Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.180
Filtrar
1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 173: 107504, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577298

RESUMO

Traditionally, Saguinus has been organized into six taxonomic groups: bicolor, inustus, midas, mystax, nigricollis, and oedipus. After recent revisions, taxonomic reclassifications were proposed, including (1) the recognition of Leontocebus as a new genus, and (2) the subdivision of Saguinus into three subgenera. Nonetheless, the contradictory nature of these results reinforces the inconsistency concerning the monophyletic status of tamarins and its interspecific phylogeny. Therefore, in this study, we carried out phylogenetic inferences of Saguinus based on 44 molecular markers, of which 37 were from nuclear DNA and seven from mitochondrial DNA. A final dataset of 24,202 base pairs (bp) was obtained from 60 specimens of all recognized species of Saguinus and, also representatives of two main lineages of Leontocebus. Phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained from Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. We also construct a Species Tree and a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny to estimate the time of divergence of Tamarins. Our phylogenetic results validated Leontocebus, or nigricollis group, as monophyletic, and recovered additionally three main clades within Saguinus. Same topology was obtained by the Species Tree. These clades correspond to (1) inustus + mystax groups, (2) oedipus group and (3) bicolor + midas group. Our results show support for a 10.5-million-year-old split between Leontocebus and the remaining Saguinus, followed by two other cladogenetic events, around 9.3 and 7.2 mya, which lead to the rise of the main clades of Saguinus. These phylogenetic data, in concert with the consistent morphological, ecological behavior and biogeographic evidence suggest a new classification for the Amazonian and trans-Andean tamarins. Therefore, we support the validation of Leontocebus as genus and recommend the split of Saguinus into three genera: (1) Tamarinus (inustus and mystax groups), (2) Oedipomidas (oedipus group), and (3) Saguinus (bicolor and midas groups).


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Cebidae , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Callitrichinae/anatomia & histologia , Cebidae/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Saguinus/anatomia & histologia , Saguinus/genética
2.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 415-420, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255141

RESUMO

Botflies (Diptera:Oestridae) are a diverse group of insect parasites that affect various vertebrate species. There are previous reports of myiasis affecting wild primates in Central and South America; however, information about botfly parasitism in Peruvian primates is scarce. We present data from two Cebidae primate specimens: a rescued large-headed capuchin monkey (Sapajus macrocephalus) housed at Taricaya Rescue Center, in Tambopata, Peru, and a free-ranging white-fronted capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons aequatorialis) inhabiting Cerros de Amotape National Park. The first specimen had a larva identified as Dermatobia hominis, whereas Cuterebra baeri larvae infested the second. In both cases we initially identified the parasite species through their morphologic features before confirming the identification with genetic analysis through the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene sequencing of the larvae. Further field studies on the primate-parasite dynamics are needed to understand the impact of botfly myiasis on primate populations.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Cebus , Larva , Miíase/epidemiologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Peru/epidemiologia
3.
Biomedica ; 41(Supl. 1): 60-81, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111341

RESUMO

Introduction: Enteroparasites can cause problems in animals kept under human care in zoos and shelters. Wild animals have low parasitic loads but when sheltered in closed places they can be higher and lead to clinical manifestations, which increases the cost of medical treatments and care. On the other hand, some enteroparasites can represent a potential risk of zoonotic infection for their animal keepers, visitors, and other zoo animals. In addition, they could affect recovery programs for endangered species. Objectives: To establish the presence and prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteroparasites in primates of the Cebidae and Callitrichidae families at the Zoológico de Cali from September to November, 2017. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study. Serial samples from 50 individuals belonging to seven species and two primate families were analyzed by ova and parasite test, flotation, and Kinyoun stain between September and November, 2017. Results: In order of frequency, the parasite genera found in the seven primate species evaluated were Blastocystis spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp., and Trichuris sp. Conclusions: At least six of the parasite genera found have potential zoonotic implications. It is necessary to establish what are the infection sources at the Zoológico de Cali and implement management protocols to reduce the risk of transmission to both humans and other animals in the collection. Additionally, we offer relevant information on the zoonotic potential of each of the enteroparasites found.


