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1.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(3): 407-410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599563

RESUMO

Background and study aims: Inadequate bowel preparation in patients scheduled for colonoscopy is an important problem. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effect of physician-provided bowel preparation education on the quality of bowel preparation and process. Patients and methods: A total of 150 outpatients who were referred to Kocaeli University Medical Faculty Hospital Gastroenterology Unit for colonoscopy between May 2019 and October 2019 were enrolled in our prospective, endoscopist-blinded study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (education group) included 73 patients who received 10 minutes of verbal information from a physician in addition to a written information form. Group 2 (control group) included 75 patients who received information from a medical secretary in addition to a written information form. During colonoscopy, the quality of bowel preparation was assessed using the Boston bowel preparation scale (BBPS). A BBPS score = 5 was considered adequate bowel preparation. The mean BBPS score, polyp detection rate, cecal intubation rate and time, and procedure time were also evaluated. Results: The rate of adequate bowel preparation (BBPS score = 5) was 90.4% and 74.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.021). The odds ratio for having a BBPS score = 5 in the education group was 3.199 compared with the control group (95% confidence interval = 1.254-8.164; p = 0.015). The cecal intubation rates were 91.8% and 88% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05). The cecal intubation time, procedure time, and adenoma detection rates were similar between the groups. The relationships of age, education level, sex, diabetes mellitus, medicine use, procedure time, and intraabdominal surgery with inadequate bowel preparation were analysed using a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no significant factors associated with inadequate bowel preparation. Conclusions: Patient education on the bowel preparation process via a physician improved the quality of bowel preparation.


Assuntos
Ceco , Médicos , Catárticos , Colonoscopia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(4): 217-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470996

RESUMO

It is well known that dietary fiber stimulates the release of satiety hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which in turn suppresses appetite. In order to evaluate appetite regulating role of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG, one of the resistant starch), we examined the effects of dietary supplementation of ESG on food intake and cecal proglucagon gene expression in normal and high fat diet-fed mice. Twenty four male ICR mice were weighed and assigned to four groups: normal diet group; normal diet containing 25% ESG group; high-fat diet (HFD) group; HFD containing 25% ESG group. Each group was fed the relevant diets for 3 wk. All data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA with the main effects of HFD and ESG. ESG significantly decreased food intake and increased the weight of the cecum and cecal content. Plasma total short chain fatty acids concentration was significantly elevated by ESG. The mRNA levels of proglucagon in the cecum and plasma total GLP-1 concentration were significantly increased by ESG. The mRNA levels of appetite regulating neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, and cocain- and amphetamine-regulating transcript in the hypothalamus were not influenced by ESG. There is no significant interaction between diet and ESG in any parameters. These results suggest that ESG-induced upregulation of GLP-1 production in the cecum suppresses food intake in mice and that fecal fermentation may be involved in the anorexigenic effect.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glicogênio , Animais , Ceco , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3757-3761, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476557

RESUMO

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are present in various animal species including pigs. The aim of this work was to analyze the occurrence of SFB in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets of different ages. A total of 377 DNA extracts from stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon digesta, and from feces collected on different time points, originating from 155 animals, were screened by qPCR method with primers specific for the SFB. SFB sequences were detected in 74 of 377 samples (19.6%) from 155 animals in total. SFB were most abundant in ileum (50.0%), cecum (45.0%), and colon (37.0%), followed by feces (14.6%). SFB prevalence in sows was 12.9% (13/101) and 75.9% (41/54) in individual piglets. Of the 41 SFB-positive piglets, only two samples were from pre-weaning animals, while the rest of samples originated from post-weaning piglets. SFB sequences are abundant in post-weaning piglets, but not in suckling or adult animals. They are most abundant in the ileum and cecum of pigs. Further studies are warranted to reveal the role of SFB in pigs.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Íleo , Animais , Ceco , Clostridiaceae , Feminino , Suínos , Desmame
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125868, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492815

