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1.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573147

RESUMO

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 µm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and ß-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Própole/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Própole/química
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 117-124, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920614

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different irrigation protocols to remove from the walls of the root canal and entrance to dentinal tubules the smear layer produced during preparation for a fiber post. Fifty decoronated human lower premolars were treated endodontically and the apical third of the canal was filled with a single gutta-percha point using warm vertical compaction. Ten millimeters were left free for post preparation, which was done by sequential use of a Largo #1 drill and Exacto #3 pilot drill (Angelus, Brazil), with irrigation with distilled water upon each instrument change. Samples were distributed randomly into 5 groups (n=10). G 1: No irrigation after post preparation. G 2: Distilled water activated for 60 s + distilled water. G 3: 5.25% NaOCl 15 s+ distilled water. G 4: 17% EDTA (Farmadental, Argentina) 60 s + 5.25% NaOCl 15 s + distilled water. G 5: 10% polyacrylic acid (Densell) 15 s + distilled water. Irrigant was activated mechanically with a low-speed conical brush. Roots were then split longitudinally in vestibular-lingual direction. Each surface was observed under SEM in its different thirds. Microphotographs were taken at 150X and 600X magnification and results analyzed statistically using Kruskall Wallis and Friedman tests (p<0.05). The results [mean (standard deviation)] were: for 150X: G1 11.00 (1.33), G2 7.50 (3.13), G3 6.30 (2.58), G4 2.20 (2.80), G5 4.30 (1.50), and for 600X G1 11.40 (0.84), G2 10.00 (1.94), G3 7.70 (3.33), G4 5.80 (3.70), G5 7.20 (2.65). The statistical analysis showed significant differences between irrigants (p<0.05) but not between root thirds (p>0.05). The EDTA+NaOCl combination and polyacrylic acid showed greater capacity to remove the smear layer created during post preparation.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Camada de Esfregaço
3.
Rev. ADM ; 77(4): 185-190, jul.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129479

RESUMO

En la terapia endodóncica uno de los principales objetivos es eliminar y prevenir la infección o reinfección del sistema de conductos radiculares y/o los tejidos perirradiculares. Los materiales de obturación utilizados podrían introducir microorganismos a este sistema previamente desinfectado e impedir el éxito del tratamiento. Diversos estudios han demostrado que los conos de gutapercha pueden estar contaminados al ser tomados directamente del empaque, aún sellado y recién abierto. Objetivo: Comparación del grado de desinfección de tres marcas diferentes de puntas de gutapercha. Material y métodos: Es un estudio experimental, comparativo, observacional y de corte transversal. En el cual se analizarán tres marcas diferentes de gutaperchas #35 (Maillefer, Hygienic y Meta-Biomed) para saber qué desinfección hay con el hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) al 5.25%. Se llevó a cabo el análisis descriptivo para determinar medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión mediante la prueba estadística de ANOVA p ≤ 0.05. Conclusión: De acuerdo con los resultados de nuestro estudio no se encontró diferencia significativa sobre la marca de gutapercha y el grado de descontaminación después de un minuto de ser sumergidas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5.25% (AU)


In endodontic therapy one of the main objectives is to eliminate and prevent infection or reinfection of the root canal system and/or periradicular tissues. The sealing materials used could introduce microorganisms to this previously disinfected system and impede the success of the treatment. Several studies have shown that gutta-percha cones can be contaminated by being taken directly from the package, still sealed and newly opened. Objective: Comparison of the degree of disinfection of 3 different brands of gutta-percha points. Material and methods: It is an experimental, comparative, observational and cross-sectional study. Where 3 different brands of gutta percha # 35 (Maillefer, Hygienic and Meta-Biomed) will be analyzed to know what disinfection there is with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 5.25%. The descriptive analysis was carried out to determine measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion through the statistical test of ANOVA p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of our study there is no significant difference on the gutta-percha brand and its decontamination at the moment of being submerged in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (AU)


Assuntos
Hipoclorito de Sódio , Desinfecção , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Ácido Hipocloroso
4.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(6): 1385-1392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056078

