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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9432, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941828

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracies and the agreements of the 3D Endo software, conventional CBCT software Romexis Viewer at three voxel sizes, and the EAL ProPex Pixi in endodontic length measurements. Three hundred and twenty-nine root canals in 120 intact human extracted molars were accessed. The actual lengths (AL) and electronic lengths (EL) were measured using the ruler and electronic apex locator (EAL), respectively. Teeth were scanned using the CBCT at different voxel sizes (0.075, 0.10, and 0.15 mm). Root canal lengths were measured using 3D Endo with proposed length (3D-PL) by software, corrected length (3D-CL), Romexis Viewer. The Fisher's exact test, paired t-test and Bland-Altman plots were calculated to detect the agreements of the four methods with AL measurements. The ProPex Pixi measurements obtained the highest accuracy in the range of ± 0.5 mm. There was agreement between the 3D-PL and the 3D-CL with AL measurements at voxel size of 0.15 mm and at voxel size of 0.10 mm, respectively. The CBCT Romexis Viewer measurements agreed with AL at three voxel sizes. The conventional CBCT measurements using Romexis Viewer and dedicated software did not reach to the 100% accuracy in the range of ± 0.5 mm.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Odontometria/métodos , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/fisiologia , Endodontia/métodos , Humanos , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/fisiologia , Odontometria/instrumentação , Software , Ápice Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Ápice Dentário/fisiologia
2.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 9-19, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255416

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar y comparar la eficacia de diferentes técnicas de obturación para impedir el flujo de colorante a través de los conductos laterales. Materiales y métodos: Se emplearon 50 premolares inferiores extraídos y conservados en formol neutro al 5% hasta el momento de su uso, a los cuales se les realizaron conductos laterales artificiales. Una vez instrumentados los conductos principales, los dientes fueron divididos al azar en 5 grupos (n=10) para ser obturados con cuatro técnicas distintas: A) System B + inyección de gutapercha termoplástica del sistema Elements, Extruder; B) obturadores de Thermafil, ProTaper Universal; C) técnica híbrida y D) obturación con inyección de gutapercha termoplástica del sistema Elements, Extruder. Inmersos en tinta china y diafanizadas las raíces, se evaluó la longitud de penetración de la tinta en los conductos laterales. Se empleó el análisis de la varianza para detectar diferencias significativas (P<0,05) entre los niveles medios de penetración del colorante según las técnicas de obturación y las zonas del diente, y se efectuaron pruebas de rango múltiple (HSD de Tukey) para realizar comparaciones dos a dos, manteniendo fija la tasa de error por familia. Resultados: A la técnica B le correspondió el valor medio más bajo (30,63%) de penetración de tinta china. Los valores medios más elevados (54,52% y 51,74%) correspondieron a las técnicas A y C, respectivamente. Conclusión: Ninguna de las técnicas de obturación del conducto radicular empleadas ha sido capaz de impedir la filtración del colorante en los conductos laterales (AU)


Aim: To estimate and compare the different obturation techniques to avoid the flow of colorant through lateral canals. Materials and methods: 50 extracted lower premolars preserved in 5% neutral formol until the moment of use, had artificial lateral canals made. Once canals were instrumented, the teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10) to be filled with four different techniques: A) System B + injection of thermoplastic gutta-percha, Elements system, Extruder; B) Thermafil, ProTaper Universal obturators; C) hybrid technique, and D) injection of thermoplastic gutta-percha, Elements system, Extruder. Having immersed the premolars in India ink and diaphanized the roots, the penetration length of the India ink inside the canals was assessed. Analysis of variance was used to detect significant differences (P<0.05) between the mean levels of dye penetration according to the filling techniques and tooth areas, and multiple range tests (Tukey's HSD) were performed for two-to-two comparisons, keeping the error rate per family fixed. Results: Technique B had the lowest mean value (30.63%) of penetration. The highest mean values (54.52% and 51.74%) corresponded to techniques A and C, respectively. Conclusion: No obturation technique of the root canal used was able to avoid filtration of colourant in the lateral canals (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Infiltração Dentária/diagnóstico , Guta-Percha , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Transiluminação/métodos , Análise Estatística , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 93, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420202

