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1.
J Endod ; 48(5): 572-596, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Culture-independent molecular studies have shown a broad spectrum of bacterial taxa that persist after chemomechanical procedures (CMP). Therefore, this study systematically reviewed these reports to explore the prevalence of bacteria in post-instrumentation samples of root canals from permanent teeth, especially of as-yet-uncultivated/difficult-to-culture bacteria. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from 2007 to January 2021. Clinical studies using culture-independent molecular methods to identify species-level taxa before and after CMP were included. Studies were critically appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal Checklist and the funnel plot analysis. The meta-analysis was performed on the prevalence of as-yet-uncultivated/difficult-to-culture bacterial taxa using RStudio. RESULTS: A total of 3781 titles were screened, but only 20 studies were included. The most frequent species in post-instrumentation samples were Streptococcus spp., Leptotrichia buccalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Capnocytophaga ochracea. The detection frequency of some species increased after CMP, including mainly Firmicutes members such as streptococci, Enterococcus faecium, Selenomonas noxia, and Solobacterium moorei. The prevalence (confidence interval) of difficult-to-culture species was as follows: Dialister invisus, 17% (7%-29%); Solobacterium moorei, 14% (8%-23%); Bacteroidaceae [G-1] bacterium HMT 272, 13% (5%-23%); and Filifactor alocis, 11% (3%-23%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of as-yet-uncultivated/difficult-to-culture bacterial taxa in post-instrumentation samples was low. The persistent species belonged mainly to the phylum Firmicutes, and streptococci were the major members. Future larger clinical studies on the composition of the whole bacterial community that persist after CMP are still necessary for a better understanding of bacterial interactions and their clinical significance in the treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Periodontite Periapical , Bactérias , Citidina Monofosfato , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Firmicutes , Humanos , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Prevalência , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos
2.
Int Endod J ; 55 Suppl 2: 330-345, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100452

RESUMO

In order to ensure predictable decontamination of the root canal system, chemo-mechanical preparation of the root canal space is sometimes supplemented with the use of intracanal medication. As microbial control of the root canal space is fundamental to the resolution of apical periodontitis, root canal disinfection strategies haven been researched intensively. The use of intracanal medication as a supplementary step to the chemo-mechanical preparation of the root canal space is one of them. Because of the costs and limitations of clinical research it is relevant and common practice to first evaluate alternative or new root canal disinfection modalities in laboratory studies. This involves the simulation of a root canal infection in a laboratory model, on which different disinfection strategies can be tested. When modelling the infected root canal, different levels of infection can be discriminated: suspended bacteria, microbial biofilms and infected dentine. This review describes the experimental models associated with these infection levels and critically appraises their value and methodological details. Suggestions for relevant research methods and experimental models are given, as well as some good practices for laboratory-based microbiological studies.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Hidróxido de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos
3.
J Endod ; 48(4): 479-486, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asepsis in endodontics aims to control all potential sources of infection. Inadvertent introduction of bacteria into the root canal system may occur when the aseptic chain is breached during treatment. Therefore, measures are taken to prevent such microbial access and establish an aseptic environment. This study aimed to assess potential bacterial contamination and the potential risk of iatrogenic introduction from 7 sites comprising surfaces, instruments, and files acquired during the treatment of 30 vital, pulpitic teeth. METHODS: Bacterial samples were collected from access burs, files, endodontic rulers, rubber dam surfaces, gloves, and instruments. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bacterial types were determined using next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: High frequencies of contamination and microbial numbers were encountered in all sample types examined.Thirty-eight percent of the initial files introduced into the root canal had significant levels of bacteria at the point of obturation, including endodontic pathogens. Around half of the rubber dam surfaces were contaminated with substantial bacterial loads at the time of obturation, and bacteria were also detected in 20%-30% of gloves, instruments, and rulers before obturation. Next-generation sequencing revealed the predominant oral or endodontic origin of these contaminants, with the following genera identified: Streptococcus, Rothia, Granulicatella, Cutibacterium, Corynebacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Fusobacterium. Together, these findings highlight the potential risk of reintroducing endodontically relevant bacteria during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Gloves, rubber dams, instruments, and files acquire bacterial contamination during treatment at high frequencies and loads. This highlights the potential risk of iatrogenic contamination at the clinically vulnerable point of canal obturation. Measures to address these may improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Diques de Borracha
4.
J Endod ; 48(4): 487-495, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced DNA sequencing technology allows more detailed analysis and description of the endodontic microbiome. This study used the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA) to describe the endodontic microbiome of teeth with primary asymptomatic apical periodontitis with no sinus tract. METHODS: Root canal samples from 25 patients were prepared for DNA sequencing analysis. Bacterial diversity of the microbiome was identified and compared between cases and according to the size of the related apical periodontitis lesions. Statistical analyses of the operational taxonomic unit distribution was performed using principal component analysis with the Bray-Curtis distance and a principal coordinate analysis, 2-way permutational multivariate analysis of variance. The chi-square or Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the prevalence of different operational taxonomic units related to small and large apical periodontitis lesions. RESULTS: Although there was a very high bacterial diversity in the microbiome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, 4 phyla dominated the microbiome: Firmicutes (27%), Bacteroidetes (21%), Proteobacteria (21%), and Actinobacteria (12%). There was high variability in species composition between root canal samples with no common species pattern for the cases. Large lesions showed a higher number of species but did not significantly differ from small lesions in bacterial diversity indexes. Bacteroidaceae [G-1] bacterium HMT 272, a previously uncultivated but still unnamed and uncharacterized taxon, was the most prevalent and abundant phylotype. CONCLUSIONS: High-throughput sequencing technology confirmed the complexity of the endodontic microbiome and revealed that microbial heterogeneity is a feature between cases. This indicates that various microbial combinations of the endodontic microbiome are able to illicit periapical inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Periodontite Periapical , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Int Endod J ; 55 Suppl 1: 46-71, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714548