RESUMO

In clinical dentistry, the strength of bonding zirconia posts to root canal dentinal walls currently needs enhancement, and laser application can be an important contribution owing to its features that accommodate adjustable modifications on dental materials. Herein, the effect of different laser treatments applied to dentin surfaces on the strength of bonding zirconia posts to root canal dentinal walls is evaluated by using the pull-out bond strength test in a laboratory setting. A total of 40 single-rooted permanent mandibular premolar teeth that were freshly extracted were used here. The root canal preparation steps were performed using the crown-down technique. Custom-made zirconia posts were produced using CAD/CAM technology. Prior to the application of resin cement, the internal surfaces of the root canals were irradiated using Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and KTP lasers. Pull-out tests were performed on each specimen by using a universal testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were used to compare the pull-out bond strength data. The bond strengths of the laser-treated specimens were greater than those of the untreated controls (p < 0.05). While the value of the pull-out bond strength after Nd:YAG laser treatment was significantly higher than the values obtained after the applications of the Er:YAG and KTP lasers (p < 0.05), the pull-out bond strength after Er:YAG laser treatment was considerably greater than that after KTP laser treatment (p < 0.05). The bond strength between the root canal dentin and the CAD/CAM custom-made zirconia post was improved upon using all the laser modalities in current laboratory settings, among which, application of the Nd:YAG laser was the most successful.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Zircônio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Cimentos de Resina/química
5.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(5): 321-326, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909679

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the wall adaptation and apical microleakage values following the application of various irrigation protocols in primary teeth.Material and methods: For the two parts of the study, extracted upper incisor primary teeth were randomly included to the 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)+1% NaOCl, 6% citric acid (CA)+1% NaOCl and 0.9% physiological saline (PS) groups. Canal wall adaptation and apical microleakage were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereomicroscope, respectively.Results: 6% CA + 1% NaOCl group was found to be the most successful irrigation protocol in providing strong canal wall adaptation and less apical microleakage, followed by 10% EDTA +1% NaOCl. 6% CA +1% NaOCl was significantly superior regarding apical microleakage (p < .05).Conclusions: Due to the ability to provide appropriate changes in the root canal walls to make a well-adapted and leak-proof canal filling, 6% CA + 1% NaOCl can be recommended as an irrigation protocol in primary teeth.


Assuntos
Infiltração Dentária , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Camada de Esfregaço , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 354-361, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789473

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of irrigating solutions and intracanal dressings in the pretreatment of bovine radicular dentin, using an experimental immature tooth model. Eighty healthy bovine teeth, simulated with incomplete rhizogenesis, were randomly distributed according to the protocols of root canal dentin pretreatment for a regenerative endodontic procedure (n = 10): Control (irrigation with distilled water); SH (irrigation with 1.5% Sodium Hypochlorite); EDTA (irrigation with 17% EDTA); SH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + 17% EDTA); SH/CH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + calcium hydroxide paste +17% EDTA); SH/MTAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + modified triple antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%); SH/TAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + triple antibiotic paste +17% EDTA) and SH/DAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + double antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%). After the completion of the protocol, the demineralization, the exposure of collagen fibers, and the dentin erosion was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by applying a score system (1-3) to classify the observed features. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests-p < .05). SH/TAP/EDTA and SH/DAP/EDTA groups presented the highest rates of demineralization in both the coronal and middle thirds of the root (p < .05). In the SH/MTAP/EDTA group, the samples presented moderate demineralization. The samples from the SH/CH/EDTA group presented similar findings to the control group (p < .05). Conventional triple antibiotic (TAP) and double antibiotic (DAP) pastes promoted more pronounced morphological changes on the dentin surface.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endodontia Regenerativa , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bovinos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753393

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize glycolic acid (GA) and examine its effects on powder and flexural strength of dentin. Particle size and energy-dispersive EDS in GA powder was performed for chemical analysis. Surface tension and pH levels of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and GA solutions were evaluated at different times and temperatures. Dentin powder and mineralized dentin beams were immersed for 1 min in EDTA, CA, or GA solutions and subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for apatite/collagen ratio analysis and 3-point flexure test, respectively. GA showed the largest particle size (µm), and its surface tension was similar to that of EDTA and CA. Surface tension decreased in solutions of higher concentrations. GA showed pH stability at all times and temperatures evaluated. The apatite/collagen ratio reduced with increased GA concentrations, while flexural strength was not significantly affected by GA concentration. GA seems a good choice as a final irrigation solution after root canal preparation.