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the root anatomy and root canal system morphology of mandibular first premolars in a Chilean population. 186 teeth were scanned using micro-computed tomography and reconstructed three-dimensionally. The root canal system morphology was classified using both Vertucci's and Ahmed's criteria. The radicular grooves were categorized using the ASUDAS system, and the presence of Tomes' anomalous root was associated with Ahmed's score. A single root canal was identified in 65.05% of teeth, being configuration type I according to Vertucci's criteria and code 1MP1 according to Ahmed's criteria. Radicular grooves were observed in 39.25% of teeth. The ASUDAS scores for radicular grooves were 60.75%, 13.98%, 12.36%, 10.22%, 2.15%, and 0.54%, from grade 0 to grade 5, respectively. The presence of Tomes' anomalous root was identified only in teeth with multiple root canals, and it was more frequently associated with code 1MP1-2 of Ahmed's criteria. The root canal system morphology of mandibular first premolars showed a wide range of anatomical variations in the Chilean population. Teeth with multiple root canals had a higher incidence of radicular grooves, which were closely related to more complex internal anatomy. Only teeth with multiple root canals presented Tomes' anomalous root.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Chile , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Adulto Jovem
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928758, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND We investigated the root canal curvature and morphology of maxillary posterior teeth in Guizhou, China, to provide references for clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected 274 maxillary posterior teeth in Guizhou Province, China. The root canal curvature was observed by X-ray film measurement. Two hundred teeth were selected to make transparent tooth models, and root canal configuration was recorded according to Vertucci classification criteria. The position of the MB2 root canal orifice and the mesiobuccal root canal configuration were observed by micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) scanning. The t test and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The root canals of the maxillary posterior teeth showed more significant curvature in the mesiodistal direction than in the buccolingual direction (P<0.05). The MB2 root canal of maxillary molars showed severe bending in the mesiodistal direction: 25.16±6.6 degrees and 28.05±8.65 degrees in first and second molars, respectively. The detection rate of MB2 was 48% in maxillary first molars and 32% in maxillary second molars. The results of micro-CT showed that the vertical distances between the MB2 and MB-P line were 0.64±0.34 mm and 0.57±0.28 mm in first and second molars, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The root canal morphology and curvature of maxillary posterior teeth varied greatly in the Guizhou population, which increases the difficulty of treatment. It is necessary for clinicians to gain understanding of the root canal and to improve the success rate of root canal therapy.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8862956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506045

RESUMO

Objectives: This study is aimed at investigating the root and root canal morphology by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and palatal furcation groove of the buccal root by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) of maxillary first premolars in a Chinese subpopulation. Methods: This study assessed CBCT images of 440 patients aged 14-80 years. Based on Vertucci's classification, the number of roots and the canal configuration were determined. Forty-eight maxillary first premolars with furcation grooves were analyzed by micro-CT in patients aged 18-25 years. Results: Based on the CBCT assay, 70.22% and 29.32% of maxillary first premolars were 1 root and 2 roots, respectively. The configuration indicated statistical difference (P < 0.05) between male and female patients. The most common canal type was type IV and was found in 44.32% of cases, followed by type I in 27.84%, and then type II in 20.57%. Root bifurcations had 40.13% prevalence which was distributed more in the middle third than in the cervical and the apical third. For the micro-CT study, 95.83% of the furcation groove configuration was found in the bifurcated maxillary first premolars. The length varied from 1.02 to 7.63 mm. The mean depth of this groove was 0.57 mm in the root coronal, 0.47 mm in the root middle, and 0.22 mm in the root apical level. Palatal dentin width was smaller than 1 mm. Conclusion: The anatomy of the root and root canal system and the irregular wall width of maxillary first premolars with furcation grooves may help dentists to understand the anatomical morphology and improve the outcomes of endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar , Cavidade Pulpar , Raiz Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1571-1576, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134480