RESUMO

Comprehensive studies on the effects of cold stress on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the intestines and feces remain scarce. In this study, pigs were selected as the animal model and divided into a normal temperature group and a 48-h short-term cold stress group. The ARG profiles in fecal, cecal content and cecal mucosa samples were analyzed. The results showed that the normalized abundance of ARGs in the cecal mucosa samples in the cold stress group was significantly higher than that in the normal temperature group, while the normalized ARG abundances in the fecal and cecal content samples were significantly lower than those in the normal temperature group (P < 0.05). The bacterial community composition (especially Firmicutes) was the major driver impacting the ARG profile and accounted for 32.2% of the variation in the ARG profile, followed by metabolites (especially creatinine and oxypurinol) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (especially plasmids and insertion elements). And it was found that creatinine and oxypurinol can reduce the abundance of ARGs and Firmicutes in the in vitro experiment. The results indicate that short-term cold stress can reduce the abundance of ARGs in the cecum and feces of pigs, providing reference data for environmental safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ceco , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fezes , Suínos
5.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 386, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding the functional role of microRNA-193-3p (miR-193-3p) in sepsis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of miR-193-3p on myocardial injury in mice with sepsis and its mechanism through the regulation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). METHODS: The mice model of sepsis was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), septic mice were injected with miR-193-3p agomir, miR-193-3p antagomir or siRNA-STAT3. The expression of miR-193-3p, STAT3 and HMGB1 in the myocardial tissue of septic mice were detected. Cardiac ultrasound, hemodynamics, myocardial injury markers, inflammatory factors and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in septic mice were measured. RESULTS: MiR-193-3p expression was reduced while STAT3 expression was increased in septic mice. Down-regulated STAT3 or up-regulated miR-193-3p improved cardiac function, attenuated myocardial injury, inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in septic mice. Knockdown STAT3 reversed the role of inhibited miR-193-3p for mice with sepsis. miR-193-3p targeted STAT3, thereby inhibiting HMGB1 expression. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that miR-193-3p targets STAT3 expression to reduce HMGB1 expression, thereby reducing septic myocardial damage. MiR-193-3p might be a potential candidate marker and therapeutic target for sepsis.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Sepse , Animais , Apoptose , Ceco , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Sepse/complicações
6.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 177, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microbiota in the cecum of laying hens is crucial for host digestion, metabolism, and odor gas production. The results of recent studies have suggested that host microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate gene expression of the gut microbiota. In the present study, the expression profiles of host-derived miRNAs in the cecal content of two laying hen breeds; Hy-line Gray and Lohmann Pink, which have dissimilar H2S production, were characterized; and their effects on H2S production by regulating the expression of gut microbiota-associated genes were demonstrated. RESULTS: The differential expression of microbial serine O-acetyltransferase, methionine synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, methionine-gamma-lyase, and adenylylsulfate kinase between the two hen breeds resulted in lower H2S production in the Hy-line hens. The results also revealed the presence of miRNA exosomes in the cecal content of laying hens, and an analysis of potential miRNA-target relationships between 9 differentially expressed miRNAs and 9 differentially expressed microbial genes related to H2S production identified two methionine synthase genes, Odosp_3416 and BF9343_2953, that are targeted by gga-miR-222a. Interestingly, in vitro fermentation results showed that gga-miR-222a upregulates the expression of these genes, which increased methionine concentrations but decreased H2S production and soluble sulfide concentrations, indicating the potential of host-derived gga-miR-222a to reduce H2S emission in laying hens. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study reveal both a physiological role by which miRNAs shape the cecal microbiota of laying hens and a strategy to use host miRNAs to manipulate the microbiome and actively express key microbial genes to reduce H2S emissions and breed environmentally friendly laying hens. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Galinhas , MicroRNAs , 5-Metiltetra-Hidrofolato-Homocisteína S-Metiltransferase , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ceco , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , MicroRNAs/genética
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388441