Assuntos
Dentina/química , Glicolatos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Edético/química , Resistência à Flexão , Glicolatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Desnaturação Proteica , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tensão Superficial , Temperatura
8.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 375-380, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833180

RESUMO

The aim was to assess the effects of 1% peracetic acid (PAA) as a single endodontic irrigant on microhardness, roughness, and erosion of root canal dentin, compared with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and with 2.5% NaOCl combined with 17% EDTA. Forty human, single-rooted tooth hemisections were submitted to Knoop microhardness test, before and after the following irrigation protocols: PAA = 1% PAA; NaOCl = 2.5% NaOCl; NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl = 2.5% NaOCl +17% EDTA +2.5% NaOCl; and SS = saline. Another 40 roots were instrumented, irrigated with the same protocols, and sectioned longitudinally. The roughness analysis was performed on the mesial section using a confocal laser scanning microscope, whereas erosion was analyzed on each third of the distal section, using a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-tests (α = .05). The PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups showed no significant differences (p > .05); both promoted reduction in microhardness and increase in roughness, compared with the NaOCl and SS groups (p < .05). NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl promoted higher erosion in the cervical and middle thirds than the other groups (p < .05); there was no difference among PAA, NaOCl, and SS (p > .05). There was also no difference among the groups regarding the apical third (p > .05). PAA used as a single endodontic irrigant caused reduction in root canal dentin microhardness and increase in roughness in a similar way to NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl; however, PAA caused less erosion than NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Dentina/patologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Erosão Dentária , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 370-374, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829476

RESUMO

The present micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) study compared the presence of voids in the band-shaped isthmuses obturated by warm vertical compaction (WVC) and single-cone (SC) techniques. Twenty mesial roots from mandibular first molar teeth showing a band-shaped isthmus were selected and assigned into two groups based on their preoperative anatomical dimensions (n = 10), according to the filling technique: WVC or SC. Post-filling micro-CT scanning was performed. The percentage volume of root canal filling materials and voids were calculated and data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test with a significance level of 5 and 95% confidence interval. Mean percentage volumes of filling materials and voids were 86.88 ± 8.53 and 13.11 ± 8.53 for the WVC group, 84.39 ± 8.30 and 15.60 ± 8.30 for the SC group, respectively, with no significant difference between them (p > .05). Neither WVC nor SC produced void-free root canal fillings in the band-shaped isthmuses and both techniques resulted in a similar quality of root canal filling.


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha/farmacologia , Humanos , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1654-1661, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793470