RESUMO

Endodontic microbiology deals with the study of the microbial aetiology and pathogenesis of pulpal and periradicular inflammatory diseases. Research in endodontic microbiology started almost 130 years ago and since then has mostly focussed on establishing and confirming the infectious aetiology of apical periodontitis, identifying the microbial species associated with the different types of endodontic infections and determining the efficacy of treatment procedures in eradicating or controlling infection. Diverse analytical methods have been used over the years, each one with their own advantages and limitations. In this review, the main features and applications of the most used technologies are discussed, and advice is provided to improve study designs in order to properly address the scientific questions and avoid setbacks that can compromise the results. Finally, areas of future research are described.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Periodontite Periapical , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Periodontite Periapical/terapia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos
6.
Aust Endod J ; 48(1): 91-97, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310795

RESUMO

The aim was to assess the effect of XP-endo Finisher (XPF) on multispecies biofilm removal, in comparison with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and conventional syringe irrigation (CSI), by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifty mandibular first premolars were instrumented, longitudinally sectioned. The split halves were incubated for 4 days with a broth obtained from three bacteria strains: Enterococcus faecalis, Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus anginosus. Subsequently, the re-approximated split halves were irrigated with 4% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or water using CSI, and the final irrigation protocols were CSI with 4% NaOCl (CSI+4%NaOCl), PUI+4%NaOCl, XPF+4%NaOCl and CSI+water. The analysis of biofilm removal was performed using SEM images. There were no differences between PUI and XPF (P > 0.05), and both groups promoted higher biofilm removal than CSI+4%NaOCl and CSI+water groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded the multispecies biofilm removal was significantly improved using XPF and PUI when compared to CSI.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Biofilmes , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Ultrassom , Água
7.
J Periodontal Res ; 57(2): 341-356, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the microbiomes, the levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]), before and after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) of the root canals (RC) and their associated periodontal pockets (PP) in teeth with combined EPL. MATERIALS: Samples were taken from 10 RC and PP, before and after CMP. The microbiomes (next-generation sequencing, V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene), microbiome diversity (bioinformatics analyses), LPS (limulus amebocyte lysate), LTA, IL-1ß, and TNF-α (ELISA) were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The most abundant phyla in both sites were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Comparative studies of bacterial genera species revealed that some increased and others decreased after CMP at both sites. A 3% reduction in Gram-negative bacteria (RC) and a 4% increase in Gram-positive bacteria (PP) were detected. LPS levels were 4.4 times higher in PP than in the RC. LTA was detected in all samples investigated. Higher levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were detected in both sites at baseline. After CMP, LPS, LTA, IL-1ß and TNF-α were reduced in both sites. CONCLUSION: The microbial community in the RC and PP in teeth with combined EPL indicated a similarity between both sites. CMP effectively reduced the microbial load and the LPS levels from teeth with EPL, and consequently diminished the cytokine levels. The reduction in LTA levels in the RC and PP proved challenging.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microbiota , Bolsa Periodontal , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Cavidade Pulpar/imunologia , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Bolsa Periodontal/imunologia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ácidos Teicoicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