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the clinical and radiographic examination (CRE) method compared to the examination with the dental operating microscope (DOM) on the detection of anatomical features of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary first molars. One hundred maxillary first molars were selected to assess the number of canals orifice entrances, accessibility, and ending of their mesiobuccal canals using the CRE method and the examination with the DOM. The diagnostic tests of the CRE exhibited, in general, high levels of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. However, low levels of these outcomes occurred, mainly, on the detection of the number of canals entrance orifices of the mesiobuccal root. The statistically significant differences (p<0.05) occurred for accessibility and ending of canals in 61 of the 62 cases (out of 100) when two of them were present: 2 accessible root canals (48 cases; 77.42 %), and 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible canals (13 cases; 20.97 %); 1 foramen after fusion (18 cases; 29.03 %), 2 foramens (30 cases; 48.39 %), and 1 foramen and 1 blind foramen (13 cases; 20.97 %). This study proves that the clinical and radiographic method (still the most commonly used worldwide) can't be trusted absolutely in situations of complex internal anatomy regarding the mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary first molars.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad del método de examen clínico y radiográfico (ECR) en comparación al examen con el microscopio quirúrgico dental (MQD) en la detección de características anatómicas de los canales mesiovestibulares en primeros molares maxilares.Se seleccionaron 100 primeros molares maxilares para evaluar el número de entradas de los canales, la accesibilidad y la terminación de sus canales mesiovestibulares utilizando el método ECR y el examen con el MQD.Las pruebas de diagnóstico del ECR exhibieron, en general, altos niveles de precisión, sensibilidad y especificidad. Sin embargo, también hubo niveles bajos de estos resultados, principalmente, en la detección del número de orificios de entrada a los canales de las raíces mesiovestibulares. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) para la accesibilidad y terminación de los canales en 61 de los 62 casos (del total de 100), cuando dos de ellos estaban presentes: 2 canales radiculares accesibles (48 casos, 77,42 %), y 1 accesible y 1 inaccesible (13 casos, 20,97 %). Después de la fusión, un orificio (18 casos, 29,03 %), 2 orificios (30 casos, 48,39 %) y 1 orificio más otro, ciego (13 casos, 20,97 %). Este estudio demuestra que no se puede confiar plenamente en el método clínico y radiográfico (todavía el más utilizado en todo el mundo), cuando existe una anatomía interna compleja de los canales de la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares superiores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Dentária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Maxila , Microscopia/métodos , Microcirurgia
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1266-1270, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134435

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The root canal system of the maxillary first premolar (MFP), present a high rate of variation, especially at apical level. This complicates the action of antiseptic solutions and endodontic instruments at this level. The object of this in vivo study was to analyse by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) the radicular and canalicular morphology of MFP in a Chilean sub-population. We carried out a cross sectional, descriptive and observational in vivo study with CBCT examinations of 70 MFP, both left and right. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean (M), standard deviation (SD), with a confidence interval of 95 %), and one-factor ANOVA was used to relate the sections observed. Tooth 1.4 presented one root in 64.86 % of cases and two roots in 35.15 %. Tooth 2.4 presented one root in 66.67 % of cases and two roots in 33.33 %. The frequency of one and two canals was observed to be 30 % and 70% respectively. The walls with the smallest cementodentinal thickness were the mesial (1.11±0.55) and distal (1.08±0.52). The thickest dentinal wall was the palatine (2.07±1.29), followed by the buccal (1.6±1.0). No statistical differences between males and females were found in the thickness of the root wall, nor in the location of the premolar in the maxilla (p>0.05). In conclusion, the root morphology of the MFP is highly variable. Care must be taken not to over-instrument the proximal walls to avoid perforations or fractures. CBCT has proved to be a useful and effective diagnostic tool for in vivo study of dental morphology.