Introducción. Los enteroparásitos pueden generar problemas en animales bajo cuidado humano en zoológicos y centros de acogida. Los animales silvestres presentan bajas cargas parasitarias, pero estas pueden ser mayores y llevar a manifestaciones clínicas cuando se trata de animales resguardados en recintos, lo que aumenta los gastos en tratamientos y cuidados médicos. Por otro lado, algunos enteroparásitos pueden causar infecciones zoonóticas en los cuidadores, los visitantes y otros animales del zoológico, así como afectar los programas de recuperación de especies amenazadas de extinción. Objetivos. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de enteroparásitos con potencial de transmisión zoonótica en primates de las familias Cebidae y Callitrichidae del Zoológico de Cali, entre septiembre y noviembre de 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal prospectivo, para lo cual se recolectaron muestras seriadas de 50 individuos pertenecientes a siete especies de dos familias de primates y se analizaron mediante examen coprológico, flotación y coloración Kinyoun, entre septiembre y noviembre de 2017. Resultados. Según su prevalencia, los géneros de parásitos hallados en las siete especies de primates evaluadas, fueron Blastocystis spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp. y Trichuris sp. Conclusiones. Por lo menos, seis de los géneros de parásitos identificados tienen implicaciones zoonóticas, lo cual hace necesario establecer las posibles vías de infección de los primates del Zoológico de Cali e implementar protocolos de manejo que reduzcan el riesgo de transmisión a los humanos y a otros animales de la colección. Además, se presenta la información relevante sobre el potencial zoonótico de los enteroparásitos hallados.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Cebidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Callitrichinae/parasitologia , Cebidae/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Primatas , Estudos Prospectivos , Zoonoses
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 60-81, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285450

RESUMO

Resumen | Introducción. Los enteroparásitos pueden generar problemas en animales bajo cuidado humano en zoológicos y centros de acogida. Los animales silvestres presentan bajas cargas parasitarias, pero estas pueden ser mayores y llevar a manifestaciones clínicas cuando se trata de animales resguardados en recintos, lo que aumenta los gastos en tratamientos y cuidados médicos. Por otro lado, algunos enteroparásitos pueden causar infecciones zoonóticas en los cuidadores, los visitantes y otros animales del zoológico, así como afectar los programas de recuperación de especies amenazadas de extinción. Objetivos. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de enteroparásitos con potencial de transmisión zoonótica en primates de las familias Cebidae y Callitrichidae del Zoológico de Cali, entre septiembre y noviembre de 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal prospectivo, para lo cual se recolectaron muestras seriadas de 50 individuos pertenecientes a siete especies de dos familias de primates y se analizaron mediante examen coprológico, flotación y coloración Kinyoun, entre septiembre y noviembre de 2017. Resultados. Según su prevalencia, los géneros de parásitos hallados en las siete especies de primates evaluadas, fueron Blastocystis spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp. y Trichuris sp. Conclusiones. Por lo menos, seis de los géneros de parásitos identificados tienen implicaciones zoonóticas, lo cual hace necesario establecer las posibles vías de infección de los primates del Zoológico de Cali e implementar protocolos de manejo que reduzcan el riesgo de transmisión a los humanos y a otros animales de la colección. Además, se presenta la información relevante sobre el potencial zoonótico de los enteroparásitos hallados.


Abstract | Introduction: Enteroparasites can cause problems in animals kept under human care in zoos and shelters. Wild animals have low parasitic loads but when sheltered in closed places they can be higher and lead to clinical manifestations, which increases the cost of medical treatments and care. On the other hand, some enteroparasites can represent a potential risk of zoonotic infection for their animal keepers, visitors, and other zoo animals. In addition, they could affect recovery programs for endangered species. Objectives: To establish the presence and prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteroparasites in primates of the Cebidae and Callitrichidae families at the Zoológico de Cali from September to November, 2017. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study. Serial samples from 50 individuals belonging to seven species and two primate families were analyzed by ova and parasite test, flotation, and Kinyoun stain between September and November, 2017. Results: In order of frequency, the parasite genera found in the seven primate species evaluated were Blastocystis spp.,Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp., and Trichuris sp. Conclusions: At least six of the parasite genera found have potential zoonotic implications. It is necessary to establish what are the infection sources at the Zoológico de Cali and implement management protocols to reduce the risk of transmission to both humans and other animals in the collection. Additionally, we offer relevant information on the zoonotic potential of each of the enteroparasites found.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Primatas , Cebidae , Zoonoses , Callitrichinae , Animais de Zoológico
5.
Am J Primatol ; 83(5): e23246, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638563