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) has consistently been the most common serotype associated with the foodborne Salmonellosis worldwide. In this study, the effect of a dietary direct-fed microbial (DFM) and yeast cell walls (YCW) under a challenge of nalidixic acid resistant SE strain using layer chicks has been investigated. A total of 160 newly hatched Dekalb White female chicks were randomly assigned into 2 experimental groups (80 birds/treatment), control group (CON) and treatment group (DY). Chicks were fed ad libitum a non-medicated-corn-soy based diet and DY was supplemented with the combination of DFM and YCW. At 8 days of age, 2.1 × 109 CFU/bird of the SE was given to all chicks by oral administration. On 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 20 chicks/group were euthanized and all cecal contents were collected for analysis. On 6, 10, and 14 dpi, the cecal contents were sampled from 16 chicks per group. The number of SE in the cecal contents was counted using culture-based methods. A 16S rRNA-based microbiota analysis was performed for additional microbial profiling. The CON and DY showed difference (P ≤ 0.05) in ß diversity throughout the trial. Prevalence of SE in cecal contents was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in DY across all time-points. Lower abundance of Salmonella spp. was also shown in DY by liner discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe). DY increased (P ≤ 0.05) diversity of bacterial species in the cecal contents in DY at 10 and 14 dpi. For the SE challenged birds, SE reduction in DY was observed at 3 dpi and until the end of the trial at 14 dpi confirming a numerically larger difference between groups as well as an increase in bacterial species diversity in DY. It could be hypothesized that the SE reduction shown immediately after the challenge and the greater SE reduction shown after 10 dpi may be the synergistic effect of the combined feed additives.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Animais , Ceco , Parede Celular , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Ácido Nalidíxico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Salmonella enteritidis
8.
Life Sci ; 284: 119882, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384829

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome arising from infection-induced uncontrolled systemic inflammatory responses. Patients surviving severe sepsis also exhibit increased mortality due to enhanced vulnerability to infections. In this study, we examined whether (R)-ketamine could prevent against lethal sepsis-induced systemic inflammation and inflammatory organ injury. MAIN METHODS: Septic model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery on adult mice. (R)-ketamine (10 or 15 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 24 h before and/or immediately after CLP. KEY FINDINGS: Combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg), as well as either prophylactic or therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine at a single dose of 15 mg/kg did not reduce 14-day mortality after CLP. However, combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine (15 mg/kg) significantly increased 14-day survival rate, attenuated sepsis-induced marked drop in the rectal temperature and increase in the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines [i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10] 12 h after CLP. Furthermore, (R)-ketamine alleviated sepsis-induced increase in the organ injury markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), myocardial kinase (CK-MB), and creatinine 24 h after CLP. Moreover, the increased lung wet/dry weight ratio, pulmonary morphological injury and the pulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines were also attenuated by (R)-ketamine. SIGNIFICANCE: Combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of (R)-ketamine could attenuate systemic inflammation and inflammatory multi-organ injury in mice after CLP-induced lethal sepsis. Therefore, (R)-ketamine would be a potential prophylactic and therapeutic drug for patients prone to sepsis.


Assuntos
Ceco/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Ketamina/farmacologia , Ligadura , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Punções , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4725, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354051