8.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 32(12): 150, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ultrasonic agitation, time and vehicle (propylene glycol or distilled water) on the antimicrobial potential and penetrability of calcium hydroxide pastes on infected dentin by means of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture (MC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol of 5 days. The specimens were divided into eight groups and dressed with the pastes for 7 or 15 days: G1) calcium hydroxide (CH) + propylene glycol (prop)/7 days (d), G2) CH + prop/7d + ultrasonic agitation (U), G3) CH + distilled water (dw)/7d, G4) CH + dw/7d + U, G5) CH + prop/15d, G6) CH + prop/15d + U, G7) CH + dw/15d, G8) CH + dw/15d + U. The ultrasonic activation was made for 1 min in both directions with a plain point insert. After medications removal, the images obtained by CLSM showed the viable (green) and dead (red) bacteria with Live and Dead dye. By the MC, the dentinal wall debris obtained by burs were collected for colony counts. For the penetration test, the Rodamine B dye was added to the CH pastes and analyzed by CLSM. RESULTS: The 7 and 15-days CH + prop+U pastes performed better antimicrobial efficacy, followed by the CH + dw+U/15d paste. CONCLUSIONS: All pastes demonstrated better penetration and antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis when agitated with ultrasound, even in periods of up to seven days. The propylene glycol vehicle showed better results. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Agitation of the dressing that remains for less time inside the root canal can optimize the decontamination of endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Dente , Terapia por Ultrassom/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Cimentos Dentários/farmacocinética , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacocinética , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacocinética , Fatores de Tempo , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/metabolismo , Dente/microbiologia , Permeabilidade Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ultrassom/métodos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6960143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the combination of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and a novel electrolyzed superoxidized solution at neutral pH, known as OxOral® on Enterococcus faecalis growth in root canals. METHODS: Sixty human teeth were used, from which root canals were infected and randomly divided into the following treatment groups: saline solution, saline solution plus Ca(OH)2, OxOral®, and OxOral® plus Ca(OH)2. RESULTS: A permanent reduction in bacterial growth was observed at days 1, 6, 12, and 18 after OxOral® plus Ca(OH)2 treatment from 4.4 ± 0.074 log10 CFU/mL to 0.0 ± 0.001 log10 CFU/mL. In addition, alkaline conditions maintenance was observed from application time (pH = 12.2 ± 0.033) to 18 d posttreatment (pH = 12.6 ± 0.083). CONCLUSION: The combination of OxOral® and Ca(OH)2 provides an alkaline pH and inhibits E. faecalis growth into the root canals. Our study opens the possibility for further research on the use of OxOral® in endodontic therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Soluções
10.
J Dent ; 115: 103859, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of two sonic-powered irrigation systems, EDDY and EndoActivator, in killing intracanal biofilms. METHODS: Eighty-three instrumented, autoclaved single-rooted human premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212) for 21 days to generate mature, single-species biofilms. The teeth were devided into four groups: irrigation with saline (N = 11); irrigation with 2% NaOCl without agitation (N = 24); irrigation with 2% NaOCl with agitation by the EndoActivaor (N = 24); irrigation with 2% NaOCl with agitation by the EDDY (N = 24). Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts and XTT assay were used to evaluate bacterial load. Additional teeth were split into root-halves for fluorescence staining to examine the percentages of live/dead bacteria in the dentinal tubules present in different canal locations (coronal, mid-root and apical portions). RESULTS: Agitation of 2% NaOCl by EDDY or EndoActivator reduced bacteria load more proficiently than the use of 2%NaOCl without agitation (p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected between the two sonic-powered irrigant agitation systems (p > 0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that both devices had better intratubular bacteria killing efficacy than the use of 2% NaOCl only in all parts of the canal space (p < 0.05), with no significant difference detected between EDDY and EndoActivator (p > 0.05). Elimination of intracanal and intratubular bacteria were less efficient in the apical portion of the canal space for all experimental groups. CONCLUSION: The two sonic-powered irrigant activation systems demonstrated comparable intracanal bacteria reduction efficacy when 2% NaOCl was used for disinfecting E. faecalis biofilms in single-rooted teeth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: With the use of 2% NaOCl as irrigant, the EDDY and EndoActivator sonic-powered irrigant agitation systems have improved and equivalent intracanal bacteria reduction efficacy but are incapable of completely killing all bacteria that resided within the dentinal tubules of root canals.


