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1.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103051, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365132

RESUMO

The Equus datum has been established as a geochronologic 'instantaneous' migratory event of a North American Equus species into Eurasia at the beginning of the Pleistocene (2.58 Ma). A remarkable radiation of Equus followed across Eurasia and Africa. Dmanisi includes excellent remains of Equus, well calibrated between 1.85 and 1.76 Ma. Our morphologic and morphometric analyses of the augmented Dmanisi Equus sample support the co-occurrence of Equus stenonis and Equus altidens in the sequence. Dmanisi E. stenonis is found to be morphologically similar to the European E. stenonis populations and represents the best well-dated easternmost occurrence of this species in Eurasia. The Dmanisi E. altidens represents the oldest well-calibrated occurrence of this species in Western Eurasia. Our analyses demonstrate that E. altidens extended its range westward from west Asia to Greece, Germany, Italy, Spain, and possibly France. Our results do not support distinguishing multiple subspecies of E. altidens, including E. altidens altidens, E. altidens granatensis and E. stenonis mygdoniensis. The Dmanisi cranial and postcranial samples exhibit morphologies close both to extant hemiones and zebras. Equus altidens is believed to have been well adapted to newly emergent arid environments in western Eurasia during the late Early and early Middle Pleistocene. The first occurrence of E. altidens at Dmanisi marks an important turnover in the horse communities of the late Early Pleistocene, with a dispersion of this species from West Asia to West Europe ca. 1.8 Ma.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Equidae , Fósseis , Filogeografia , Animais , Ásia , Equidae/anatomia & histologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , História Antiga , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , América do Norte , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
2.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(5): 849-852, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379828

RESUMO

Morphological integration and modularity are concepts that refer to the covariation level between the components of a structure. Morphological modules are independent subsets of highly correlated traits. The horse skull has been studied as a whole functional structure for decades, but the integrative approach towards quantitative examination of modules is scarce. We report here the first evaluation of cranial modularity in the horse at basal level. For this, we studied the modularity hypothesis for splanchnocranium and basicranium modules in the horse, two phenotipic regions under local influence by soft-tissue-hard-tissue interfaces. Using geometric morphometrics to capture the shape and location, we examined both modules in a sample of 23 dry skulls belonging to Pyrenean Horse Breed using 57 two-dimensional cranial landmarks. Modules were compared through partial least squares analyses and Escoufier (RV) coefficient. We tested whether the integration (measured by Escoufier RV coefficient) of splanchnocranium and basicranium strength modules and their covariation pattern (as analysed by partial least squares analysis) subordinate and express similar integration results. A clear modularity was observed. The lack of disproportions in the skulls of domestic horse breeds (compared to dog and cat breeds, for instance) might be an expression of the lack of single modules to evolve. On the other side, integration might have a positive impact on survival as long as the selection pressure is along the trajectory of integrated variation.


Assuntos
Cavalos , Crânio , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 404, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are common on horses, but recent publications characterizing equine tick infestations in North America are lacking. METHODS: To further understand attachment site preferences of common ticks of horses, and to document the seasonality of equine tick infestation in northeastern Oklahoma, horses from eight farms were evaluated twice a month over a 1-year period. Each horse was systematically inspected beginning at the head and moving caudally to the tail. Attachment sites of ticks were recorded and all ticks collected were identified to species and stage. RESULTS: Horses (26 males and 62 females) enrolled in the study ranged in age from 1 to 23 years (mean = 12, 95% CI 11-13). A total of 2731 ticks were collected; 84.1% (74/88) of the horses were infested (median = 3 ticks) at one or more examinations. Five tick species were identified, including Amblyomma americanum (78.2%; 2136/2731), Ixodes scapularis (18.2%; 497/2731), Dermacentor albipictus brown variant (2.6%; 71/2731), Dermacentor variabilis (0.7%; 20/2731), and Amblyomma maculatum (0.3%; 7/231). Most ticks were adults (83.6%; 2282/2731), but immature A. americanum (436/2136; 20.4%), D. albipictus (12/71; 16.9%), and A. maculatum (n = 1) were occasionally recovered. Amblyomma americanum were most often attached to the inguinal area, and I. scapularis and D. albipictus were most commonly found on the chest and axillary region (P < 0.0001). Ticks were found on horses in every month of the year. The largest number of ticks (638/2731; 23.4%) were collected in May (P < 0.0001). Amblyomma americanum, primarily immature, was the only tick recovered in September, I. scapularis and D. albipictus predominated October through February, and both A. americanum and I. scapularis were common in March. In the warmer months, April through August, A. americanum was the most common tick, followed by D. variabilis and A. maculatum. CONCLUSIONS: This research confirms that ticks common on horses in North America have attachment site preferences and that ticks infest horses in Oklahoma throughout the year, including during the winter. Additional research is warranted to fully understand the risk these infestations pose to equine health.