RESUMO

Gut microbiota deficient mice demonstrate accelerated glucose clearance. However, which tissues are responsible for the upregulated glucose uptake remains unresolved, with different studies suggesting that browning of white adipose tissue, or modulated hepatic gluconeogenesis, may be related to enhanced glucose clearance when the gut microbiota is absent. Here, we investigate glucose uptake in 22 different tissues in 3 different mouse models. We find that gut microbiota depletion via treatment with antibiotic cocktails (ABX) promotes glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cecum. Nevertheless, the adaptive thermogenesis and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) are dispensable for the increased glucose uptake and clearance. Deletion of Ucp1 expressing cells blunts the improvement of glucose clearance in ABX-treated mice. Our results indicate that BAT and cecum, but not white adipose tissue (WAT) or liver, contribute to the glucose uptake in the gut microbiota depleted mouse model and this response is dissociated from adaptive thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/deficiência , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As right colon polyps are challenging to detect, a retroflexed view of right colon (RV) may be useful. However, cecal retroflexion (CR) without a RV to the hepatic flexure (HF) is inadequate. We aimed to determine the frequency of CR and quality of the RV in routine practice. METHODS: This prospective observational study performed at an academic medical center assessed colonoscopy inspection technique of endoscopists who had performed ≥ 100 annual screening colonoscopies. We video recorded ≥ 28 screening/surveillance colonoscopies per endoscopist and randomly evaluated 7 videos per endoscopist. Six gastroenterologists blindly reviewed the videos to determine if CR was performed and HF withdrawal time (cecum to HF time, excluding ileal/polypectomy time). RESULTS: Reviewers assessed 119 colonoscopies performed by 17 endoscopists. The median HF withdrawal time was 3 min and 46 s. CR was performed in 31% of colonoscopies. CR frequency varied between endoscopists with 9 never performing CR and 2 performing CR in all colonoscopies. When performed, nearly half (43%) of RVs did not extend to the HF with median RV duration of 16 s (IQR 9-30 s). Three polyps were identified in the RV (polyp detection rate of 8.1%), all identified prior to a forward view. CONCLUSIONS: CR is performed infrequently in routine practice. When CR is performed, the RV is of low quality with a very short inspection duration and insufficient ascending colon examination. Further education is required to educate endoscopists in optimal technique to improve overall colonoscopy quality.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos do Colo , Ceco , Colo Ascendente , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Humanos
11.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 174, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The catabolic activity of the microbiota contributes to health by aiding in nutrition, immune education, and niche protection against pathogens. However, the nutrients consumed by common taxa within the gut microbiota remain incompletely understood. METHODS: Here we combined microbiota profiling with an un-targeted metabolomics approach to determine whether depletion of small metabolites in the cecum of mice correlated with the presence of specific bacterial taxa. Causality was investigated by engrafting germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice with complex or defined microbial communities. RESULTS: We noted that a depletion of Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia from the gut microbiota triggered by antibiotic treatment was associated with an increase in the cecal concentration of sugar acids and sugar alcohols (polyols). Notably, when we inoculated germ-free mice with a defined microbial community of 14 Clostridia and 3 Erysipelotrichia isolates, we observed the inverse, with a marked decrease in the concentrations of sugar acids and polyols in cecal contents. The carbohydrate footprint produced by the defined microbial community was similar to that observed in gnotobiotic mice receiving a cecal microbiota transplant from conventional mice. Supplementation with sorbitol, a polyol used as artificial sweetener, increased cecal sorbitol concentrations in antibiotic-treated mice, which was abrogated after inoculation with a Clostridia isolate able to grow on sorbitol in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that consumption of sugar alcohols by Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia species depletes these metabolites from the intestinal lumen during homeostasis. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Clostridiaceae/classificação , Clostridiaceae/metabolismo , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Vida Livre de Germes , Camundongos
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328194

