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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 480-484, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) and students are at increased risk for blood borne infections and vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis A and B viruses among HCWs and students and to determine whether there are differences according to gender and age group. METHODS: Information about characteristics of the 1053 participants, history of disease and vaccination status were collected using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by commercial immunoenzymatic assays. RESULTS: Seropositivity rates were 57.1% for measles, 74% for mumps, 96.3% for rubella, 93.7% for VZV, 33.9% for hepatitis A virus and 92.2% for hepatitis B virus. Susceptibility rates among participants 18-26, 27-38 and >38 years of age were statistically significant for measles (46%, 18.6% and 0%; p < 0.001) and mumps (27.1%, 12.9% and 21.4%; p < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Low seropositivity rates for measles, mumps and HAV are important findings. For other diseases other than VZV, it is thought that vaccination without pre-screening is more appropriate. Healthcare institutions should have policies for screening and vaccination of their staff and students.


Assuntos
Varicela/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(2): e3000611, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045407

RESUMO

Unusually large outbreaks of mumps across the United States in 2016 and 2017 raised questions about the extent of mumps circulation and the relationship between these and prior outbreaks. We paired epidemiological data from public health investigations with analysis of mumps virus whole genome sequences from 201 infected individuals, focusing on Massachusetts university communities. Our analysis suggests continuous, undetected circulation of mumps locally and nationally, including multiple independent introductions into Massachusetts and into individual communities. Despite the presence of these multiple mumps virus lineages, the genomic data show that one lineage has dominated in the US since at least 2006. Widespread transmission was surprising given high vaccination rates, but we found no genetic evidence that variants arising during this outbreak contributed to vaccine escape. Viral genomic data allowed us to reconstruct mumps transmission links not evident from epidemiological data or standard single-gene surveillance efforts and also revealed connections between apparently unrelated mumps outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/transmissão , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Mutação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Virais/genética
3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 977-986, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077355

RESUMO

Since 1960, incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been increasing in most industrialized countries, but causes of this trend remain unclear. A role of the decreased exposure to infectious agents during childhood has been proposed. Our study evaluates the association between common childhood infectious diseases and the risk of NHL and its major subtypes by a reanalysis of the Italian multicenter case-control study. After exclusion of next-of-kin interviews, 1,193 cases, diagnosed between 1990 and 1993, and 1,708 population-based controls were included in the analyses. OR estimates were obtained by logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, residence area, education, smoking habit and exposure to radiations, pesticides and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among B-cell lymphomas (n = 1,102) an inverse association was observed for rubella (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), pertussis (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62-0.88) and any infection (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93). A negative trend by number of infections was observed, which was more evident among mature B-cell lymphoma (OR = 0.66 for three infections or more, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). Our results indicate a potential protective role of common childhood infections in the etiology of B-cell NHL.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Varicela/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Risco , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 954, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease but outbreaks have been reported in persons vaccinated with two doses of MMR vaccine. The objective was to describe the demographic features, vaccination effectiveness and genetic mumps virus diversity among laboratory-confirmed cases between 2007 and 2011 in Catalonia. METHODS: Cases and outbreaks of mumps notified to the notifiable diseases system of Catalonia between 2007 and 2011 retrospectively registered were included. Public health care centres provided written immunization records to regional public health staff to determine the vaccination history. Saliva and serum specimens were collected from suspected cases for laboratory-confirmation using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtRT-PCR) or serological testing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete SH gene (316 nucleotides) and complete coding HN protein (1749 nucleotides) sequences was made. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's tests and continuous variables using the Student test. Vaccination effectiveness by number of MMR doses was estimated using the screening method. RESULTS: During the study period, 581 confirmed cases of mumps were notified (incidence rate 1.6 cases/100,000 persons-year), of which 60% were male. Three hundred sixty-four laboratory-confirmed cases were reported, of which 44% were confirmed by rtRT-PCR. Of the 289 laboratory-confirmed cases belonging to vaccination cohorts, 33.5% (97) had received one dose of MMR vaccine and 50% (145) two doses. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 316-nucleotide and 174-nucleotide SH sequences, the viruses belonging to viral genotypes were: genotype G (126), genotype D (23), genotype H (2), genotype F (2), genotype J (1), while one remained uncharacterized. Amino acid differences were detected between circulating strains and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains, although the majority of amino acid substitutions were genotype-specific. Fifty-one outbreaks were notified that included 324 confirmed mumps cases. Genotype G was the most frequent genotype detected. The family (35%), secondary schools (25%) and community outbreaks (18%) were the most frequent settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genotype G viruses are the most prevalent in Catalonia. Most cases occurred in people who had received two doses of MMR, suggesting inadequate effectiveness of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain. The possible factors related are discussed.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Saliva/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/classificação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133758, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mumps remains a major global public health problem. Many studies have explored the relationship between meteorological factors and mumps, few have comprehensively explored such associations considering nonlinear relationship, delayed effects and collinearity in order to more accurately estimate them. This study aims to explore the relationship between meteorological factors and mumps in consideration of nonlinearity, delayed effects and collinearity. METHODS: We collected daily reported mumps cases and meteorological data for Jining City, Shandong Province, China from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2016. By building a Boosted regression tree model (BRT) for each day from lag 0days to the maximum lag time, the optimal lag time was selected and the relationship between meteorological factors and mumps was explored for this lag time. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2016, a total of 15,064 cases of mumps were reported in Jining, with a sex ratio of 2.11:1. Cases were most prevalent in 5-9-year-olds (42.15%) followed by 10-14-year-olds (24.72%). The optimal lag time identified was 10days and the three meteorological factors that contributed the most to the risk of mumps were daily mean temperature, daily mean relative humidity and daily mean sunshine duration. Their relative contribution rates were 24.4%, 19.9% and 18.3%, respectively. The mean temperature and sunshine duration relationships approximated a U-shaped effect on the risk of mumps, with estimated thresholds of 5.5°C and 9.5h, respectively. The effect of relative humidity on mumps increased slightly and then decreased rapidly, with a threshold of 64%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that daily mean temperature, relative humidity and sunshine duration were three significant meteorological factors associated with the incidence of mumps in Jining, China. Understanding the shape of relationships and their thresholds are critical for establishing early warning systems which are important tools in the prevention and control of mumps.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443544