RESUMEN: El sistema de canal radicular del primer premolar maxilar (MFP) presenta una alta tasa de variación, especialmente a nivel apical. Esto complica la acción de las soluciones antisépticas y los instrumentos endodónticos a este nivel. El objetivo de este estudio in vivo fue analizar mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) la morfología radicular y canalicular de la MFP en una subpoblación chilena. Realizamos un estudio transversal, descriptivo y observacional in vivo con exámenes CBCT de 70 MFP, tanto a la izquierda como a la derecha. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva (media (M), desviación estándar (DE), con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %) y se utilizó ANOVA de un factor para relacionar las secciones observadas. El diente 1.4 presentó una raíz en el 64,86% de los casos y dos raíces en el 35,15 %. El diente 2.4 presentó una raíz en el 66,67 % de los casos y dos raíces en el 33,33 %. Se observó que la frecuencia de uno y dos canales era del 30 % y 70%, respectivamente. Las paredes con el espesor cementodentinal más pequeño fueron mesial (1,11 ± 0,55) y distal (1,08 ± 0,52). La pared dentinaria más gruesa fue la palatina (2,07 ± 1,29), seguida de la vestibular (1,6 ± 1,0). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre machos y hembras en el grosor de la pared de la raíz, ni en la ubicación del premolar en el maxilar (p> 0,05). En conclusión, la morfología de la raíz de la MFP es muy variable. Se debe tener cuidado de no sobre-instrumentar las paredes proximales para evitar perforaciones o fracturas. CBCT ha demostrado ser una herramienta de diagnóstico útil y efectiva para el estudio in vivo de la morfología dental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Variância , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922794, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND To investigate variations in the anatomy of root canals in permanent second molars of the upper jaw in a population in Chongqing, China, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS CBCT imaging data of 400 second permanent molars of the upper jaws of 200 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' gender, age, numbers of roots and canals, root fusion of permanent second molars of the maxilla on both sides, and morphological categories of root canals of mesiobuccal roots were recorded. The distances from the apices of the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots to the buccal bone plate were measured. RESULTS Of the 400 permanent second maxillary molars, 312 (78.0%) had three roots and 247 (61.75%) had three canals. Fused roots were observed in 126 (31.5%) teeth; of these, 67 (53.2%) had three canals and 44 (34.9%) had two canals. Morphologically, 297 (74.25%), 29 (7.25%), nine (2.25%) and 65 (16.25%) teeth had type I, II, III, and IV mesiobuccal root canals, respectively, with 103 (25.75%) having secondary mesiobuccal canals. The distances from the apices of the mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and single buccal roots to the surface of the buccal osseous lamella were 7.34±1.89 mm, 6.26±1.74 mm, and 8.60±2.56 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The root form and canal shape of permanent second molars of the upper jaw varied greatly among the population of Chongqing, China. CBCT is a valuable method for assessing the complex anatomic morphology of teeth.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 224, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the middle mesial canal (MMC) and radix entomolaris (RE) in mandibular first permanent molars in a western Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: A total of 1174 CBCT images of the mandibular first molars were collected from West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University. The following information was recorded and evaluated: the detection rate and location of the MMC and RE, the curvature of the RE, the canal configuration and bilateral symmetry. RESULTS: The detection rates of the MMC and RE were 3.41 and 25.04%, respectively, as calculated by individuals, and 1.79 and 22.15%, respectively, as calculated by total teeth. The average curvature in the buccolingual (BL) orientation (40.63 ± 14.39°) was significantly larger than that in the mesiodistal (MD) orientation (17.64 ± 7.82°) (p < 0.05). Of 587 patients, 71.72% (421/587) had bilateral symmetry according to the root canal morphology. The prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars was higher in males than in females, while the prevalence of two-rooted mandibular first molars was higher in females than in males. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the RE could be detected in almost 1/4 of the western Chinese population; thus, RE detection requires special attention and careful assessment in endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Mandíbula , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578799