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress and autophagy results in acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis and microRNA (miR)­214 serves a vital role in the protection of kidneys subjected to oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test whether the renoprotection of miR­214 is related to autophagy in sepsis. The role of autophagy was investigated in a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) was used to analyze the expression of miR­214. The structure and function of kidneys harvested from the mice were evaluated. Kidney autophagy levels were detected with immunohistochemical, immunofluorescent and western blotting. It was found that miR­214 could alleviate AKI in septic mice by inhibiting the level of kidney autophagy. Furthermore, miR­214 inhibited autophagy by silencing PTEN expression in the kidney tissues of septic mice. These findings indicated that miR­214 ameliorated CLP­induced AKI by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting autophagy through the regulation of the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/genética , Autofagia/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Ceco/lesões , Ceco/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Ligadura , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Punções , Sepse/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 55(4): 400-412, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative adhesions may induce adverse outcomes in patients. Adhesion formation is initiated by fibrin accumulation at the surgical site which is followed by local neutrophilia and the establishment of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Previous reports have suggested that the preventive efficacy of reagents designed to reduce postoperative adhesion is inversely correlated with neutrophilia and NET production. Antithrombin (AT) is a natural inhibitor of thrombin, a key factor in coagulation. Here, we evaluate whether treatment with AT and/or NET inhibitors prevent or reduce postoperative adhesion formation in mice. METHODS: Mice were treated with AT and/or NET inhibitors before and/or after cecum cauterization and their adhesion scores were evaluated on day 7 post-operation. Immunochemistry/ immunofluorescence analyses were also performed and we used GSK484, an inhibitor of peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), as the NET inhibitor. RESULTS: AT or GSK484 partially rescued postoperative adhesion formation in mice. AT prevented thrombin-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and interleukin-6 expression in mesothelial cells in vitro. However, AT could not prevent neutrophilia or NETs formation around the injured serosa. Finally, we investigated a combination of AT and a PAD4 inhibitor and found that this could inhibit almost all adhesion formation in these animals. Since AT-inactivating proteases are liberated following NET release, they might dampen the biological action of the AT treatment. This suggests that NET inhibitors might allow AT to exert its full action in the surgically injured serosa. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with AT and GSK484 may effectively attenuate postoperative adhesion production in mice.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/patologia , Ceco/cirurgia , Feminino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 4/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Serpina E2/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196704

RESUMO

Limits on the use and efficacy of various antibiotics coupled with negative consumer perception of the practice have together spurred substantial research into compounds that could reduce the use antibiotics to control bacterial diseases in pigs. Bacteriophages are often among such potential compounds, and various groups have examined the efficacy of bacteriophages or bacteriophage products in limiting transmission or colonization of targeted bacteria. The study presented here provides a systematic review of such studies followed by a meta-analysis of aggregated data produced by each study. The data set was limited to inputs (n = 19; 576 total observations) from studies where: 1) live pigs were inoculated with a known quantity of challenge bacteria; 2) challenged animals were treated with a known quantity of phages; 3) concentrations of the challenge bacteria were measured in different tissues/fluids following phage treatment; and 4) SD (or SE to allow calculation of SD) was reported. Concentrations of challenge bacteria were significantly lower in phage-treated pigs versus challenged but untreated pigs (P < 0.0001; effect size = -1.06 1log10 colony-forming units [CFU]/g). The effect size of phage treatment was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in samples collected 48 to 96 h following phage treatment versus those collected ≤ 24 h following phage treatment. Likewise, effect size of phage treatment was significantly greater in piglets versus market-weight pigs. Across observations, phage treatment effect sizes were greatest (P < 0.01) in fecal samples versus ileal or cecal samples. Taken together, these data indicate that phage treatment can significantly reduce the concentrations of targeted bacteria in pigs; scenarios exist, however, where phage treatment could predictably be more or less effective.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Terapia por Fagos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Ceco , Fezes , Terapia por Fagos/veterinária , Suínos
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(7): 1072-1076, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290185