Assuntos
Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Biofilmes , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
11.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 907-918, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319146

RESUMO

Aim: The objective was to formulate and characterize the nanoemulsion based on Cymbopogon citratus oil, intended for use in infected teeth root canal therapy. The investigation of the antioxidant and antibiofilm potential toward Enterococcus faecalis was aimed as well. Materials & methods: Characterization of oil (by GC/MS analysis) and nanoemulsion (by dynamic light scattering instrument), and determination of antibacterial (by microdilution assay), antibiofilm (by crystal violet assay) and antioxidant properties (by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate and thiobarbituric acid assay methods) were provided. Antibiofilm efficacy of irrigation procedure including nanoemulsion was screened on extracted teeth (by CFU-counting assay). Results: Notable antibacterial and antibiofilm activity, both against forming and preformed biofilms of oil, was observed. Irrigation involved nanoemulsion showed remarkable antibiofilm potential. Both substances induced some antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Results encourage further research with the aim of application of the nanoemulsion in dental practice.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
12.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(37): 7686-7697, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323245

RESUMO

The validity and biocompatibility of irrigating agents are imperative for the success of root canal therapy. The imperfections in the currently available irrigants highlight the fact that more advanced technologies and strategies are required for complete disinfection in endodontic treatments. In the present study, a Fenton reaction-enhanced antimicrobial sonodynamic therapy (SDT) platform was fabricated for root canal disinfection. Firstly, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized, grafted with an amino group and then conjugated with sonosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Iron ions were then anchored (M@P-Fe) to initiate a Fenton reaction. Nanoparticle characterization by size and zeta potential measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the platform was successfully developed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assessment, methylene blue degradation and electron spin resonance assays illustrated upon ultrasound (US) irradiation, that augmented ROS, can be produced by US activated PpIX and iron mediated Fenton reactions from low concentration H2O2 (0.01%). In vitro anti-Enterococcus faecalis efficacy was demonstrated by growth curve and colony forming unit measurements. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations illustrated the effectiveness of the platform on in situ biofilm eradication in root canal. Owing to the stronger oxidizing capability and short lifetime of ROS, the Fenton reaction-enhanced SDT can induce detrimental oxidative damage to bacteria upon activation of US while avoiding nonspecific toxicity to cells, which was verified by cytotoxicity evaluations using CCK-8 assay and morphology observation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Compared to commonly used NaClO, this nanoplatform displayed desirable anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm abilities and better biocompatibility. These results highlight that the integrated M@P-Fe + US + H2O2 platform is a promising candidate for US enhanced root canal irrigation and disinfection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/química , Camundongos , Porosidade , Protoporfirinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ultrassonografia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12577, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131273

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to design silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) poloxamer thermoreversible gel (AgNPs-PL) and investigate whether this gel could provide sustained antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in the root canal. The gels fabricated were characterized in terms of gelatin temperature, particle size, in-vitro Ag+ release, and elemental content. Cytotoxicity of AgNPs-PL on primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) was examined by CCK-8 assay. Characterization of AgNPs-PL gel revealed that it contained particles existing as large clumps/fused aggregates of different shapes, with a mean diameter of 21.624 ± 14.689 nm, exhibited sustained release of Ag+ for 9 days, and non-toxic to HPDLFs at a low dose (4-32 µg/mL) through 24, 48, and 72 h exposures. The antibacterial effect of 16 and 32 µg/mL concentrations of AgNPs-PL was compared with blank poloxamer gel (PL) and calcium hydroxide (CH) using three methods: (I) agar counting plate, (II) scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, and (III) confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) analysis. AgNPs-PL at the two doses above was more effective than PL and CH in removing E. faecalis biofilm at 1, 3, 9 days. Thus, AgNPs-PL exhibits strong activity against E. faecalis and is easy to produce, with a continuous release profile of Ag+. AgNPs-PL gel may be a candidate for a new root canal disinfection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poloxâmero/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poloxâmero/administração & dosagem , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Prata/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8306, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859338