RESUMO

Background: Incomplete eradication of plaque bacteria from the plaque retentive sites and the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance led the scientific community to explore new antimicrobial strategies for improved results and shun antibiotic resistance. Objective: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a novel light based therapy and to assess the susceptibility of oral plaque bacteria to light based technologies with and without photosensitizers. Materials and Methods: Four oral plaque bacterial strains were isolated from the dental plaque sample collected from the patients and exposed to various light based technologies and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with and without photosensitizers. The cultures were analysed for viable colony forming unit (CFU) counts. One-way analysis of variance was used to statistically analyse differences and the Student-Newman-Keuls method to perform multiple comparison procedures. Results: All groups showed remarkable reduction in the CFUs as compared to control group with use of light based technologies and PDT in this study. The difference of antimicrobial effect between all tested groups either with light based technologies and PDT with control group showed significant reduction in CFUs. Conclusions: From the results of this study, we concluded that light based technologies and PDT could be a valuable alternative therapy to mechanical debridement in the prevention of growth and recolonisation of oral plaque bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/terapia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Titânio
11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 265-272, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sterilization of the root canal system is of prime importance for a successful root canal therapy. Lasers and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have become the latest choice to eradicate microorganisms in the root canal. OBJECTIVE(S): To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of diode laser, photodynamic therapy, and sodium hypochlorite along with their combinations on endodontic pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: A total of 120 uniradicular teeth were stored in 5.2% NaOCl solution to remove organic residues and the crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to obtain root canal length of 15 mm. Canals were shaped using step-back technique up to #40 K-file and were autoclaved. The selected teeth (specimen) were randomly divided into two equal groups with sixty teeth being inoculated with E. faecalis (Group E) and remaining sixty teeth with S. mutans (Group S). Further, the groups were subdivided according to the disinfection technique used. Ten teeth from each subgroup were disinfected with a diode laser, photo activated disinfection (PAD), sodium hypochlorite, a combination of sodium hypochlorite and diode laser, a combination of sodium hypochlorite and photo activated disinfection respectively. Ten teeth in each group served as control without any disinfection. The treated specimens were transferred to test tubes containing 5 ml sterile Luria Bertani broth, incubated and the bacterial count, optical density in each root specimen was calculated and compared. The pairwise comparison of colonies across the subgroups was done by the Kruskal-Wallis test and within the subgroups was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test. The statistical implication was tested at 5% and the study was performed using SPSS 18.0 ver. (SPSS Inc.). RESULTS: A significant reduction (98%) in the E. faecalis count was observed when the NaOCl was used in combination with the diode laser or PAD. PAD along with 3% NaOCl presents the advantage of utilizing a lower wavelength laser beam. Hence, PAD in combination with NaOCl can be an alternative and better option for root canal disinfection for both the endodontic pathogens, E. faecalis and S. mutans.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lasers Semicondutores , Streptococcus mutans
12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 286-291, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limitations of conventional chemo-mechanic therapy in endodontic have given rise to introduce and develop photoactivated disinfection (PAD) as an adjunctive treatment. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effects of PAD using C-Phycocyanin, as a natural photosensitizer, on biological activities and expression of quorum-sensing system gene fsrB of Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 52 extracted single-rooted human premolar teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10) and were incubated with E. faecalis for biofilm formation, and they were treated according to following groups; A. C-PC only; B. Diode laser only (at wavelengths of 635 nm); C. PAD (C-PC plus diode laser); and D. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). E. Control group (not treatment). Two remaining teeth were used to confirm E. faecalis biofilm formation in the root canal system by scanning electron microscopic. The effects of each treatment were measured on viability and expression level of fsrB gene of E. faecalis using microbial cell viability and quantitative real-time PCR assays, respectively. Additionally, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe. RESULTS: The C-PC alone and C-PC-PAD reduced the culture viability of E. faecalis by 38.1% and 89.45%, respectively (both; P < 0.05). According to the Bonferroni post hoc test, a significant difference in the reduction of E. faecalis count was observed between C-PC-PAD and other groups (P < 0.05), except the NaOCl group (P > 0.05). As well as, photoexcited C-PC in PAD could increase (3.8- fold) the intracellular ROS production in E. faecalis compared to the control group (P < 0.05). C-PC-PAD at sub-significant inhibitory concentration and NaOCl at sub-lethal dose could significantly decrease the expression levels of fsrB by 10.8- and 11.4-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support that C-PC alone and C-PC-PAD can serve as a potent irrigation solution and a disinfection method, respectively for microbial reduction and promising adjunct therapy in endodontic infection treatment against E. faecalis with clinical applications for infection control in endodontics.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Ficocianina/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dente Pré-Molar , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lasers Semicondutores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1311-1319, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endodontic treatment is one of the most widely performed procedures in a dental office. New techniques for enhancing the effectiveness of irrigants are being introduced into the dental market. It is crucial to choose a proper method to obtain the highest possible long-term success of performed endodontic treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) appears to be one of the most common and profitable solutions for root canal irrigation. The activation of a solution may be analyzed in 2 fields, physical - turbulence of flow, and chemical - disintegration of irrigant molecules into very active radicals that improve its activity. While the physical alternations of irrigant flow with different techniques are widely studied, there are not many attempts to approach the subject in chemical terms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the chemical effectiveness of 2 methods of NaOCl activation: ultrasonics vs the Self-Adjusting File system (SAF) as an adjunct to increase the efficacy of the irrigant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The level of activation was evaluated via a reaction of the activated NaOCl samples, with 9-fluorenol as the starting organic material. The model reaction is based on the oxidation of 9-fluorenol to 9-fluorenon. The evaluation was performed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, comparing the spectra obtained for the examined mixtures. RESULTS: Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that the use of ultrasonics resulted in increased chemical degradation of NaOCl as compared to the SAF system and non-agitated samples. The prevalence of chemical activation in the ultrasonic group over the SAF group was almost 3 times higher, 3.11 to 1.20, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test revealed there is a statistically significant difference in distributions between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both SAF and ultrasonics activate NaOCl. Ultrasonic agitation provided higher chemical activation of NaOCl solution than the SAF. The use of ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl in endodontic treatment will allow us to obtain better long-term clinical results.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química
14.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(12): 1975-1981, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444946