RESUMO

Background: Colonoscopy is an investigation modality used for colorectal examination; it is the most accurate technique for the diagnosis and surveillance of important colorectal diseases such as cancers (colorectal cancer) and polyps. Aims: Most studies on colonoscopy in Nigeria were conducted in southwest such as Ilorin, Ife, Ibadan, and Lagos. We therefore feel the need to get information from other regions such as northwest, the area of this study. The aim of this study was to identify the common indications as well as colonoscopic findings among patients who had colonoscopy in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Methodology: It was a 10-year retrospective descriptive study of patients who had colonoscopy between January 2008 and December 2017 at the study center. Colonoscopy register was used to extract information concerning the patient's age, gender, symptoms that necessitated the request for the procedure, and the endoscopic findings. Results: A total of 839 patient records were reviewed, males constituted 62.2% of the patients. The mean age ± standard deviation was 43.86 ± 18.36 years, with a range of 8-96 years. The 30-39 years constituted the modal age group, followed by 40-49 years and 50-59 years. The commonest indications for the procedure were rectal bleeding (52.4%), chronic abdominal pain (51.3%), and diarrhea (48.8%). The cecal intubation rate was 98.2% with hemorrhoids as the commonest finding (42.3%) followed by suspected inflammatory bowel disease lesions (18.1%) and suspected colorectal tumors (16.2%). Conclusion: The commonest reason for colonoscopy was rectal bleeding while the commonest colonoscopic finding was hemorrhoids.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Colonoscopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ceco , Criança , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207032

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with distinct, stratified environments, which leads to different microbial composition in different intestinal segments. The regional heterogeneity of intestinal microbiota complicates the relationship between diet and microbiota. Few studies have focused on the effects of different diets on microbiota in different intestinal segments. This study aimed to investigate the effects of functional fiber on the microbial composition in multiple intestinal segments from a high-fat diet compared with a normal chow diet. We found that the response of microbiota from different intestinal segments to diet was related to the intestinal physiologic function and the physicochemical properties of dietary nutrients. A high-fat diet drove changes in the microbial composition in the hindgut, possibly by affecting the digestive environment of the foregut, and increased the regional heterogeneity of the whole intestinal microbiota. The supplementation of functional fiber promoted the microbial transfer and colonization from the anterior to the posterior intestinal segments, and increased the regional similarity of intestinal microbiota accordingly, particularly within the hindgut. The gut fermentation of the functional fiber, which mainly occurred in the hindgut, resulted in a significant change in the microbial composition and metabolism in the cecum and colon, with richer carbohydrate metabolism-related bacteria, including Mucispirillum, Prevotella, Anaerostipes, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus (Lachnospiraceae), and Allobaculum, and higher production of acetate and butyrate. We concluded that multiple regulatory mechanisms of diets which affect microbiota composition exist, including microbial metabolism, microbial migration, and the regulation of the intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Especificidade de Órgãos
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 59-66, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252703

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the disease severity and local immune responses in macrophage-depleted chicks with Eimeria tenella. Macrophages were reduced by intraperitoneal injection of a carrageenan solution at 12, 13, and 16 days old, whereas the control group received intraperitoneal phosphate-buffered saline. Both chick groups were orally inoculated with E. tenella sporulated oocysts at 14 days old. Feces were collected daily, which were then quantified for oocysts. The chicks were sacrificed on day 5, and the ceca were collected for histopathological observation. The gene expression levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Macrophage-depleted chicks have been observed to shed a significantly reduced number of fecal oocysts compared to the infected control group. The parasite burden score in cecum specimens of macrophage-depleted chicks was significantly lower than those of infected control on day 5 after infection. Furthermore, macrophage reduction yielded significantly lower cecum histopathological scores and CD4 expression than those of the infected control group. The expression of interleukin (IL)-18, IL-22, interferon-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was also noted to be significantly upregulated in both infected control and macrophage-depleted chicks compared to uninfected chicks. IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, and perforin expressions were also higher with macrophage depletion than in both control groups. These results suggest that macrophages serve as an invasive gate or a transporting vehicle to the site of first merogony. Furthermore, mononuclear phagocytes may play an important role in local immune responses, thus contributing to parasite development during early E. tenella infection.


