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1.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573147

RESUMO

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 µm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and ß-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Própole/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Própole/química
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1188-1193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913155

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with and without NaOCl solution. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation and sterilization, the samples were inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hours. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 25) was irradiated with 2 W laser, group 2 (n = 25) was irradiated with 0.75 W laser in combination with 2.5% NaOCl, group 3 (n = 25) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group 4 (n = 6) was not treated. Statistical analysis was performed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Results: The combination of 0.75 W laser with 2.5% NaOCl regime was found to be just as effective at inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis and sterilization of all root canals as 5% NaOCl irrigation (P > 0.001). The 2 W laser had significant bactericidal effect in infected root canals however it did not eradicate all bacteria. The SEM observations were in accordance with the microbiologic findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory study, NaOCl irrigation improved the antimicrobial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. When the toxic effects of high percentage of NaOCl was considered, the combination of low-powered laser and low concentration of NaOCl can be used as an effective disinfection method in root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Escândio , Ítrio
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1151-1168, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840477

RESUMO

Introduction. Enterococcus faecalis is a facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen associated with medical and dental diseases. Bacterial phenotypic traits and pathogenesis are often influenced by lysogeny.Aim. The aim of this study was to characterize both the morphology and complete genome sequences of induced prophages purified from E. faecalis clinical isolates.Methodology. E. faecalis isolates were recovered from the roots of teeth of patients attending an endodontic clinic. The morphological features of isolated phage were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform.Results. TEM indicated that the isolated φEf-vB1 prophage belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The φEf-vB1 prophage was stable over a wide range of temperatures and pH. Sequencing of φEf-vB1 DNA revealed that the phage genome is 37 561 bp in length with a G+C content of 37.6mol% and contained 53 ORFs. Comparison with previously predicted prophage genomes using blast revealed that φEf-vB1 has a high sequence similarity to previously characterized phage genomes. The lysogenic E. faecalis strain exhibited a higher biofilm formation capacity relative to the non-lysogenic strain.Conclusion. The current findings highlight the role of lysogeny in modification of E. faecalis properties and reveal the potential importance of prophages in E. faecalis biology and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Prófagos/fisiologia , Siphoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lisogenia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Periodontite , Prófagos/classificação , Prófagos/genética , Prófagos/isolamento & purificação , Siphoviridae/classificação , Siphoviridae/genética , Siphoviridae/fisiologia
4.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 46-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121108

RESUMO

Objetivos: Comparar ex vivo la eficacia del instrumento XP-endo Finisher y del sistema EndoActivator en la reducción/eliminación del biofilm microbiano en conductos radiculares infectados. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 23 premolares inferiores humanos extraídos cuya longitud fue estandarizada en 17 mm. Todos los conductos se prepararon con el sistema WaveOne Gold Medium (#35.06). Los dientes se esterilizaron, se inocularon con Enterococcus faecalis y se separaron en dos grupos experimentales de 10 piezas cada uno. De los 3 dientes remanentes, 1 fue utilizado como control positivo y 2, como controles negativos. En el grupo 1, las soluciones irrigantes se agitaron con XP-endo Finisher. En el grupo 2, se utilizó EndoActivator. Se tomaron muestras antes de la contaminación, luego de esta y después de la agitación de los irrigantes mediante conos de papel estériles. La carga microbiana fue sembrada en agar sangre y los conos se cultivaron en caldo tripteína de soja. La remoción de la carga microbiana se determinó por la presencia o ausencia de turbiedad del medio. Las unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) remanentes se cuantificaron y los resultados se categorizaron como R1 (≤10 UFC) o R2 (>10 UFC). Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba de Fisher. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre XP-endo Finisher y EndoActivator (P>0,05). El número de usos no influyó sobre la capacidad operativa de ambos instrumentos (AU)


