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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 813-820, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743706

RESUMO

In this study, we fed ICR mice with a high-sucrose diet containing 20% w/w of milk-casein (MC), egg-white (EW), or soy-protein (SP) for 14 days in order to detect the presence of protein-susceptible gut indigenous bacteria (P-SIB). The caecal microbiome was examined by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing using a next-generation MiSeq system. Principal coordinate analysis of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed that the microbiomes differed among the three groups. Typical SIB found in the MC-fed group were Bacteroides acidifaciens-, Bacteroides sartorii-, Eisenbergiella sp., and Lachnospiraceae sp.-like; in the EW-fed group were Lactobacillus murinus and Enterococcus faecium/avium-like; and in the SP-fed group were Muribaculaceae sp.-like bacteria. We also found that a few Lachnospiraceae sp.- and Clostridium disporicum-like bacteria were suppressed in the EW-fed mice. Out of the P-SIB detected, B. acidifaciens, L. murinus, E. faecium, and E. avium could be isolated and identified using BL agar and 16S rDNA BLAST search, respectively.


Assuntos
Albuminas/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Caseínas/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Leite/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Peso Corporal , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tamanho do Órgão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Zoology (Jena) ; 137: 125715, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731146

RESUMO

Energy requirements of an animal are size dependent and, in this study, the average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) of six Negev Desert gerbilline rodents, ranging in body mass (mb) from 10g to over 200g, scaled to mb0.57. Although gerbilline rodents are considered 'granivores', these rodents consume substantial amounts of green vegetation and the largest gerbil is a strict herbivore. We predicted that the lengths of the compartments of the digestive tract would scale allometrically to mb0.33 and that ADMR would scale allometrically to the lengths of the compartments to the exponent of 1.73. Using log-transformed data, the length of the colon scaled to mb0.50 (r2adj = 0.74; p= 0.02), of the caecum to mb0.45 (r2adj=0.80; p= 0.01) and of the small intestine to mb0.30 (r2adj=0.59; p < 0.05). Therefore, the exponents for the colon and caecum were higher than predicted and were close to the exponent for ADMR generated for the rodents. The absolute lengths of the colon (r2adj=0.68; p= 0.03; slope = 0.99) and of the caecum (r2adj=0.79; p= 0.01; slope = 1.19) were related significantly to ADMR, but of the small intestine was not (r2adj=0.04; p=0.33; slope = 0.85). The exponents implied that the relationships were isometric and not allometric as predicted and that the rates of increase of the lengths of the intestine compartments were at the same rate as the increase in ADMR. The lengths of the colon and caecum were highly correlated between each other (r2adj=0.98; p< 0.001; slope = 1.12) and explained most of the variation in ADMR. Green vegetation could be a nutritional bottleneck for rodents as it is bulky and, consequently, limits the dietary intake, and fermentation occurs in the caecum and colon, whereas seeds, which are compact and are digested in the small intestine, would limit intake to a much lesser degree. However, when the effect of body mass was eliminated by using residuals of the variables on body mass, only the length of the small intestine was significant (r2adj=0.86; p< 0.005; slope = -1.33) and was related negatively to ADMR. Therefore, when effects of body size were removed, most of the variation in ADMR was explained by the length of the small intestine and implied that the length of the small intestine increased with a decrease in ADMR. A higher energy expenditure was related to a shorter small intestine and, therefore, by implication, a higher concentration of metabolizable energy yield of the diet. We also questioned whether there are differences in the morphology of the digestive tract due to differences in dietary consumption. The digestive tracts of the gerbils were not diverse and could be characterized as structurally homogenous. All the gerbils had a uni-locular, hemi-glandular stomach and the differences in the digestive tract among species did not seem to be of functional importance, but rather were related to the taxon. However, some important morpho-functional characteristics of the digestive tract emerged that apply to the whole group.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Metabolismo Energético , Gerbillinae/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Clima Desértico , Gerbillinae/anatomia & histologia , Israel , Tamanho do Órgão , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319545