RESUMO

Root canal disinfection is of utmost importance in the success of the treatment, thus, a novel method for achieving root canal disinfection by electromagnetic waves, creating a synergistic reaction via electric and thermal energy, was created. To study electromagnetic stimulation (EMS) for the disinfection of root canal in vitro, single rooted teeth were instrumented with a 45.05 Wave One Gold reciprocating file. Specimens were sterilized and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29,212, which grew for 15 days to form an established biofilm. Samples were treated with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 1.5% NaOCl 1.5% NaOCl with EMS, 0.9% saline with EMS or 0.9% saline. After treatments, the colony forming units (CFU) was determined. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sums Test (α = 0.05). One sample per group was scored and split for confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging. There was a significant effect with the use of NaOCl with or without EMS versus 0.9% saline with or without EMS (p = 0.012 and 0.003, respectively). CFUs were lower when using 0.9% saline with EMS versus 0.9% saline alone (p = 0.002). Confocal imaging confirmed CFU findings. EMS with saline has an antibiofilm effect against E. faecalis and can potentially be applied for endodontic disinfection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Radiação Eletromagnética , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Solução Salina/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573147

RESUMO

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 µm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and ß-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Própole/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Própole/química
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8461245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511211

RESUMO

Quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) are useful antimicrobial compounds against oral bacteria. Here, we investigated the effects of two QAMs, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), on biofilm formation, survival and development of tolerance by biofilm, and survival and development of tolerance against QAMs after prolonged starvation. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), and Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) were used. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of QAMs against multispecies biofilm was determined. Biofilm formed under sub-MIC was observed by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactic acid production measurement. Development of tolerance was determined by MIC values before and after exposure to QAMs or after prolonged starvation. It was found that E. faecalis and S. gordonii could survive and form biofilm under sub-MIC of QAMs. Lactic acid production from biofilms formed under sub-MIC was significantly higher than control specimens (p < 0.05). The exposure to sub-MIC of QAMs promoted biofilm formation, and prolonged starvation or prolonged contact with sub-MIC helped bacteria develop tolerance against killing by QAMs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Metilaminas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus gordonii/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus gordonii/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1226, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441646

RESUMO

This systematic review (SR) addressed the following common clinical question: What is more effective in reducing or eliminating endotoxin in endodontic infections-single or multiple-session treatments using calcium hydroxide medications? Literature searches of Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scielo, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility for inclusion, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of the studies using the risk of bias tools. Electronic searches resulted in 358 articles, of which 32 studies were included for full-text assessment, and nine were included in this review. Meta-analysis pooling all the nine studies revealed lower levels of endotoxin for multiple-session treatment (P < 0.001). The sub-group analysis indicated no difference between single-session and 7 days of Ca(OH)2 medication (SMD - 0.32; P = 0.22). However, 14-days (I2 = 80.5%, P < 0.001) and 30-days (I2 = 78.9%, P < 0.01) of Ca(OH)2 medication was more effective than single-session treatment (both, p < 0.001). Overall, Overall, this SR provides evidence to support that multiple-session disinfection protocols with the placement of Ca(OH)2 medications are more effective in reducing the levels of endotoxin from root canal infections compared to single-session when applied for 14 and 30 days.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Endotoxinas/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos
18.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(5): 3796-3804, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006809