Aim: To compare ex vivo the effectiveness of the XP-endo Finisher and the EndoActivator in biofilm reduction/ removal from infected root canals. Materials and methods: Twenty three extracted human single-rooted lower premolars were selected and standardised to 17 mm in length. All the canals were prepared with WaveOne Gold Medium reciprocating files (#35.06). The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The infected teeth were then assigned to 2 experimental groups of 10 teeth each according to the final irrigation/agitation protocol. Of the three remaining teeth, one was used as a positive control, and the other two were used as negative controls. In Group 1 the irrigating solutions were agitated with XP-endo Finisher while in Group 2 the EndoActivator was used. All root canals were sampled before and after contamination, and again after irrigant agitation with sterile paper points. The microbial load was spread on blood agar plates and the paper points were cultured in sterile trypticase soy broth. The removal of the microbial load was determined by visual observation of the turbidity of the media and by quantification of the number of colony-forming units (UFC). The results were categorized as R1 (≤10 UFC) or R2 (>10 UFC). Data were analysed by the Fisher's exact test at P<0.05. Results: No significant differences was found between XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator (P>0.05) regarding their effectiveness in the reduction/removal of the microbial biofilm. The number of uses of both instruments did not affect their operative performance (AU) Conclusion: XPF and EA were both equally effective for microbial biofilm reduction/removal from ex vivo infected root canals (AU)


Assuntos
Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Equipamentos Odontológicos de Alta Rotação , Biofilmes , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Eficácia , Análise Estatística , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3921-3936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581537

RESUMO

Background: Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (MCSNs) have good prospects in the medical field due to their great physicochemical characteristics, antibacterial activity and drug delivery capacity. This study was to analyze the antibiofilm activity and mechanisms of silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) incorporated MCSNs (Ag/Zn-MCSNs) with different percentages of Ag and Zn. Methods: Ag/Zn(1:9, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs were prepared and characterized. Endocytosis of nanoparticles by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) treated with Ag/Zn-MCSNs was observed using TEM to explore the antibacterial mechanisms. The antibiofilm activity of Ag/Zn-MCSNs with different ratios of Ag and Zn was tested by E. faecalis biofilm model in human roots. The human roots pretreated by different Ag/Zn-MCSNs were cultured with E. faecalis. Then, SEM and CLSM were used to observe the survival of E. faecalis on the root canal wall. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was tested by CCK8 kits. Results: The Ag/Zn-MCSNs release Ag+ and destroy the cell membranes to kill bacteria. The MCSNs containing Ag showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in different degrees, and they can adhere to dentin surfaces to get a continuous antibacterial effect. However, MTA, MCSNs and Zn-MCSNs could not disrupt the bacterial biofilms obviously. MCSNs, Ag/Zn(1:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(1:9)-MCSNs showed no obvious cytotoxicity, while Ag-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1)-MCSNs showed cytotoxicity. Zn-MCSNs can slightly promote cell proliferation. Conclusion: Ag/Zn-MCSNs have good antibiofilm activity. They might achieve an appropriate balance between the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity by adjusting the ratio of Ag and Zn. Ag/Zn-MCSNs are expected to be a new type of root canal disinfectant or sealer for root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Prata/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Silicatos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia
6.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401938

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/análise , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/microbiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/patologia , Dinoprostona/análise , Expressão Gênica , Leucotrieno B4/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Periodontite Periapical/metabolismo , Periodontite Periapical/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 88, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smear layer removal has been shown to reduce bacterial penetration through root canal obturations when resin-based endodontic sealer is used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test this effect when a non-resin-based sealer is used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty root segments were assigned to the following groups: Smear layer removed (n = 8); smear layer retained (n = 8); negative controls (n = 10; 5 with smear layer, 5 without); and positive controls (n = 4; 2 with smear layer, 2 without). After rotary instrumentation, smear layers were removed in the treatment group and half of controls using 17% ethylenediamenetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior to obturation. Each obturated root was affixed into a dual-chamber leakage model employing Streptococcus mutans. Roots were incubated at 37 °C for 120 d. Days until lower chamber turbidity occurred was recorded for each sample, and data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis (p = 0.05). RESULTS: No negative controls leaked, while all positive controls were turbid within 1 day. Mean days to leakage for roots with smear layer intact was 82.75 (+/- 33.29, 95% CI), although three never leaked. Mean days to leakage through roots with smear layer removed was 46.25 (+/- 26.67, 95% CI), and all leaked. Treatment survival curves were significantly different (p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions and limitations of this study, retaining the smear layer reduced the rate of bacterial penetration through canals which had been obturated using zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) -based sealer.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infiltração Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Obturação do Canal Radicular/métodos , Camada de Esfregaço , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Eugenol , Guta-Percha , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Óxido de Zinco
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. METHODOLOGY: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). CONCLUSION: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Sondas de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Irrigação Terapêutica/instrumentação , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111730, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness, biosafety, photobleaching and mechanism of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using methylene blue (MB) plus potassium iodide (KI), for root canal infections. METHODS: Different combinations and concentrations of MB, KI and 660 nm LED light were used against E. faecalis in planktonic and in biofilm states by colony-forming unit (CFU), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were used for safety testing by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and fluorescence microscopy (FLM). The photobleaching effect and mechanisms were analyzed. RESULTS: KI could not only enhance MB aPDT on E. faecalis in both planktonic and biofilm states even in a hypoxic environment, but also produced a long-lasting bactericidal effect after end of the illumination. KI could accelerate photobleaching to reduce tooth staining by MB, and the mixture was harmless for HGFs. Mechanistic studies showed the generation of hydrogen peroxide and free iodine, and iodine radicals may be formed in hypoxia. CONCLUSION: aPDT with MB plus KI could be used for root canal disinfection and clinical studies are worth pursuing.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Iodeto de Potássio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Iodo/metabolismo , Luz , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fotodegradação/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(1): 131-138, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529305