Assuntos
Amblyomma/fisiologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Masculino , Pescoço/parasitologia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Tórax/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10156, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980921

RESUMO

Evolution of the genus Equus has been a matter of long debate with a multitude of hypotheses. Currently, there is no consensus on either the taxonomic content nor phylogeny of Equus. Some hypotheses segregate Equus species into three genera, Plesippus, Allohippus and Equus. Also, the evolutionary role of European Pleistocene Equus stenonis in the origin of the zebra-ass clade has been debated. Studies based on skull, mandible and dental morphology suggest an evolutionary relationship between North American Pliocene E. simplicidens and European and African Pleistocene Equus. In this contribution, we assess the validity of the genera Plesippus, Allohippus and Equus by cladistic analysis combined with morphological and morphometrical comparison of cranial anatomy. Our cladistic analysis, based on cranial and postcranial elements (30 taxa, 129 characters), supports the monophyly of Equus, denies the recognition of Plesippus and Allohippus and supports the derivation of Equus grevyi and members of the zebra-ass clade from European stenonine horses. We define the following evolutionary steps directly relevant to the phylogeny of extant zebras and asses: E. simplicidens-E. stenonis-E. koobiforensis-E. grevyi -zebra-ass clade. The North American Pliocene species Equus simplicidens represents the ancestral stock of Old World Pleistocene Equus and the zebra-ass clade. Our phylogenetic results uphold the most recent genomic outputs which indicate an age of 4.0-4.5 Ma for the origin and monophyly of Equus.


Assuntos
Equidae/classificação , Equidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos/classificação , Cavalos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Equidae/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 202, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capsulitis leads to the release of inflammatory mediators in the joint, causing capsular fibrosis and osteoarthritis (OA). Strain elastosonography (SE) measures the elasticity of tissue by evaluating its strain in operator-dependent deformation. The aims of the study were to assess the feasibility, repeatability, and reproducibility of SE for imaging the distal attachment of the joint capsule (DJC) of metacarpophalangeal joints in sound horses (Group S) and in horses with metacarpophalangeal OA (Group P) and to evaluate differences in the elastosonographic patterns of these horses. After a whole lameness examination, fore fetlock DJCs were assigned to Group S and Group P and were thereafter examined by two operators using SE. Qualitative (i.e., colour grading score) and semi-quantitative (i.e., elasticity index (EI) and strain ratio (SR)) methods were used to evaluate the elastograms. The inter-rater reliability (IRR), intraclass correlation coefficient (intra-CC) and interclass correlation coefficient (inter-CC) were used to compare colour grading scores and the repeatability and reproducibility of EI and SR outcomes. The same parameters were compared between groups. P < 0.05 indicated a significant finding. RESULTS: Forty-one horses were included: 11 were in Group S and 30 were in Group P (16 with bilateral OA, 8 with left OA and 6 with right OA). IRR outcomes ranged from good to excellent. For transverse and longitudinal ultrasound scans, the colour grading score of Group S was significantly higher than the metacarpophalangeal DJCs of Group P. Both Inter-CC and intra-CC were higher in Group S than in Group P, with values always > 0.8. Significative differences in EI and SR were detected between groups and between Group S and the affected limb of Group P; values were lower in Group S than in Group P. CONCLUSIONS: SE can be a useful technique for evaluating DJCs, with good repeatability and reproducibility. DJCs appear softer in sound horses.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/veterinária , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Cápsula Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cápsula Articular/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720143