RESUMO

Root canal (RC) therapy is the primary treatment of dental-pulp and periapical diseases. The mechanical method and chemical irrigation have limitations in RC therapy. Much attention has focused on exploring more controllable and efficacious antimicrobial methods. Although the introduction of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has provided the ideas for RC debridement, the problems of low photosensitive efficiency and nonsignificant germicidal potency of traditional photosensitizers (e.g., methylene blue) have not been solved. Since the concept of "aggregation-induced emission" (AIE) was proposed, optimization of photosensitizers has been boosted considerably. Herein, an AIE photosensitizer, DPA-SCP, with a strong ability to generate singlet oxygen, is proposed for use as an antibacterial application in infected RCs. The antimicrobial activity of DPA-SCP against Enterococcus faecalis suspensions was tested. To explore the antibacterial ability of this photosensitizer against bacterial-biofilm colonization on the inner walls of RCs, we established a model of bacterial biofilm infection. PDT mediated by DPA-SCP had a significant germicidal effect on E. faecalis suspensions and 21-day biofilms in human RCs. PDT mediated by DPA-SCP could achieve efficiency equivalent to that observed using 1% NaOCl, and lead to no significant change in the dentin surface, chemical corrosion, or cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química
19.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(84): 21-26, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363852

RESUMO

La terapia endodóntica tiene como uno de sus objetivos lograr la completa desinfección del sistema de conductos radiculares. Por esto, se deben seleccionar sustancias irrigantes que tengan la capacidad de eliminar todo el contenido de dicho sistema. La acción antimicrobiana es una de las características más importantes a tener en cuenta en la elección. El hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) tiene capacidad bactericida sobre muchos de los microorganismos de la flora endodóntica. El Enterococcus faecalis es una bacteria altamente resistente a antibacterianos que sobrevive en condiciones extremas. El ácido hipocloroso (HOCl) es una molécula derivada del NaOCl que ha demostrado tener alto poder bactericida sobre cepas patogénicas bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y comparar la efectividad antimicrobiana in vitro del NaOCl 2.5% y el HOCl al 5% frente a Enterococcus faecalis. Una suspensión de Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), de turbidez 0.5 en escala de McFarland, fue inoculada en varios tubos de ensayo, los cuales contenían cada antimicrobiano. Se dejaron actuar durante 1, 5 y 10 minutos para luego neutralizarlos e inclubarlos a 37º C en condiciones de capnofilia durante 48 hs. Todo el procedimiento se realizó por quintuplicado. Los resultados se midieron mediante recuento de UFC/ml. No se evidenció presencia de Enterococcus faecalis en las placas que contenían la solución de NaOCl al 2.5% como tampoco en aquellas que contenían HOCl al 5%. In vitro, el HOCl y el NaOCl en las concentraciones probadas, eliminaron completamente las cepas de Enterococcus faecalis (AU)


Assuntos
Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hipocloroso/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Técnicas In Vitro , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Meios de Cultura , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia
20.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(10): 1123-1129, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197379

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate Olea europaea (olive) leaves and Morus nigra (black mulberry) leaves as potential natural alternatives to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) endodontic irrigant. Their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and their effects on both root dentin microhardness and push-out bond strength of resin sealer/root dentin were assessed. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four extracted teeth were selected. Samples were grouped according to the irrigant used: group I (control): 2.5% NaOCl, group II: 8% ethanolic extract of Olea europaea, and group III: 2% ethanolic extract of Morus nigra. Antibacterial activity (n = 6) was evaluated after each canal was autoclaved, inoculated with E. faecalis, and incubated. Canals were sampled before and after chemicomechanical canal preparation with 2 mL of irrigant. The colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted at 1/10 and 1/100 broth concentrations. Vickers hardness number (VHN) of root dentin (n = 6) was measured before and after root canal preparation and irrigation. Push-out bond strength testing (n = 9) was carried out following preparation, irrigation, obturation, and thermocycling. Results were considered statistically significant at p ≤0.05. RESULTS: Following irrigation, the CFUs of E. faecalis were significantly reduced with no significant difference in the CFU count between all groups at both broth concentrations. A significant reduction in root dentin microhardness resulted in all groups following irrigation, with Morus nigra resulting in the lowest percentage reduction (26.42 ± 1.12). The lowest significant mean push-out bond strength was revealed in the Olea europaea group (3.372 ± 1.513 MPa). CONCLUSION: The use of 2% mulberry (Morus nigra) leaf extract and 8% olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract as alternatives to NaOCl provides promising antimicrobial action against E. faecalis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: 2% Morus nigra extract may represent a promising natural endodontic irrigant.


Assuntos
Morus , Olea , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina , Enterococcus faecalis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
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