RESUMO

Multiple behavioral and biomechanical analyses have demonstrated that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) are specialized for breaking down hard-object foods as compared to other cebid monkeys. In addition to a complex suite of craniodental adaptations, it has specifically been demonstrated that capuchins possess highly complex dental enamel, with extensive Hunter-Schreger banding and other decussation, that likely serve as an adaptation to resist crack propagation during hard-object feeding. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that robust capuchins (Sapajus spp., formerly Cebus apella) demonstrate further adaptation for hard-object feeding than other capuchins, routinely breaking down extremely mechanically challenging foods. However, there has been no comparison of dental enamel complexity in robust versus gracile capuchins, to assess whether the dental enamel in Sapajus follows this same pattern of further specialization. Therefore, this study compares dental enamel complexity in images of dental thin sections from a sample of robust versus gracile capuchins using image compression ratio (ICR) analysis. ICR is a variable that correlates with enamel complexity, such that higher ICR values are indicative of increased complexity in the form of enamel decussation. We found no significant difference between robust and gracile capuchins when assessing all teeth in our sample together, however, we did find that robust capuchins have significantly higher ICR values than gracile capuchins for canine teeth, specifically. Our results support prior studies suggesting that robust capuchins are specialized to generate increased masticatory loads with their anterior dentition, specifically, as compared to gracile species.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Sapajus , Animais , Cebus , Esmalte Dentário , Platirrinos
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533923

RESUMO

In rod cells of many nocturnal mammals, heterochromatin localizes to the central region of the nucleus and serves as a lens to send light efficiently to the photoreceptor region. The genus Aotus (owl monkeys) is commonly considered to have undergone a shift from diurnal to nocturnal lifestyle. We recently demonstrated that rod cells of the Aotus species Aotus azarae possess a heterochromatin block at the center of its nucleus. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the time span in which the formation of the heterochromatin block took place. We performed three-dimensional hybridization analysis of the rod cell of another species, Aotus lemurinus. This analysis revealed the presence of a heterochromatin block that consisted of the same DNA components as those in A. azarae. These results indicate that the formation was complete at or before the separation of the two species. Based on the commonly accepted evolutionary history of New World monkeys and specifically of owl monkeys, the time span for the entire formation process was estimated to be 15 Myr at most.


Assuntos
Aotidae/genética , Heterocromatina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes , Animais , Aotidae/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Cebidae/genética , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4820(2): zootaxa.4820.2.14, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056078

RESUMO

I review the nomenclatural history of the blond capuchin, Cebus flavius (Schreber), a Brazilian monkey species. The name was published in 1799, not 1774 as generally cited, so the species is correctly known as Cebus flavius (Schreber, 1799).


Assuntos
Cebidae , Animais , Cebus , Sapajus
8.
Anal Biochem ; 593: 113516, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794702

RESUMO

Alu elements are powerful phylogenetic markers. The combination of a recently-developed computational pipeline, polyDetect, with high copy number Alu insertions has previously been utilized to help resolve the Papio baboon phylogeny with high statistical support. Here, the polyDetect method was applied to the highly contentious Cebidae phylogeny within New World monkeys (NWM). The polyDetect method relies on conserved homology/identity of short read sequence data among the species being compared to accurately map predicted shared Alu insertions to each unique flanking sequence. The results of this comprehensive assessment indicate that there were insufficient sequence homology/identity stretches in non-repeated DNA sequences among the four Cebidae genera analyzed in this study to make this strategy phylogenetically viable. The ~20 million years of evolutionary divergence of the Cebidae genera has resulted in random sequence decay within the short read data, obscuring potentially orthologous elements in the species tested. These analyses suggest that the polyDetect pipeline is best suited to resolving phylogenies of more recently diverged lineages when high-quality assembled genomes are not available for the taxa of interest.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Cebidae , Filogenia , Animais , Cebidae/classificação , Cebidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 498-504, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379040

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the gross anatomy of the ventral rami of the thoracic spinal nerves in capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella) and compare with humans and other primate species. Eight specimens, prepared in 10% formalin solution and dissected following routine standard techniques, were used. The animals presented 13-14 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves emerging from the intervertebral foramen and divided into dorsal and ventral rami. The ventral rami of the first 12 or 13 pairs represented intercostal nerves and the latter referred to the subcostal nerve. The intercostal and subcostal nerves gave off muscular and cutaneous branches (lateral and ventral), which promote innervation of muscles and skin associated with the chest and abdominal wall. Atypical anatomy was verified for the 1st, 2nd and 7th to 13th intercostal nerves as well as for the subcostal nerve. The morphological characteristics were similar to those observed in humans and some non-human primates, especially in the absence of collateral branches.