RESUMO

Therapies based upon whole-body biomechanical assessments are successful for injury prevention and rehabilitation in human athletes. Similar approaches have rarely been used to study equine athletic injury. Degenerative osteoarthritis caused by mechanical stress can originate from chronic postural dysfunction, which, because the primary dysfunction is often distant from the site of tissue injury, is best identified through modeling whole-body biomechanics. To characterize whole-body equine kinematics, a realistic skeletal model of a horse was created from equine computed tomography (CT) data that can be used for functional anatomical and biomechanical modeling. Equine CT data were reconstructed into individual three-dimensional (3D) data sets (i.e., bones) using 3D visualization software and assembled into a complete 3D skeletal model. The model was then rigged and animated using 3D animation and modeling software. The resulting 3D skeletal model can be used to characterize equine postures associated with degenerative tissue changes as well as to identify postures that reduce mechanical stress at the sites of tissue injury. In addition, when animated into 4D, the model can be used to demonstrate unhealthy and healthy skeletal movements and can be used to develop preventative and rehabilitative individualized therapies for horses with degenerative lamenesses. Although the model will soon be available for download, it is currently in a format that requires access to the 3D animation and modeling software, which has quite a learning curve for new users. This protocol will guide users in (1) developing such a model for any organism of interest and (2) using this specific equine model for their own research questions.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Anatômicos , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Software
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 200-216, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618179

RESUMO

The principal function of the ventricular conduction system is rapid electrical activation of the ventricles. The aim of this study is to conduct a morphometric study to pinpoint the morphological parameters that define cardiac conduction cells, allowing us to distinguish them from other cells. Five male horse hearts and five male dog hearts were used in the study. The hearts were fixed in a 5% formaldehyde solution. Histological sections of 5 µm thickness were acquired and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome and cardiac conduction cells and their junctions were identified by desmin, connexin 40 and a PAS method. We found statistically significant differences in cardiac conduction fibers density and thickness, which was much higher in horses than in dogs (p = 0.000 for both values). By comparing the measured parameters of the cells in both species, we determined that cardiac conduction cells area and diameters were greater in horses than in dogs (p = 0.000 for all values). In dogs there are more junctions (30.8%) than in horses (26.1%), a statistically significant difference (p = 0.041). Our findings regarding the cardiac conduction fibers distribution in the animal species studied becomes new knowledge that contributes to the morphological study of this component of the cardiac conduction system and also makes it possible to locate exactly the site with the highest density of cardiac conduction fibers as a contribution to the cardiological study of these structures that lead to the prevention of ventricular arrhythmias and the identification of their treatment site.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 41, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical importance and frequent occurrence of sinus disease, little is known about the size of paranasal sinuses and their communication in ponies and small horses. To examine the shape and volume of the paranasal sinuses and evaluate the sinonasal communication, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) datasets of 12 healthy adult Shetland ponies were performed and analysed. Linear measurements of head length and width were taken. Using semi-automatic segmentation, 3D-models of all sinus compartments were created. Volumetric measurement of the seven sinus compartments were conducted and statistical analysis was performed. Sinus volumes were compared between the left and right sinuses and the relation to age and head size was evaluated. RESULTS: Structure and shape of the paranasal sinus system in Shetland ponies was similar to that of large horses. All seven sinus compartments on each side of the head were identified (rostral maxillary sinus, ventral conchal sinus, caudal maxillary sinus, dorsal conchal sinus, middle conchal sinus, frontal sinus, sphenopalatine sinus). The existence of a bilateral cranial and a caudal system formed by a maxillary septum was visible in all 12 individuals. The volumetric sizes of the left and right sinuses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). A positive correlation between the size of the paranasal sinuses and the head length was shown. A relation between sinus volumes and age could not be proved in adult ponies aged > six years. Communication between single sinus compartments was identified. Furthermore, communication with the nasal cavity over the nasomaxillary aperture (Apertura nasomaxillaris) and a common sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis communis) as well as its splitting up into a rostral and a caudolateral channel could be seen. Examination of the sinonasal communication was challenging and only a descriptive evaluation was possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings concerning the size, shape and volumetric dimensions of Shetland pony CT images could help improve CT interpretation of abnormal clinical cases as well as aiding clinicians to develop and select appropriate instruments for medical inspection and treatments.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Seios Paranasais/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
9.
J Anat ; 238(3): 527-535, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070316