RESUMO

The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract (TFGSE) as a root canal irrigation agent on the surface of instrumented root canals and on changes in the mineral contents of the root dentin. A total of 90 extracted human mature maxillary central incisor teeth with a single root and without root resorption were selected. The specimens were subdivided into five groups according to irrigation protocol groups G0: distilled water (n = 15): G1: Sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl); G2: 1% TFGSE G3: NaOCl +17% EDTA (3 min); G4: NaOCl+1% TFGSE; G5: 1% TFGSE +17% EDTA. All the roots were sectioned longitudinally into two halves and examined under scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) to assess changes in the mineral content of the tooth. Smear layer removal from root canals was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The most effective irrigation protocols in removing smear layer occurred with TFGSE and NaOCl, both with rinsing with 17% EDTA. TFGSE was more effective than NaOCl for removing the smear layer. The results showed the ability of 1% TFGSE to remove the smear layer from the root canals. TFGSE is a promising alternative irrigation agent for root canals.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Trigonella/química , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Humanos , Incisivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Sementes/química , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e057, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365704

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA) as a single irrigant on the smear layer, on the intraradicular dentinal bond strength, and on the penetrability of an epoxy-based resin sealer into the dentinal tubules. A total of 120 roots were distributed into 4 groups according to the irrigant used in root canal preparation: 1% PAA (PAA); 2.5% NaOCl followed by final irrigation with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl); 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl); and saline solution (SS). The smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The bond strength of an epoxy-based resin sealer (AH Plus) to root dentin was evaluated by the push-out test and penetrability of the sealer into dentinal tubules was observed by confocal laser microscopy. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-test (α = 0.05). The use of 1% PAA as single root canal irrigant provided smear layer removal and improved the penetrability and bond strength of AH Plus to root dentin in a manner similar to that of the NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl group (p > 0.05). The NaOCl and SS groups had higher values of smear layer and lower values of sealer penetrability and dentin bond strength than the PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). Thus, 1% PAA has the potential to be used as a single irrigant in root canals.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resinas Epóxi/química , Ácido Peracético/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Camada de Esfregaço/química , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/química , Dentina/química , Ácido Edético/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 396-401, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301436

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on postoperative pain after treatments of teeth with necrotic pulps. This randomized clinical trial consisted of 60 patients who presented for treatment of asymptomatic teeth. The patients were randomly assigned into the Control Group (CG) or the PDT Group (PG). The canals were instrumented with a reciprocating instrument (50.05) under 2.5% NaOCL irrigation. After instrumentation was completed, the canals were flooded with 1.56 µM/mL of methylene blue (MB), the optical fiber was inserted to the working length and applied for 3 min (P =100 mW, t =3 min, E = 18 J). The device emitted PDT only for the PG. The operator and the patient were both masked to the treatment protocol. After PDT, the root canal treatment was completed and the canals were filled. A card was given to the patients to document their pain perception through the 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) at 24 h, 72 h, and 1-week intervals. The Mann-Whitney and Fisher´s exact tests were used for statistical analysis (P < .05). The average pain level for the CG was 1.33 at 24 -hs and 0.50 at 72 -hs; for the PG, the average pain level was 0.37 at 24 -h and 0 at 72 -h (P < .05). After 1-week there was no report of pain. PDT had a significant effect in decreasing postoperative pain at 24- and 72 -h intervals in treatment of single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulps performed in one visit.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
17.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(9): 1535-1541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187914

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the smear layer removal capacity of various etidronate treatments. Seventy-eight roots were instrumented up to apical size X4 and randomly divided into five treatment groups and a positive control group (n = 13). Groups were as follows: irrigation with 5 ml of sterile saline (control) for 3 min, 5 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 3 min, 5 ml of 9% A1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) for 3 min, 5 ml of 18% HEBP for 3 min, irrigation with 5 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + 9% HEBP for 3 min, and 5 ml of 2% NaOCl + 18% HEBP for 3 min. The roots were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The smear layer scores in the 2% NaOCl + 18% HEBP group were lower than those in the other treatment groups and the control group (p < .05). There were no significant differences among the treatment groups in the smear layer scores of the coronal and middle thirds. However, the smear layer scores in the 2% NaOCl + 18% HEBP treatment group were lower those in the 9% HEBP and 18% HEBP treatment groups in the apical third (p < .05). In the clinical setting, the recommended concentration of HEBP is 18%, and it should be used with an oxidizing agent to ensure optimum smear layer removal.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Ácido Etidrônico/administração & dosagem , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Camada de Esfregaço/ultraestrutura , Dente Pré-Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Pré-Molar/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia
18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(9): 1529-1534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184801