Assuntos
Nervos Torácicos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Sapajus apella
10.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1105-1116, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888417

RESUMO

Platy-1 elements are Platyrrhine-specific, short interspersed elements originally discovered in the Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) genome. To date, only the marmoset genome has been analyzed for Platy-1 repeat content. Here, we report full-length Platy-1 insertions in other New World monkey (NWM) genomes (Saimiri boliviensis, squirrel monkey; Cebus imitator, capuchin monkey; and Aotus nancymaae, owl monkey) and analyze the amplification dynamics of lineage-specific Platy-1 insertions. A relatively small number of full-length and lineage-specific Platy-1 elements were found in the squirrel, capuchin, and owl monkey genomes compared with the marmoset genome. In addition, only a few older Platy-1 subfamilies were recovered in this study, with no Platy-1 subfamilies younger than Platy-1-6. By contrast, 62 Platy-1 subfamilies were discovered in the marmoset genome. All of the lineage-specific insertions found in the squirrel and capuchin monkeys were fixed present. However, ∼15% of the lineage-specific Platy-1 loci in Aotus were polymorphic for insertion presence/absence. In addition, two new Platy-1 subfamilies were identified in the owl monkey genome with low nucleotide divergences compared with their respective consensus sequences, suggesting minimal ongoing retrotransposition in the Aotus genus and no current activity in the Saimiri, Cebus, and Sapajus genera. These comparative analyses highlight the finding that the high number of Platy-1 elements discovered in the marmoset genome is an exception among NWM analyzed thus far, rather than the rule. Future studies are needed to expand upon our knowledge of Platy-1 amplification in other NWM genomes.


Assuntos
Cebidae/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Retroelementos , Animais
11.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 99, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancers play an important role in morphological evolution and speciation by controlling the spatiotemporal expression of genes. Previous efforts to understand the evolution of enhancers in primates have typically studied many enhancers at low resolution, or single enhancers at high resolution. Although comparative genomic studies reveal large-scale turnover of enhancers, a specific understanding of the molecular steps by which mammalian or primate enhancers evolve remains elusive. RESULTS: We identified candidate hominoid-specific liver enhancers from H3K27ac ChIP-seq data. After locating orthologs in 11 primates spanning around 40 million years, we synthesized all orthologs as well as computational reconstructions of 9 ancestral sequences for 348 active tiles of 233 putative enhancers. We concurrently tested all sequences for regulatory activity with STARR-seq in HepG2 cells. We observe groups of enhancer tiles with coherent trajectories, most of which can be potentially explained by a single gain or loss-of-activity event per tile. We quantify the correlation between the number of mutations along a branch and the magnitude of change in functional activity. Finally, we identify 84 mutations that correlate with functional changes; these are enriched for cytosine deamination events within CpGs. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the evolutionary-functional trajectories of hundreds of liver enhancers throughout the primate phylogeny. We observe subsets of regulatory sequences that appear to have gained or lost activity. We use these data to quantify the relationship between sequence and functional divergence, and to identify CpG deamination as a potentially important force in driving changes in enhancer activity during primate evolution.


Assuntos
Atelidae/genética , Callitrichinae/genética , Cebidae/genética , Cercopithecidae/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Hominidae/genética , Hylobatidae/genética , Animais , Atelidae/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Callitrichinae/classificação , Cebidae/classificação , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Ilhas de CpG , Células Hep G2 , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Hylobatidae/classificação , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mutação , Filogenia
12.
Am J Primatol ; 79(6)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346692

RESUMO

Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming. Our findings partially support prior research in hemispheric specialization, but suggest that there may be differences between social behaviors that drive specialization. We discuss these results in light of current theory on hemispheric specialization and highlight differences between embracing and grooming.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Asseio Animal , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cebidae , Dominância Cerebral , Lateralidade Funcional
13.
Am J Primatol ; 79(1): 1-7, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26713770

RESUMO

Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Aotidae , Ligação do Par , Socialização , Animais , Cebidae , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Social
14.
Am J Primatol ; 79(3): 1-11, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869316

RESUMO

Pitheciids, one of the major radiations of New World monkeys endemic to South and Central America, are distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, and include Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Molecular phylogenetics strongly support pitheciid monophyly, whereas morphological analyses infer a range of phylogenies including a sister relationship between Aotus and Callicebus. We collected geometric morphometric cranial data from pitheciids and Aotus, and used cranial data for distance-based phylogenetic analysis and tests of phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetic analyses of pitheciids were repeated with Lagothrix, Callimico, and Saimiri outgroups for Procrustes shape with and without Aotus based on the whole cranium and six anatomical regions. All phylogenetic signal tests were significant, and tree lengths were shortest and had the least morphological change over the phylogeny for Procrustes residuals from the cranial base and palate. The majority of phylogenetic analyses of Procrustes shape for pitheciids without Aotus supported the molecular phylogeny, and with Aotus included the majority inferred an Aotus-Callicebus clade, although three analyses with Callimico as outgroup supported the molecular phylogeny. The morphological similarity of Aotus and Callicebus is likely a mix of plesiomorphy, allometry, and homoplasy, and future phylogenetic inference of living and extinct platyrrhine taxa should consider the impact of these factors alongside outgroup selection and cranial region.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , América Central , Pitheciidae , Platirrinos
15.
Nature ; 533(7602): 243-6, 2016 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096364