RESUMO

The three-dimensional ultrastructure of the tendon is complex. Two main cell types are classically supported: elongated tenocytes and ovoid tenoblasts. The existence of resident stem/progenitor cells in human and equine tendons has been demonstrated, but their location and relationship to tenoblasts and tenocytes remain unclear. Hence, in this work, we carried out an ultrastructural study of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon. Although the fine structure of tendons has been previously studied using electron microscopy, the presence of telocytes, a specific type of interstitial cell, has not been described thus far. We show the presence of telocytes in the equine inter-fascicular tendon matrix near blood vessels. These telocytes have characteristic telopodes, which are composed of alternating dilated portions (podoms) and thin segments (podomers). Additionally, we demonstrate the presence of the primary cilium in telocytes and its ability to release exosomes. The location of telocytes is similar to that of tendon stem cells. The telocyte-blood vessel proximity, the presence of primary immotile cilia and the release of exosomes could have special significance for tendon homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Telócitos/ultraestrutura , Tendões/ultraestrutura , Tenócitos/ultraestrutura , Animais
10.
Vet Surg ; 50(1): 158-169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the variability in length, width, and thickness of the equine linea alba (LA) and the effect of a standing vs dorsal recumbent position on these measurements. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive anatomical comparative study. ANIMALS: Standing horses (N = 75; in 30 horses, measurements were obtained in dorsal recumbency first and repeated after horses were standing). METHODS: Linea alba length was measured in standing position from xiphoid to umbilicus, and transverse ultrasonographic images were obtained at five reference points to measure LA width and thickness. In 30 horses, measurements were obtained in dorsal recumbency first and repeated after horses were standing. RESULTS: There was wide variation in LA width and thickness between standing horses, with gradual increase from xiphoid (range, 0.14-0.64 cm) to umbilicus (range, 0.2-2.97 cm). Linea alba length in standing position was 51.09 ± 6.219 cm. Width was independent of the size of the horse; thickness and length were correlated at some reference points to height (r = 0.346-585, P < .05) and weight (r = 0.324-0.642, P < .05). Different LA shapes could be identified. In dorsal recumbency, the LA was smaller in width at all reference points (15%-23%, P < .05) and shorter (20%, P < .001) compared with standing. CONCLUSION: In addition to the wide variability in LA measurements and shapes between horses, there was a significant decrease in LA width and length when horses changed from standing to dorsal recumbency. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The difference in LA length and width between dorsal recumbency and when standing could increase tension on sutures after laparotomy and should be taken into account when surgeons are closing the abdomen.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Posição Ortostática
11.
Vet Surg ; 50(1): 53-61, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the innervation of the thyrohyoideus (TH) muscle and to confirm our findings with stimulation of first cervical (C1) nerve branches. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo phase 1 and clinical phase 2. ANIMALS: Fourteen head and neck specimens and 17 client-owned horses. METHODS: In phase 1, the cranial nerve (CN) XII and the C1 nerve were dissected with their branches in 20 dissections were performed on 14 specimens (6 left and right side and 8 only left or right) Anatomy was noted. Samples of nerve bifurcations were collected for histological confirmation of anatomical findings. First cervical nerve branches were stimulated in horses undergoing cervical nerve graft to treat laryngeal hemiplegia. RESULTS: The nerve innervating the TH muscle arose directly from the C1 nerve in 17 of 20 dissections, from an anastomotic branch between CN XII and the C1 nerve in two of 20 dissections, and from the C1 nerve and the anastomotic branch in one of 20 dissections. No direct connection between the TH muscle and CN XII was found. Histological examination revealed that the anastomosis was composed of C1 nerve fibers passing over to CN XII. First cervical stimulation resulted in TH muscle contraction in 16 of 17 horses. CONCLUSIONS: The innervation of the TH muscle originated from the C1 nerve according to dissection, histological, and conduction studies, with variation in the branching pattern. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Care should be taken to preserve the C1 nerve during prosthetic laryngoplasty. The surgical technique for C1 nerve grafts should be reconsidered in light of these findings, along with new options to treat dorsal displacement of the soft palate..