RESUMO

To identify the prevalence of C. albicans in primary endodontic infections of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and compare their clinical and radiographical characteristics with a non-diabetic control group, establishing the possible relationship between primary endodontic infection, T2DM, and C. albicans, since diabetes mellitus (DM), influences the development, course, and response to the treatment of apical periodontitis, but the presence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has not been considered before. A total of 120 patients were selected and divided into two groups: 60 T2DM diagnosed patients and 60 non-diabetic controls. A clinical examination and radiographic analysis were performed to establish a periapical index score (PAI). Root canal samples were taken. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted, and specific primers were used to identify C. albicans by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A twofold increase in the prevalence of C. albicans in T2DM patients was observed in contrast to control patients (p = 0.0251). Sixty-five percent of T2DM patients with positive C. albicans scored a ≥ 3 PAI, while only 27% of the patients without C. albicans had a ≥ 3 PAI score (p = 0.0065). Long-term DM patients presented C. albicans more frequently (p < 0.0001). In this study, long-term T2DM patients carried C. albicans in their root canals more frequently when having a primary endodontic infection. Furthermore, this C. albicans presence seems to be related to a higher frequency of apical periodontitis.


Assuntos
Candidíase/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Pulpite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite Periapical/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Pulpite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 448-456, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114920

RESUMO

Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic multiresistance and the acquisition of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be one of the main pathogens in persistent endodontic infections, therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotype and resistance genotype of strains of E. faecalis isolated from teeth with persistent endodontic lesions, to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry. Thirteen strains of E. faecalis of different pulsotype were analyzed to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using the Epsilometer test (E- test) and the presence of beta-lactamases with nitrocefin test. Finally, the detection of ARG was performed with a molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and confirmed by the sequencing of the amplification products. Fisher's exact test was used, using 95 % confidence. Regarding the phenotype of resistance, the evaluated strains, independent of the pulsotype, were totally resistant to the action of metronidazole. Antibiotics with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after metronidazole include tetracycline and erythromycin. In contrast, lower MIC are applied to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. The nitrocefin test was positive only in one strain. Genotypically, two genetically distant strains isolated from a single patient, presented a genotype of resistance to erythromycin, determined by the presence of the ermB gene. No statistically significant relationship was found between phenotypic resistance and the presence of ARG in relation to erythromycin (p> 0.05). It was concluded that isolates of E. faecalis from persistent endodontic infections showed phenotypes of resistance to several antimicrobial agents, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Periodic evaluation of susceptibility to antibiotics is suggested as an important practice for the surveillance of antibiotic resistance in oral strains.