RESUMO

Mumps vaccines have been widely used in recent years, but frequent mumps outbreaks and re-emergence around the world have not stopped. Mumps still remains a serious public health problem with a high incidence in China. The status of mumps epidemics in Chongqing, the largest city in China, is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and spatiotemporal characteristics of mumps and to provide a scientific basis for formulating effective strategies for its prevention and control. Surveillance data of mumps in Chongqing from January 2004 to December 2018 were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting Information System. A descriptive analysis was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics. Hot spots and spatiotemporal patterns were identified by performing a spatial autocorrelation analysis, a purely spatial scan, and a spatiotemporal scan at the county level based on geographic information systems. A total of 895,429 mumps cases were reported in Chongqing, with an annual average incidence of 36.34 per 100,000. The yearly incidence of mumps decreased markedly from 2004 to 2007, increased sharply from 2007 to 2011, and then tapered with a two-year cyclical peak after 2011. The onset of mumps showed an obvious bimodal seasonal distribution, with a higher peak of mumps observed from April to July of each year. Children aged 5-9 years old, males, and students were the prime high-risk groups. The spatial distribution of mumps did not exhibit significant global autocorrelation in most years, but local indicators of spatial autocorrelation and scan statistics detected high-incidence clusters which were mainly located in the midwestern, western, northeastern, and southwestern parts of Chongqing. The aggregation time frame detected by the purely temporal scan was between March 2009 and July 2013. The incidence of mumps in Chongqing from 2004 to 2018 featured significant spatial heterogeneity and spatiotemporal clustering. The findings of this study might assist public health agencies to develop real-time space monitoring, especially in the clustering regions and at peak periods; to improve immunization strategies for long-term prevention; and to deploy health resources reasonably.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326348