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Laringoplastia/veterinária , Músculos do Pescoço/inervação , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/veterinária , Animais , Cadáver , Feminino , Masculino , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia
12.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(4): 771-786, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805766

RESUMO

The elongated, distally tapered limbs of horses are adapted for high-speed locomotion. Because these traits are artificially selected for in modern racehorses, they operate at a morphological extreme with a high risk of fracture. Racehorses are subject to different training and racing regimes depending on their breed and gait, and are therefore an interesting model to examine bone functional adaptation under variable biomechanically intense conditions. This study compares bone structural properties in the third metacarpal (MCIII) of Thoroughbred (n = 9) and Quarter Horse (n = 11) racehorses, using feral Assateague Island ponies (n = 6) as an untrained/unraced outgroup, to determine whether structural properties reflect variable racing and training regimes. Geometric section properties and bone mineral densities were determined using peripheral quantitative CT at two diaphyseal sites and through the distal epiphysis. Diaphyseal strength of the MCIII in all three breeds does not differ relative to body size, but in the mid-diaphyseal region Thoroughbreds have higher antero-posterior relative to medio-lateral bending strength than Quarter Horses, as well as higher bone mineral densities in left MCIII epiphyses (particularly in the lateral condyle). Interestingly, all breeds have lower bone mineral densities in the lateral versus medial condyle, an inherent structural feature that may influence predisposition to fracture when running around turns. Our results suggest that despite subtle differences in bone structure between different racehorse breeds, basic morphology of the third metacarpus is relatively similar among racing and non-racing horses, possibly reflecting intense selection (natural and artificial) across domestic equids for similar structural features within distal limb elements.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ossos Metacarpais/fisiologia
13.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(1): 151-160, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901991

RESUMO

Despite many reported cases of carpal lameness associated with intercarpal ligament injuries in horses, the morphometry, movement pattern and general intrinsic biomechanics of the carpus are largely unknown. Using osteoligamentous preparation of the carpus prepared from 14 equine cadaver forelimbs (aged 9.62 ± 4.25 years), locomotory simulations of flexion and extension movements of the carpal joint were carried out to observed carpal biomechanics and, thereafter, the limbs were further dissected to obtain morphometric measurements of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MLC and LCL); medial and lateral palmar intercarpal ligaments (MPICL and LPICL); intercarpal ligaments between radial (Cr) and intermediate (Ci) carpal bones (Cr-Ci ICL); and intercarpal ligaments between Ci and ulnar (Cu) carpal bones (Ci-Cu ICL). The Cr, Ci, Cu and Ca are held together by a series of intercarpal ligaments and move in unison lateropalmarly during flexion, and mediodorsally during extension with a distinguishable proximo-distal sliding movement (gliding) of Cr and Ci against each other during movement. The mean length of MCL (108.82 ± 9.64 mm) was significantly longer (p = 0.042) than LCL (104.43 ± 7.65 mm). The Cr-Ci ICL has a dorsopalmar depth of 37.58 ± 4.14 mm and a midpoint width of 12.05 ± 3.09 mm and its fibres ran diagonally from the medial side of the Ci in a proximo-palmar disto-dorsal direction (i.e. palmarodistally) to the lateral side of the Cr. The specialized movement of the Cr-Ci ICL, which appeared to be further facilitated by a longer MCL suggest a biomechanical function by which carpal damage may be minimized in the equine carpus.