RESUMO

This study presents an overview of the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with micro-computed tomography (µCT) in the assessment of root canal morphology of extracted human permanent teeth. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, Opengrey, Scielo and Virtual Health Library was conducted which compared root canal morphology of extracted human permanent teeth on the accuracy of CBCT with µCT. In accordance with PRISMA statement guidelines, data were extracted on study characteristics, target mediators, sampling and assay techniques and the parameters associated with obtaining the image and ability to identify the root canal morphology. Amongst 2734 records, ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the accuracy of CBCT and µCT in the assessment of root canal morphology using Vertucci's classification, with at least one CBCT group or subgroup of each study presented high agreement compared to the µCT. Six studies assessed more detailed root canal morphology, including two articles that found a lack of agreement between these imaging systems. Risk of bias was deemed low in three studies, moderate in four and high in three. CBCT can be as accurate as µCT in the assessment of several morphological features of extracted human permanent teeth; however there are some exceptions related to the more detailed morphological aspects. Voxel size likely influences the ability to detect these features, though the different aspects of exposure setting used in studies components may be confounding factors. CBCT may be considered for the assessment of root canal morphology ex-vivo.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Humanos , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374813

RESUMO

To compare the shaping ability of different single-file systems in the preparation of mesial curved canals of mandibular molars using micro-CT technology. Fifteen mesial roots of mandibular molars with two independent and curved canals (n = 30) were selected, scanned at a resolution of 26.7 µm anatomically matched, and distributed into three groups (n = 10), according to the preparation system: WaveOne 25.08, Reciproc 25.08, and OneShape 25.06. A final micro-CT scanning was performed, data sets were registered with their respective counterparts, and compared regarding the three-dimensional (volume, surface area, and structure model index - SMI) and two-dimensional (perimeter, area, roundness, major and minor diameters) parameters, as well as, canal transportation, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (α = 5%). Overall, no difference was observed between groups regarding area, perimeter, volume, surface area, and canal transportation (p > 0.05). Within group, no canal transportation was significantly higherobserved in the apical third (0.10 ± 0.05 mm) compared to coronal (0.08±0.040 mm) and middle (0.07 ± 0.03 mm) thirds (p < 0.05). Structure model index (SMI) was statistically higher after preparation with OneShape instrument (0.36 ± 0.26) compared to other systems (p < 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, similar shaping ability was observed in the preparation of mesial curved root canals of mandibular molars with Reciproc, OneShape and WaveOne systems.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Análise de Variância , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
12.
Curr Med Imaging ; 16(3): 224-230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are a few studies about the evaluation of maxillary first premolars internal structure with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The aim of this study was to assess morphological features of the pulp chamber in maxillary first premolar teeth using micro- CT. METHODS: Extracted 15 maxillary first premolar teeth were selected from the patients who were in different age groups. The distance between the pulp orifices, the diameter of the pulp and the width of the pulp chamber floor were measured on the micro-CT images with the slice thickness of 13.6 µm. The number of root canal orifices and the presence of isthmus were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean diameter of orifices was 0.73 mm on the buccal side while it was 0.61 mm on palatinal side. The mean distance between pulp orifices was 2.84 mm. The mean angle between pulp orifices was -21.53°. The mean height of pulp orifices on the buccal side was 4.32 mm while the mean height of pulp orifices on the palatinal side was 3.56 mm. The most observed shape of root canal orifices was flattened ribbon. No isthmus was found in specimens. CONCLUSION: Minor anatomical structures can be evaluated in more detail with micro-CT. The observation of the pulp cavity was analyzed using micro-CT.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Maxila , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(3)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169975