RESUMO

Before the introduction of the vaccine, mumps was the most common salivary gland disease and was one of the most common infectious diseases in children globally. Following the introduction of the mumps vaccine in 1967, the disease was almost nonexistent in the United States and was only found to occur in nonvaccinated patients, and even then, it did not present in epidemic portions because of the extent of vaccination in the population at large. Beginning in the early 2000s, viral mumps began to present itself in vaccinated populations, and currently, outbreaks are continuing to increase in number. This article presents information on the various outbreaks, a review of the virus and the disease, including symptoms and comorbidities, and new recommendations for management. Dental practitioners should be aware of the increasing incidence and prevalence of this disease, be able to recognize it, and make appropriate referrals for management.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Caxumba , Vírus da Caxumba , Caxumba , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Vírus da Caxumba/patogenicidade , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(3): 396-403, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249206

RESUMO

Background & objectives: : Globally, there is an effort to eliminate the measles and control rubella as these diseases lead to considerable morbidity and mortality especially among under-five children and are important public health problems. This study was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) antibodies among children of age 5-10 yr in Chandigarh, north India, to provide evidence on prevalent immunity levels. Methods: : This cross-sectional study was conducted in Chandigarh, among 196 randomly selected healthy children (5-10 yr), who received either one or two doses of measles or MMR combination vaccine. Socio-economic background and immunization history were recorded. Blood sample (2 ml) was collected to estimate the MMR IgG antibody titres by using ELISA kits. Results: : Protective seroprevalence of MMR antibodies was 40.8, 75.5 and 86.2 per cent, respectively. The geometric mean titres of MMR IgG antibodies in the study children were 11.3, 50.6 and 54.3 international units (IU)/ ml, respectively. The proportion of seroprotected children for measles was significantly higher among those who had received two or more doses (46.4%) of measles vaccine compared to those who had received single dose (35.6%) (P <0.001). About 16 per cent of children had received single dose of MMR vaccine. Among these, 71.4 and 100 per cent were seroprotected against mumps and rubella, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: : A large proportion of children aged 5-10 yr lacked protective immunity against measles (60%); about one-fourth (15-25%) were susceptible to infection with mumps and rubella virus. Mumps vaccination may be considered to be included in National Immunization Schedule for children with periodic serosurveillance.


Assuntos
Sarampo/epidemiologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/imunologia , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Vacinação
11.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(1): 106-111, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095210

RESUMO

We report two cases of acute aseptic meningitis associated to mumps in middle-aged women, one pregnant. Both presented shortly after parotid gland enlargement. Neurological complications were suspected by headache, fever and meningeal signs and confirmed by CSF findings (mononuclear predominant pleocytosis) with negative results for alternative causes. Mumps were confirmed by positive IgM and IgG serology. Both patients were discharged with a favorable evolution and complete disappearance of symptoms. Cases were concurrent with a regional mumps outbreak. Conclusions: Aseptic meningitis is a rare mumps-associated neurological complication. Its diagnostic can be achieved by precedent parotid enlargement, mononuclear pleocytosis in the CSF and positive IgM and IgG serology or viral detection by PCR in urine or salivary samples. This complication would be more probably observed during mumps outbreaks.


Assuntos
Meningite Asséptica/virologia , Caxumba/complicações , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Chile/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Meningite Asséptica/epidemiologia , Meningite Asséptica/patologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 435, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decades there have been outbreaks of mumps in many countries, even in populations that were vaccinated. Some studies suggest that the incidence of mumps is related to meteorological changes, but the results of these studies vary in different regions. To date there is no reported study on correlations between mumps incidence and meteorological parameters in Beijing, China. METHODS: A time series analysis incorporating selected weather factors and the number of mumps cases from 1990 to 2012 in Beijing was performed. First, correlations between meteorological variables and the number of mumps cases were assessed. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model with explanatory variables (SARIMAX) was then constructed to predict mumps cases. RESULTS: Mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, vapor pressure, and wind speed were significantly associated with mumps incidence. After constructing the SARIMAX model, mean temperature at lag 0 (ß = 0.016, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 0.001 to 0.032) was positively associated with mumps incidence, while vapor pressure at lag 2 (ß = -0.018, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval -0.038 to -0.002) was negatively associated. SARIMAX (1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12 with temperature at lag 0 was the best predictive construct. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of mumps in Beijing from 1990 to 2012 was significantly correlated with meteorological variables. Combining meteorological variables, a predictive SARIMAX model that could be used to preemptively estimate the incidence of mumps in Beijing was established.