Assuntos
Carpo Animal/anatomia & histologia , Carpo Animal/fisiologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ligamentos Articulares/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos Articulares/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Ossos do Carpo/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Carpo/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
14.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(1): 76-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231352

RESUMO

Radiology can be a challenging subject for students and finding new techniques that help improve their understanding could have positive effects in their clinical practice. The purpose of this prospective experimental study was to implement the use of color-coded, three-dimensional-printed, handheld equine carpus models into a radiographic anatomy course and evaluate the impact objectively and subjectively using quizzes and student response surveys. A first-year veterinary class was randomly divided into two similarly sized groups (groups A and B) for an equine normal radiographic anatomy laboratory. Both groups experienced the same laboratory structure; however, each student in group B received a handheld three-dimensional-printed equine carpus. Both groups received a quiz at the end of their laboratory consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions related to the equine carpus. An anonymous survey regarding the laboratory was emailed to students after the laboratory. One week later, the same 10 questions in randomized order were administered via a pop-quiz. Students believed both quizzes would count toward their final course grade. There was no statistically significant difference in grades between groups on either quiz (P > .05). However, based on survey responses, group B students felt the carpus made the laboratory more enjoyable and improved their comprehension of the material, whereas group A students felt the carpus would have increased their enjoyment and improved their comprehension. The implementation of three-dimensional-printed anatomic models may be useful to enhance enjoyment and perceived comprehension of veterinary students; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest these models improve academic performance.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Carpo Animal/anatomia & histologia , Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Impressão Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(2): 218-224, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315284

RESUMO

Age of complete ossification of equine occipital condyles has not been published. Consequently, clinical significance of occipital condyle defects on radiographs or CT scans of young horses remains unknown. The goals of this single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study were to characterize incidental occipital condyle defects and to define the age of complete ossification. The margin of occipital condyles was classified as regular or with defect(s). Analyses were made on 121 horses, including 106 radiographic and 19 CT studies showing the occipital condyles of horses less than 5 years of age obtained over 6 years in a referral hospital. Neurological signs and outcome were not associated with occipital defects. Horses with regular occipital condyles on radiographs had a median age of 974 days (median interquartile range = 707) compared with 47 days (interquartile range = 106) in the defect group. The odds of finding radiographically regular occipital condyles were 2.6% higher for each additional day of age (P = .011, 95% CI, 0.6-4.7%). In the CT group, univariate analyses demonstrated a significant effect of age on the aspect of occipital condyles (P = .016). Horses with regular occipital condyles were older (median age = 881 days; interquartile range = 1054) than horses with a defect (median age = 109 days, interquartile range = 318). All horses above 156 days (5.1 months) of age and 550 days (18.1 months) of age had regular occipital condyles on radiographic and CT images, respectively. This study describes occipital condyle defects as a potential normal finding in young horses and provides guidelines for interpretation of the occipital condyle ossification process.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Osso Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Osso Occipital/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1344674

RESUMO

Surgical arthrodesis is effective for treating proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) injuries in horses. Despite several techniques described so far, the use of a 3-hole, 4.5mm-locking compression plate, associated with two 5.5-mm transarticular cortex screws, is currently considered the "gold standard." This review describes the anatomy of the pastern, as well as causes, indications, and possibilities for arthrodesis in the equine PIJ. A description of the current surgical technique for joint fixation is also presented.(AU)