Assuntos
Carragenina , Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Macrófagos , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
18.
JSLS ; 25(2)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316245

RESUMO

Background: Not all benign-appearance polyps are amenable to endoscopic removal and colectomy is required in some cases. This study aims to compare the early outcomes of cecal wedge resection with ileocecal valve sparring versus standard right colectomy in patients with endoscopically unresectable cecal polyps referred for surgery. Methods: From Apr 2010 to Aug 2019, all consecutive patients who underwent cecal wedge resection or right colectomy in ten European centers for a presumed endoscopically benign polyp unsuitable for endoscopic resection were retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint was morbidity. Secondary endpoints were operative time and length of hospital stay. Results: One hundred and ten patients were included: 25 patients underwent cecal wedge resection and 85 a right colectomy. There were 56 men (51%) and 90% of the procedures were performed laparoscopically. 29 lesions were located at the appendix orifice (26.4%). Mortality was nil. There were no significant differences between both procedures for morbidity rate (20% versus 24.7%) or reoperation (4% versus 4.7%). Cecal wedge was related to shorter operative time (63 min versus 150 min, P = .008) and shorter hospital stay (5 days versus 6 days, P = .049). Only 1 patient had a salvage right colectomy after cecal wedge for a pTis adenoma. Conclusions: For benign-appearance cecal polyps unsuitable for endoscopic ablation, cecal wedge resection is safe and should be considered as an attractive alternative to right colectomy.


Assuntos
Colectomia , Pólipos do Colo , Valva Ileocecal , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ceco/cirurgia , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Valva Ileocecal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Food Chem ; 365: 130641, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325349

RESUMO

As an important component of ginseng, the in vivo benefits of ginseng water-soluble dietary fiber (ginseng-SDF) have not been fully revealed. To explore these benefits, healthy rats were given ginseng-SDF (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 15 days. The results showed that ginseng-SDF significantly improved the rats' growth performance and serum antioxidant status. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, and IgG) levels in the ginseng-SDF groups were increased. High-dose ginseng-SDF significantly increased the cecal butyric acid proportion compared with the K group. Ginseng-SDF increased the abundance of Firmicutes and promoted the proliferation of probiotics such as Lactobacillus, and cellulose decomposers such as Ruminococcus and Clostridium in cecal microflora. These altered microflora were correlated with growth performance, antioxidant status and immunoglobulin indexes. The above results suggested that ginseng-SDF might have positive effects on growth, oxidative-immune levels and cecal health in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Panax , Animais , Ceco , Fibras na Dieta , Fatores Imunológicos , Ratos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112486, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237637

RESUMO

Ammonia emissions are a high-focus pollution issue in the livestock industry. Ammonia-degrading bacteria can assimilate ammonia nitrogen as a nitrogen source to promote their growth and reproduction, providing an environmentally friendly, low-cost and safe biological way to reduce ammonia emissions from livestock. However, it remains unclear how ammonia-degrading bacteria reduce ammonia emissions from animals and what are the key ammonia assimilation genes. In the present study, two strains with ammonia nitrogen-degrading abilities (Enterococcus faecium strain C2 and Bacillus coagulans strain B1) were screened from laying chicken caecal and faecal samples and reduced ammonia emission rates by 53.60% and 31.38%, respectively. The expression levels of the ammonia assimilation genes gdhA, glnA, and GMPS increased significantly. On this basis, we successfully constructed three clone strains (PET-GDH, PET-GS, and PET-GMPS) that expressed the gdhA, glnA and GMPS genes in E. coli, respectively, to verify their ammonia-reducing activities. The results of an in vitro fermentation study showed that the ammonia production of the PET-GDH and PET-GS groups was significantly lower than that of the empty vector group (p < 0.05), with ammonia emission reduction rates of 55.5% and 54.8%, respectively. However, there was no difference between the PET-GMPS and empty vector groups. These results indicate that gdhA and glnA may be key genes involved in the bacterial-mediated regulation of ammonia emissions by laying hens, and ammonia emissions may be reduced by regulating their expression. The results of the present study provide a theoretical basis for the construction of engineered bacteria to reduce ammonia production in animals.


Assuntos
Amônia , Escherichia coli , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Nitrogênio
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