Assuntos
Caxumba/epidemiologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Pressão de Vapor , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 155, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mumps-containing vaccine is currently not a component of the national immunization schedule in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Mumps itself is not a notifiable disease in the country and the seroprevalence of anti-mumps immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the general population is unknown. In this study, anti-mumps IgG was measured in 2058 blood samples to evaluate population immunity in the country. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-mumps IgG showed a gradual increase with increasing age, starting at 10.6% (95% CI 7.4-13.7) in participants aged 1-2 years, and almost plateaued at about 75% in individuals older than 11-12 years, though it still tended toward a small increase up to 89.6% (95% CI 86.6-92.6) in participants aged 40 years or older. Compared with the results of previous studies, this increase with increasing age is less marked and the plateau of anti-mumps seroprevalence is lower. We attribute this result mainly to the lower population density in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/imunologia , Vacina contra Caxumba , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Tex Med ; 115(3): 47, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855696

RESUMO

More than 2,000 U.S. mumps cases occurred in 2018. That's down from 6,000-plus cases CDC reported in both 2016 and 2017, but a far cry from the hundreds reported in 2012. Texas is not immune. In 2018, mumps outbreaks occurred at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas State University in San Marcos, and a national cheerleading competition in Dallas. Mumps still spreads much faster and more dangerously among unvaccinated groups, and immunization remains the best protection.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Caxumba/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 51, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our work was motivated by the need to, given serum availability and/or financial resources, decide on which samples to test in a serum bank for different pathogens. Simulation-based sample size calculations were performed to determine the age-based sampling structures and optimal allocation of a given number of samples for testing across various age groups best suited to estimate key epidemiological parameters (e.g., seroprevalence or force of infection) with acceptable precision levels in a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey. METHODS: Statistical and mathematical models and three age-based sampling structures (survey-based structure, population-based structure, uniform structure) were used. Our calculations are based on Belgian serological survey data collected in 2001-2003 where testing was done, amongst others, for the presence of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella, for which a national mass immunisation programme was introduced in 1985 in Belgium, and against varicella-zoster virus and parvovirus B19 for which the endemic equilibrium assumption is tenable in Belgium. RESULTS: The optimal age-based sampling structure to use in the sampling of a serological survey as well as the optimal allocation distribution varied depending on the epidemiological parameter of interest for a given infection and between infections. CONCLUSIONS: When estimating epidemiological parameters with acceptable levels of precision within the context of a single cross-sectional serological survey, attention should be given to the age-based sampling structure. Simulation-based sample size calculations in combination with mathematical modelling can be utilised for choosing the optimal allocation of a given number of samples over various age groups.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sarampo/sangue , Modelos Teóricos , Caxumba/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1153: 101-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758772

RESUMO

A worrying increase in the number of measles cases has been noted recently in Poland, which may have to do with a decreasing proportion of children vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) in the second year of life (<95%). For many years, MMR vaccination in children has been associated with a fear of allergy to eggs. This study seeks to define the reason and justification for postponing MMR vaccination in a population of children referred to the outpatient specialist immunization clinic. One hundred and thirty eight (138) children, mean 24.5 ± 26.6 months, with a history of past allergies, in whom the first-time MMR vaccination was delayed by family doctors for fear of allergic reactions, were enrolled into the study. The mean delay in a vaccine shot was 12.3 ± 26.9 months. There were 101 children who displayed a distinct allergy to the egg proteins, among other accompanying types of allergy. All of the 138 children were found eligible to receive MMR vaccine at the visit to the clinic. No early allergic responses were noticed in any of the children. There were negligible delayed allergic responses in six children, all from the egg allergy group. We conclude that MMR vaccination in children with egg allergy is safe and can be conducted on the outpatient basis without any specific precautions or safety measures. Delays in vaccination were unjustified and may jeopardize children's health. There is a need for insightful education of primary care doctors concerning of MMR vaccination safety, particularly when allergy is suspected, to avoid unduly and potentially harmful delays.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Sarampo , Caxumba , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo , Humanos , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 69: 230-234, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738791