Los enterococos son importantes patógenos nosocomiales debido a su multi resistencia intrínseca y la adquisición de nuevos genes de resistencia a los antibióticos (ARG). Enterococcus faecalis es uno de los principales patógenos en infecciones endodónticas persistentes, por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar el fenotipo y el genotipo de resistencia de cepas de E. faecalis aisladas de dientes con lesiones endodóncicas persistentes, a los antibióticos comúnmente recetados en odontología. Se analizaron 13 cepas de E. faecalis de diferentes pulsotipos para evaluar la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos, amoxicilina, amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico, tetraciclina, eritromicina y metronidazol, utilizando la prueba de Epsilometría (E-test) y la presencia de beta-lactamasas con prueba de nitrocefina. Finalmente, la detección de ARG se realizó con una técnica molecular de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y se confirmó mediante la secuenciación de los productos de amplificación. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, con un 95 % de confianza. En cuanto al fenotipo de resistencia, las cepas evaluadas, independientes del pulsotipo, fueron totalmente resistentes a la acción del metronidazol. Los antibióticos con los valores más altos de concentración mínima inibitoria (CMI) después del metronidazol incluyen tetraciclina y eritromicina. En contraste, las CMI mas bajas se aplican a la combinación de amoxicilina con ácido clavulánico. La prueba de nitrocefina fue positiva solo en una cepa. Genotípicamente, dos cepas distantes genéticamente, aisladas de un mismo paciente fueron positivas para el gen ermB. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la resistencia fenotípica y la presencia de ARG en relación con la eritromicina (p> 0,05). Se concluyó que los aislamientos de E. faecalis de infecciones endodónticas persistentes mostraron fenotipos de resistencia a varios agentes antimicrobianos, todos los cuales fueron susceptibles a amoxicilina / ácido clavulánico. Se sugiere una evaluación periódica de la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos como una práctica importante para la vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos en las cepas orales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Tetraciclina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Eritromicina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ácido Clavulânico/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Metronidazol
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1056594

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Sondas de DNA , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Variância , Resultado do Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Carga Bacteriana , Irrigação Terapêutica/instrumentação , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1090785

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Sondas de DNA , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Variância , Resultado do Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Carga Bacteriana , Irrigação Terapêutica/instrumentação , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1654-1661, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793470