RESUMO

Electrochemical dissolution is a method in which fluoridated solution in direct contact with the fractured instrument receives an electrical current that speeds up fragment dissolution. The aim of this study was to assess the integrity of dentinal walls during the electrochemical dissolution of fractured rotary endodontic instruments in extracted human teeth. Forty-five human mandibular incisors subjected to the electrochemical dissolution process using fluoride solution with low NaCl concentration (LC group: NaF 12 g/L + NaCl 1 g/L, pH = 5.0), fluoride solution with saturating NaCl concentration (SC group: NaF 12 g/L + NaCl 180 g/L, pH = 5.0) and distilled water (control group) were evaluated. For each group, 15 incisors were submitted for the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation. The roots were sectioned longitudinally; each hemisection was analyzed (n = 30), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed. The amount of dentinal tubule openings was analyzed by SEM. Statistical analyses were performed. The test solutions did not alter the amount of dentinal tubule openings when compared with the control group. No Ni or Ti was impregnated into the dentinal tubules after electrochemical techniques. The dentinal structure remained unchanged following the electrochemical dissolution method.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Falha de Equipamento , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligas/isolamento & purificação , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Dentina/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Espectrometria por Raios X
19.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180700, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alternatives for the treatment of caries disease, such as minimally invasive approaches, have been developed in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To carry out clinical and radiographic evaluations of three cavity liners after selective caries removal. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-six primary molars with deep occlusal caries lesions without pulp involvement (from children of both genders, aged between 5 and 8 years) were randomly divided into the following groups: calcium hydroxide cement (CHC) group; mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) group and Portland cement with added zirconium oxide (PCZ) group. The following-up period was 6- and 12-month. The clinical and radiographic success rates were evaluated through chi-square test. The radiographic measurements were compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included, but thirty-four returned for 12-month follow-up. The overall success rate of the therapy for the three groups was 94.11% and no statistically significant differences occurred in the comparison among groups (p>0.05). Nineteen radiographs were selected to measure the dentin barrier thickness. The intragroup comparison presented a statistically significant increase of the dentin barrier for all groups, at 12-month follow-up. However, the MTA group showed increase of the dentin barrier, over time, 6- to 12-month follow-up. The intergroup comparison revealed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical and radiographic data showed that all cavity liners provided effective treatment of primary teeth after selective caries removal.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Hidróxido de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Forramento da Cavidade Dentária/métodos , Óxidos/uso terapêutico , Silicatos/uso terapêutico , Zircônio/uso terapêutico , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cimentos Dentários/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia Dentária , Fatores de Tempo , Dente Decíduo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180420, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to compare the efficacy of irrigants using various irrigation activation methods to the push-out bond strengths of fiber post to root canal luted with self-adhesive resin cement (SARC). METHODOLOGY: Forty-eight decoronated human canines were used. The specimens were divided into four groups corresponding with the post-space irrigation process and were treated as follows: distilled water (DW) (Control) group received 15 mL of DW; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)+ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW; passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW, and each irrigant was agitated with an ultrasonic file; and laser activated irrigation (LAI) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW, and each irrigant was irradiated with Nd: YAG laser. Fiber posts were luted with SARC, and a push-out test was performed. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. RESULTS: The bond strength values for the groups obtained were as follows: Control (10.04 MPa), NaOCl+EDTA (11.07 MPa), PUI (11.85 MPa), and LAI (11.63 MPa). No statistically significant differences were found among all experimental groups (p>0.05). The coronal (12.66 MPa) and middle (11.63 MPa) root regions indicated a significantly higher bond strength compared with the apical (9.16 MPa) region (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Irrigant activation methods did not increase the bond strength of fiber post to canal.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/efeitos da radiação , Autocura de Resinas Dentárias/métodos , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Análise de Variância , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Ácido Edético/química , Ácido Edético/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Hipoclorito de Sódio/efeitos da radiação , Propriedades de Superfície
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