97% vs 92%). Expression of CD105 was significantly lower for transfected versus nontransfected BM-MSCs (85% vs 94%). Transfected BM-MSCs had differences in organelles, compared with the other cell types, specifically including most commonly the rough endoplasmic reticulum with dilated cisternae and mitochondria. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings contribute to the knowledge base of the characteristics of equine AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs and of transfected versus nontransfected equine MSCs. The data provided a valuable starting point for researchers wishing to further study the morphological characteristics of equine MSCs.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Medula Óssea , Células da Medula Óssea , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Cavalos
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