RESUMO

Background: Incomplete eradication of plaque bacteria from the plaque retentive sites and the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance led the scientific community to explore new antimicrobial strategies for improved results and shun antibiotic resistance. Objective: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a novel light based therapy and to assess the susceptibility of oral plaque bacteria to light based technologies with and without photosensitizers. Materials and Methods: Four oral plaque bacterial strains were isolated from the dental plaque sample collected from the patients and exposed to various light based technologies and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with and without photosensitizers. The cultures were analysed for viable colony forming unit (CFU) counts. One-way analysis of variance was used to statistically analyse differences and the Student-Newman-Keuls method to perform multiple comparison procedures. Results: All groups showed remarkable reduction in the CFUs as compared to control group with use of light based technologies and PDT in this study. The difference of antimicrobial effect between all tested groups either with light based technologies and PDT with control group showed significant reduction in CFUs. Conclusions: From the results of this study, we concluded that light based technologies and PDT could be a valuable alternative therapy to mechanical debridement in the prevention of growth and recolonisation of oral plaque bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/terapia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Titânio
15.
J Dent ; 91: 103231, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the anti-biofilm efficacy of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), 1018 and DJK-5, in disrupting canal wall biofilms in the isthmus, canal and dentinal tubules of single-rooted maxillary premolars. METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis single-species biofilms were formed in-situ in the root canal system of the premolars (n = 91). Confocal laser scanning microscopy, bacterial sampling, colony-forming unit counting, XTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay and phenol-sulphuric acid method were used to identify the anti-biofilm efficacy of both AMPs and their influence on bacterial metabolic activity. RESULTS: Both AMPs disrupted in-situ E. faecalis biofilms and altered their metabolic activity. At 20 µg/mL, the d-enantiomeric AMP DJK-5 killed 55.5 %, 57.3 % and 55.8 % of biofilm bacteria in the isthmus, canal and dentinal tubules, respectively, in 1 min. In contrast, the l-enantiomeric AMP 1018 only eradicated 25.6 %, 25.5 % and 27.5 % of biofilm bacteria in the isthmus, canal and dentinal tubules, respectively, within the same time. Anti-biofilm efficacy of the root canal irrigants tested were in the order: 6 % NaOCl > 20 µg/mL DJK-5 > 10 µg/mL DJK-5 > 20 µg/mL 1018 > 10 µg/mL 1018 > 0.9 % NaCl. CONCLUSIONS: The present results are confirmatory of previous studies, in that d-enantiomeric AMPs exhibit more potent antibacterial properties than l-enantiomeric AMPs against E. faecalis biofilms within the canal space. Nevertheless, the potency of both AMPs are concentration-dependent. Incorporation of these agents into EDTA, a non-antibacterial calcium-chelating irrigant for removal of the inorganic component of the canal space debris, does not reduce the efficacy of either AMP. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides the proof of concept that incorporation of an antimicrobial peptide into a calcium-chelating root canal irrigant enhances the disinfection of intratubular single-species biofilms during smear layer and smear plug removal.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Cálcio , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 265-272, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sterilization of the root canal system is of prime importance for a successful root canal therapy. Lasers and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have become the latest choice to eradicate microorganisms in the root canal. OBJECTIVE(S): To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of diode laser, photodynamic therapy, and sodium hypochlorite along with their combinations on endodontic pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: A total of 120 uniradicular teeth were stored in 5.2% NaOCl solution to remove organic residues and the crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to obtain root canal length of 15 mm. Canals were shaped using step-back technique up to #40 K-file and were autoclaved. The selected teeth (specimen) were randomly divided into two equal groups with sixty teeth being inoculated with E. faecalis (Group E) and remaining sixty teeth with S. mutans (Group S). Further, the groups were subdivided according to the disinfection technique used. Ten teeth from each subgroup were disinfected with a diode laser, photo activated disinfection (PAD), sodium hypochlorite, a combination of sodium hypochlorite and diode laser, a combination of sodium hypochlorite and photo activated disinfection respectively. Ten teeth in each group served as control without any disinfection. The treated specimens were transferred to test tubes containing 5 ml sterile Luria Bertani broth, incubated and the bacterial count, optical density in each root specimen was calculated and compared. The pairwise comparison of colonies across the subgroups was done by the Kruskal-Wallis test and within the subgroups was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test. The statistical implication was tested at 5% and the study was performed using SPSS 18.0 ver. (SPSS Inc.). RESULTS: A significant reduction (98%) in the E. faecalis count was observed when the NaOCl was used in combination with the diode laser or PAD. PAD along with 3% NaOCl presents the advantage of utilizing a lower wavelength laser beam. Hence, PAD in combination with NaOCl can be an alternative and better option for root canal disinfection for both the endodontic pathogens, E. faecalis and S. mutans.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lasers Semicondutores , Streptococcus mutans
17.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 286-291, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limitations of conventional chemo-mechanic therapy in endodontic have given rise to introduce and develop photoactivated disinfection (PAD) as an adjunctive treatment. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effects of PAD using C-Phycocyanin, as a natural photosensitizer, on biological activities and expression of quorum-sensing system gene fsrB of Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 52 extracted single-rooted human premolar teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10) and were incubated with E. faecalis for biofilm formation, and they were treated according to following groups; A. C-PC only; B. Diode laser only (at wavelengths of 635 nm); C. PAD (C-PC plus diode laser); and D. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). E. Control group (not treatment). Two remaining teeth were used to confirm E. faecalis biofilm formation in the root canal system by scanning electron microscopic. The effects of each treatment were measured on viability and expression level of fsrB gene of E. faecalis using microbial cell viability and quantitative real-time PCR assays, respectively. Additionally, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe. RESULTS: The C-PC alone and C-PC-PAD reduced the culture viability of E. faecalis by 38.1% and 89.45%, respectively (both; P < 0.05). According to the Bonferroni post hoc test, a significant difference in the reduction of E. faecalis count was observed between C-PC-PAD and other groups (P < 0.05), except the NaOCl group (P > 0.05). As well as, photoexcited C-PC in PAD could increase (3.8- fold) the intracellular ROS production in E. faecalis compared to the control group (P < 0.05). C-PC-PAD at sub-significant inhibitory concentration and NaOCl at sub-lethal dose could significantly decrease the expression levels of fsrB by 10.8- and 11.4-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support that C-PC alone and C-PC-PAD can serve as a potent irrigation solution and a disinfection method, respectively for microbial reduction and promising adjunct therapy in endodontic infection treatment against E. faecalis with clinical applications for infection control in endodontics.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Ficocianina/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dente Pré-Molar , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lasers Semicondutores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e021, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508722

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p>0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p < 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p < 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p < 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Humanos , Incisivo , Teste de Materiais , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508729

RESUMO

This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Endotoxinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180699, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). METHODOLOGY: E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. RESULTS: CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/farmacologia , Desoxirribonucleases/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
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