RESUMO

New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Fósseis , Platirrinos , Clima Tropical , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cebidae , Florestas , História Antiga , América do Norte , Oceanos e Mares , Panamá , Filogenia , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/classificação
16.
Am J Primatol ; 78(8): 851-60, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078687

RESUMO

Assessing manual lateralization in non-human primates could be an optimal way to understand the adaptive value of this asymmetry in humans. Though many studies have investigated hand preferences in Old and New World monkeys and apes, fewer studies have considered manual lateralization in strepsirrhines, especially in experimental tasks. This study investigated hand preferences for a unimanual and a bimanual task of 17 captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed at Parco Natura Viva (VR), Italy. The effect of age on handedness has been also investigated. The lemurs were tested on a unimanual task, in which subjects were restricted to using one hand to retrieve the food inside an apparatus, and on a bimanual task, in which lemurs had to use one hand to keep the apparatus door open while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. At the population-level, our results revealed an asymmetrical hand use distribution, in particular a bias toward a right hand preference for food reaching in both the unimanual and the bimanual tasks. Furthermore, at the individual-level, the bimanual task seems to elicit a greater hand preference than the unimanual task. Results of this study underline the importance of experimental tasks in determining hand preference in strepsirrhines. Furthermore, as bimanual tasks elicited a stronger degree of lateralization, they appear to be more suited to investigate manual laterality. Finally, findings from this study highlight the presence of a right hand preference in ring-tailed lemurs, shedding new light on the evolution of human right handedness. Am. J. Primatol. 78:851-860, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Lemur , Animais , Cebidae , Mãos , Lemuridae
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26577193

RESUMO

Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510 bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Cebidae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Bartonella/classificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes de RNAr , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Clima Tropical
18.
Zoolog Sci ; 32(1): 97-104, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660702

RESUMO

Sapajus apella is a wild monkey of South America distributed across almost all of Brazil. This species adapts to domesticated life and reproduces easily. The present study describes the macro- and microscopic morphology of male genital organs (penis, penis bone, glans penis, prepuce, bulb of penis, and urethra) of Sapajus apella. Four male monkeys were used in this study. For macroscopic description, the genitals were dissected, examined and photographed. For microscopic analysis, samples were stained by HE and Tricom Masson and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The penis has a gutter shape with numerous spines on the free part of the penis and glans, and showed cavernous body elements in which mesenchymal cells appear. The glans penis is well developed with a broad crown shape. The prepuce does not cover the free part of the penis. The bulb displays well-developed muscle structure and the membranous urethra is very elongated. These results reveal that Sapajus apella shows specific male genital features, different from other primates.


Assuntos
Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Masculino
20.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 298(1): 29-47, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339421

RESUMO

Cranial and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) form has been shown to reflect masticatory forces and mandibular range of motion, which vary in relation to feeding strategy. Similarly, the dentition, as the portion of the masticatory apparatus most directly involved in triturating food items, strongly reflects dietary profile. Fine control over condylar and mandibular movements guides the teeth into occlusion, while the topography and position of the dental arcade mediate mandibular movements. We hypothesize that masticatory, and particularly TMJ, morphology and dental form covary in predictable ways with one another and with diet. We employed three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to examine inter-specific variation in ten platyrrhine species. Landmarks were collected on six datasets describing the upper and lower molars, cranium, glenoid fossa, mandible, and mandibular condyle; two-block partial least squares analyses were performed to assess covariation between cranial morphology, dentition, and diet. Significant relationships were identified between the molars and the cranium, mandible, and glenoid fossa. Some of these shape complexes reflect feeding strategy; for example, higher crowned/cusped dentitions, as found in primates consuming larger quantities of structural carbohydrates (e.g., Alouatta and Saimiri), correspond to anteroposterior longer and deeper glenoid fossae. These results indicate strong covariance between dental and TMJ form, aspects of which are related to feeding behavior. However, other aspects of morphological variation display a strong phylogenetic signal; we must therefore examine further ways in which to control for phylogeny when examining covariation in interspecific masticatory form.


Assuntos
Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Cebidae/fisiologia , Matemática , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Alimentos/classificação , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Filogenia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiologia , Dente/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...