A artrodese cirúrgica é efetiva para o tratamento de condições da articulação interfalangeana proximal (AIP) em equinos. Diversas técnicas são descritas, e o uso de uma placa de compressão bloqueada de três orifícios e 4,5 mm associada com dois parafusos corticais transarticulares de 5,5 mm é atualmente o padrão ouro. Esta revisão tem por objetivo descrever a anatomia da região da quartela, bem como as causas, indicações e possibilidades para a artrodese da AIP nos equinos. É apresentada também a descrição da técnica cirúrgica atualmente utilizada para realização da fixação da articulação.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Artrodese/classificação , Artrodese/métodos , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Claudicação Intermitente
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 62, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inbreeding is caused by mating between related individuals and is associated with reduced fitness and performance (inbreeding depression). Several studies have detected heterogeneity in inbreeding depression among founder individuals. Recently, a procedure was developed to predict hidden inbreeding depression load that is associated with founders using the Mendelian sampling of non-founders. The objectives of this study were to: (1) analyse the population structure and general inbreeding, and (2) test this recent approach for predicting hidden inbreeding depression load for four morphological traits and two morphology defects in the Pura Raza Española (PRE) horse breed. RESULTS: The regression coefficients that were calculated between trait performances and inbreeding coefficients demonstrated the existence of inbreeding depression. In total, 58,772,533 partial inbreeding coefficients (Fij) were estimated for the whole PRE population (328,706 horses). We selected the descendants of horses with a Fij ≥ 6.25% that contributed to at least four offspring and for which morphological traits were measured for the subsequent analysis of inbreeding depression load (639 horses). A pedigree was generated with the last five generations (5026 animals) used as the reference population (average inbreeding coefficient of 8.39% and average relatedness coefficient of 10.76%). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.08 (cresty neck) to 0.80 (height at withers), whereas inbreeding depression load ratios ranged from 0.01 (knock knee) to 0.40 (length of shoulder), for an inbreeding coefficient of 10%. Most of the correlations between additive and inbreeding depression load genetic values and correlations between inbreeding depression load genetic values for the different traits were positive or near 0. CONCLUSIONS: Although the average inbreeding depression loads presented negative values, a certain percentage of the animals showed neutral or even positive values. Thus, high levels of inbreeding do not always lead to a decrease in mean phenotypic value or an increase in morphological defects. Hence, individual inbreeding depression loads could be used as a tool to select the most appropriate breeding animals. The possibility of selecting horses that have a high genetic value and are more resistant to the deleterious effects of inbreeding should help improve selection outcomes.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Carga Genética , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Linhagem
19.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(3): 613-639, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067095

RESUMO

The anatomy of the equine paranasal sinuses is critical to understand to assess the extent of the disease process, the optimal surgical approach, and the ability to drain through the normal nasomaxillary pathway. By following established anatomic landmarks, direct sinus access can be used to further explore the sinus compartments, remove compromised cheek teeth, remove any purulent debris or feed contamination, and establish drainage. Many complications can be avoided or minimized by thoroughly evaluating all sinus compartments and critically assessing the ability of the sinus to drain.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/veterinária , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/veterinária , Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Animais , Endoscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/métodos , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Seios Paranasais/anatomia & histologia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Sinusite/veterinária
20.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(3): 659-669, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067097

RESUMO

The nasal conchal bullae (dorsal and ventral) are separate, air-filled structures within their respective dorsal and ventral nasal conchae. Computed tomography scans have assisted with the increasing diagnosis of empyema of the nasal conchae. This condition is usually associated with dental or sinus disease. Drainage of affected bullae is considered critical for resolution of clinical signs. The ventral conchal bullae can be easily viewed with a standard 10 mm diameter flexible endoscopy via the middle nasal meatus. This approach can also be used for fenestration of the bullae, using a diode laser, equine laryngeal forceps, or bipolar vessel sealing device.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/veterinária , Animais , Endoscopia/métodos , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/terapia , Seios Paranasais/anatomia & histologia , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/diagnóstico por imagem , Sinusite/terapia , Sinusite/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Conchas Nasais/anatomia & histologia , Conchas Nasais/diagnóstico por imagem
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