RESUMO

Mandibular incisors show variations in their root canal anatomy from regular pattern in some cases. Magnification plays a vital role to identify those unusual canal morphologies. A certain modification in access cavity preparation is required to locate those extra canals. Not only the functional restoration but also aesthetic harmony should be restored while treating anterior teeth. In these cases, post space preparation should be done with extra care to prevent vertical root fracture. This case report illustrates the importance of proper radiograph and magnification in the successful identification and management of complex canal systems in mandibular incisors.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/uso terapêutico , Resinas Compostas/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Incisivo/lesões , Poliuretanos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas dos Dentes/diagnóstico por imagem , Coroas/normas , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Estética , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Traumatismos Mandibulares/complicações , Radiografia/métodos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Fraturas dos Dentes/terapia , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(3): 437-441, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of working length measurement with endomotor having builtin apex locator by comparing it with periapical radiographs. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Operative Dentistry, Dr Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January to June 2014, and comprised permanent maxillary anterior teeth with mature apices. A preoperative radiograph was taken by using standardised paralleling technique. The access cavity was prepared by a high speed water-cooled diamond bur. After doing initial filing and drying the canal, the working length was taken with an endomotor with built-in apex locator in dual mode using the Protaper Rotary File S1. The length was measured using a millimeter scale. After attaining tentative working length from the pre-operative radiograph, 1mm was subtracted from the radiographic apex. A stainless steel K-file was placed in the canal at this length and a radiograph was taken by paralleling technique using intraoral film holder. The electronic and radiographic findings were noted. Accuracy was considered positive if the endomotor reading was 0-2mm short of the radiographic working length. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. RESULTS: Of the 96 cases, working length with X-Smart Dual was acceptable in 85(88.5%) cases, and unacceptable in 11(11.5%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: Accuracy of working length measurement with endomotor having built-in apex locator was found to be a better measuring tool compared to the conventional periapical radiographs.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Odontometria/métodos , Radiografia Dentária , Ápice Dentário , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Radiografia Dentária/métodos , Radiografia Dentária/normas , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ápice Dentário/cirurgia
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(2): 232-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031099

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the prevalence, correlation, and differences of C-shaped canal morphology in mandibular premolars and molars by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 1433 mandibular premolars and molars CBCT scans from the Saudi population were evaluated. Axial sections of the roots were acquired at coronal, middle, and apical levels to evaluate C-shaped canals types. The prevalence, correlation, differences of C-shaped canals, bilateral/unilateral presence, gender differences, and location of external grooves on roots were assessed. Results: The prevalence of C-shaped canals in the first premolars was 1.5%, 0.80% in second premolars and 7.9% in second molars, whereas C-shaped canals were absent in first molars. No correlation was found between the presence of C-shaped canals within premolars and molars and between the two groups in the same individual. Both premolars and molars exhibited different types of C-shaped canals, C2 being predominant in premolars and C3 in second molars. Longitudinal external grooves were mostly located on mesiolingual (ML) surface in premolars and lingual in molars. Females showed more prevalence of C-shaped canals in second molars and no differences in premolars. Bilateral symmetry and unilateral presence in premolars and second molars were not significant. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of C-shaped canals is significantly higher in mandibular second molars, they are also found in mandibular premolars but in small percentages. No significant differences were found between both genders and both sides. Since they exhibit unpredictable morphology and differences across the root length, the use of small field CBCT is recommended when such anatomy is presented in a tooth indicated for root canal treatment for better management.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Sexuais , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 43, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the danger zone anatomy in mesial roots (MRs) of mandibular first molars (MFMs) may serve to decrease the risk of mishaps. This study aimed to measure the minimal distal dentine thicknesses of danger zone in MRs of MFMs in a native Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: CBCT images of 1792 MFMs from 898 Chinese patients were analyzed. The minimal distal dentine thicknesses of the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals below the furcation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm were measured. The association between the minimal distal dentine thicknesses and the root lengths, patient's age and gender, side were assessed. RESULTS: The minimal distal dentine thicknesses of MB and ML canals are located 3 ∼ 4 mm below the furcation for both men and women. There are no differences between MB and ML canals, while the minimal distal dentine thicknesses of MB and ML canals were higher in men than women (P < 0.05), except at 1 and 3 mm of ML canals (P > 0.05). The minimal distal dentine thicknesses of MB and ML canals increased with age in both men and women at each location (P < 0.05). The minimum distal dentine thickness at every location were significantly different between long teeth and short teeth both in men and women (P < 0.05), with short teeth having the smallest mean values. There are no significant differences between two sides (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The minimal distal dentine thicknesses of MRs in MSMs have close correlation with root length, patient's age and gender.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Dentina/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 38, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of newly developed TruNatomy instruments (TRN) in single and double (S-shaped) curvature canals with HyFlex CM (HCM), Vortex Blue (VB) and RaCe (RC) instruments. METHODS: Size 20/.04 taper and size 25/0.04 of HCM, VB and RC were used. For TRN instruments, size 20/.04 taper (small) and size 26/.04 taper (prime) were used. The instruments were tested in artificial canals with double curvature (coronal curve; 60° curvature, 5 mm radius and apical curve; 70° curvature and 2 mm radius) and single curvature (60° curvature, 5 mm radius). The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was recorded. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. Weibull analysis was performed on NCF data. Statistical significant was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: TRN and HCM revealed higher NCF compared with the other instruments for both tested sizes in single and double curvature canals (p < 0.05). TRN and HCM showed no statistically significant difference in the NCF (p > 0.05). The probability of survival was higher for HCM and TRN instruments than VB and RC instruments. CONCLUSIONS: HCM and TRN instruments were more resistant to cyclic fatigue than VB and RC instruments in single and double curvature canals. HCM and TRN instruments were anticipated to survive with higher number of cycles than the other tested instruments. RC instrument had the lowest fatigue resistance than the other instruments.