RESUMO

Mumps viruses continue to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks in countries with a high vaccination coverage for mumps. Molecular surveillance of mumps viruses can be supportive to elucidate the origin and transmission routes of mumps virus in case of an outbreak. Currently, molecular surveillance is worldwide primarily focused on sequencing of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene. However, few studies have already shown that additional genes or regions contribute to the resolution of the sequence data in such a way that mumps cases that seem to be linked to the same source on basis of the SH sequence, appear to be linked to another source or chain of transmission. Notably, this sequence information was recently extracted from the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes (total 3364 nucleotides), or from the sum of the three non-coding regions (NCRs; total 1954 nt) between the nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein and F protein, but also from the complete genome. Here, sequence data from NCRs were compared with that of the HN and F gene, using mumps genotype G viruses detected in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2018. Results of this study indicate that NCRs sequence data provided similar or slightly better sequence resolution compared to the HN and F genes for most viruses. For molecular surveillance of currently circulating mumps genotype G viruses is sequencing of SH in combination with NCRs currently a useful approach.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(7): 907.e1-907.e6, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mumps used to affect children between 2 and 15 years old. The mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine is available, with vaccine coverage rate of about 85% after two vaccine doses. Recently new mumps outbreaks have emerged in highly vaccinated populations; the causes for these new outbreaks are yet unknown. We tested if a difference in seroneutralizing capacity against the vaccine and wild-type viruses existed and if waning immunity could be detected. METHODS: In this study, 570 serum samples (age group 2-3 years (n = 96), 8-9 years (n = 95), 13-14 years (n = 94), 18-20 years (n = 96), 24-26 years (n = 92) and 50 + years (n = 97)) in Belgium were tested in the rapid fluorescent foci inhibition test for their neutralizing capacity against the vaccine and wild-type viruses. RESULTS: Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain were present in 84% (81/97) of the 2-3-year, 74% (70/95) of the 8-9-year, 81% (76/94) of the 13-14-year, 76% (73/96) of the 18-20-year, 67% (62/92) of the 24-26-year and 77% (75/97) of the 50+-year age group serum samples. For all age groups, only about half of these serum samples were also positive for the wild-type virus. The geometric mean titres for the vaccine and wild-type virus for all younger age groups, except for 24-26 years, were significantly different, demonstrating poor in vitro cross-neutralization. CONCLUSIONS: A possible contribution of antigenic differences between the genotype A and G mumps virus as well as other immune factors, in addition to lower-than-optimal vaccination coverage and waning immunity, could explain the poor in vitro cross-neutralization and should be further studied.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Neutralização , Cobertura Vacinal , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Virol ; 91(3): 347-350, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252936

RESUMO

Mumps, a vaccine-preventable disease, cause inflammation of salivary glands and may cause severe complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, deafness, and orchitis/oophoritis. In India, mumps vaccine is not included in the universal immunization program and during 2009 to 2014, 72 outbreaks with greater than 1500 cases were reported. In August 2016, a suspected mumps outbreak was reported in Jaisalmer block, Rajasthan. We investigated to confirm the etiology, describe the epidemiology, and recommend prevention and control measures. We defined a case as swelling in the parotid region in a Jaisalmer block resident between 23 June 2016 and 10 September 2016. We searched for cases in health facilities and house-to-house in affected villages and hamlets. We tested blood samples of cases for mumps immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found 162 cases (60% males) with a median age of 9.4 years (range: 7 month-38 years) and 65 (40%) were females. Symptoms included fever (70%) and bilateral swelling in neck (65%). None of them were vaccinated against mumps. Most (84%) cases were school-going children (3-16 years old). The overall attack rate was 2%. Village A, with two hamlets, had the highest attack rate (hamlet 1 = 13% and hamlet 2 = 12%). School A of village A, hamlet 1, which accommodated 200 children in two classrooms, had an attack rate of 55%. Of 18 blood samples from cases, 11 tested positive for mumps IgM ELISA. This was a confirmed mumps outbreak in Jaisalmer block that disproportionately affected school-going children. We recommended continued surveillance, 5-day absence from school, and vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/sangue , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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