Assuntos
Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Níquel , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Titânio , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
18.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between tooth size and root canal morphology by using CBCT analysis. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, tooth anatomic lengths (crown and root lengths, buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions) of 384 patients were assessed and correlated with Vertucci's root canal morphology classification. Data was analyzed for gender-related differences using the independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and the Pearson's correlation for a possible relation between anatomic lengths and canal morphology. RESULTS: The maxillary first and second premolars showed a greater predilection for Type IV and II variants, respectively, while the mandibular first premolar showed a greater predilection for Type II canal system. The root canal system of the mandibular second premolar showed maximal diversity (47% Type I, 30% Type II, and 20% Type III). The dimensions were greater in men regardless of tooth type. The most significant relation (p<0.05) between the anatomic size and canal morphology was observed in the maxillary first premolars, followed by the mandibular canines (buccolingual dimension) and the lower second premolars (crown length). Negative correlations existed between the crown length and the patient's age for the anterior teeth and mandibular second premolar (r=-0.2, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The most common canal formation for anterior teeth was the Type I. The anatomic lengths had the strongest influence on the canal configuration of the maxillary first premolar, with Type IV being the most common root canal system. The mandibular second premolars showed maximal diversity in the canal classification terms and had a significant correlation with their crown lengths. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The complex relationship between the canal morphology and anatomic tooth sizes need meticulous awareness and recognition during endodontic procedures, in conjunction with the demographic variabilities.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odontometria/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Estados Unidos
19.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (µCT). METHODOLOGY: 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by µCT with a resolution of 26.70 µm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). RESULTS: According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: µCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This µCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Ápice Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 79-83, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929211

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantity of apically extruded debris after canal shaping with three single-file systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars were divided into three experimental groups according to the used file systems-WaveOne Gold, RECIPROC Blue, and HyFlex EDM One file. Debris extruded during canal shaping were collected in preweighed vials. Each canal was irrigated with 5 mL of distilled water via a 30 G side-vented needle. The amount of the debris extruded from each canal was calculated by subtracting the preinstrumentation from postinstrumentation measurement. The preparation times were recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and posthoc Tukey tests with α = 0.05. Results: WaveOne Gold extruded the least amount of debris. Results between WaveOne Gold and HyFlex EDM were significantly different. No significant differences in canal shaping time were detected among the three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: WaveOne Gold showed the best results regarding apical debris extrusion. Difference between WaveOne Gold and HyFlex EDM suggests that file design and motion kinematics affect the quantity of debris extrusion.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/cirurgia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Ápice Dentário/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos
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