RESUMO

The Western dietary pattern can alter the gut microbiome and cause obesity and metabolic disorders. To examine the interactions between diet, the microbiome, and obesity, we transplanted gut microbiota from lean or obese human donors into mice fed one of three diets for 22 weeks: (1) a control AIN93G diet; (2) the total Western diet (TWD), which mimics the American diet; or (3) a 45% high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet. We hypothesized that a fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) from obese donors would lead to an obese phenotype and aberrant glucose metabolism in recipient mice that would be exacerbated by consumption of the TWD or DIO diets. Prior to the FMT, the native microbiome was depleted using an established broad-spectrum antibiotic protocol. Interestingly, the human donor body type microbiome did not significantly affect final body weight or body composition in mice fed any of the experimental diets. Beta diversity analysis and linear discriminant analysis with effect size (LEfSe) showed that mice that received an FMT from obese donors had a significantly different microbiome compared to mice that received an FMT from lean donors. However, after 22 weeks, diet influenced the microbiome composition irrespective of donor body type, suggesting that diet is a key variable in the shaping of the gut microbiome after FMT.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso
4.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330894

RESUMO

Paramylon (PM), a type of ß-glucan, functions like dietary fiber, which has been suggested to exert a protective effect against obesity. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of PM powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either 2.5 or 5% PM powder, extracted from Euglena gracilis, for 74 days. Growth parameters, abdominal fat content, serum biochemical markers, hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic mRNA expression were measured. Dietary supplementation with PM resulted in decreased food efficiency ratios and abdominal fat accumulation. Dose-dependent decreases were observed in postprandial glucose levels, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and serum secretary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations. PM supplementation increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression in the liver which is suggested to induce ß-oxidation through activation of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) mRNA expression. Changes in fatty acid metabolism may improve lipid and glucose metabolism. In conclusion, a preventive effect against obesity was observed in mice given a PM-enriched diet. The mechanism is suggested to involve a reduction in both serum LDL-cholesterol levels and the accumulation of abdominal fat, in addition to an improvement in postprandial glucose concentration.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Euglena gracilis/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Fezes/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
5.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 476-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305954

RESUMO

The proximal caecum in quails consists of lymphoid and non-lymphoid structures. The caecal tonsils in the proximal part of the caecum are units of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in poultry. This study aimed to examine the histological characteristics of the proximal caecum, as well as compositions of dendritic cells (DCs) and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the caecal tonsil of quails. Tissue sections were stained with Crossman's triple, periodic acid-Schiff, Gordon and Sweet's silver, Congo red and methyl green-pyronin dyes, as well as immunohistochemically by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Caecal lymphoid tissue was located in the lamina propria and submucosa. Germinative centres were observed within the lymphoid tissue. Reticular fibres were mainly distributed in the border area of the germinal centre with only a few fibres scattered in the centre. Plasma cells were observed in the subepithelial region and germinal centres. Eosinophil granulocytes were prevalent in the lymphoid tissue. Additionally, CD83-immunoreactive DCs and MHC class II immunoreactive APCs were present in the subepithelial area and diffuse lymphoid tissue. While DCs were seen in the germinal centres of tonsillar units, APCs were rarely present in the germinal centres, but they were noticed around the germinal centres. In conclusion, the histological structure of the proximal caecum in quails and the distributions of some immunological cells in the caecal tonsils were revealed. Therefore, the defensive role of the caecal tonsils in the digestive system may be better understood, and comparative studies may be carried out.


Assuntos
Ceco , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Tonsila Palatina , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/citologia , Ceco/imunologia , Coturnix , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Tonsila Palatina/anatomia & histologia , Tonsila Palatina/citologia , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia
6.
Microsc Microanal ; 25(4): 1017-1031, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169105

RESUMO

The current investigation was carried out to record the final stages of the development of both middle and distal parts of quail ceca, Coturnix coturnix japonica to understand the role of ceca in digestion, immune system, and absorption. The cellular and subcellular structures, including epithelial cell height, microvillus surface area, the proportion of goblet cells, the thickness of muscle layer, and cecum diameter showed great variations during the development. An undeveloped smooth muscularis mucosa was observed for the first time on the ED5. Primordia of glands were observed on the ED7. On the ED15, the middle part exhibited two shapes of mucosal villi: tongue-shaped villi and U-shaped. The plicae and crypts of Lieberkühn were demonstrated on the hatching day. The lymphatic tissues appeared in the wall of both parts of the ceca at the 4 weeks of age. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a great difference in the mucosal surface between different regions. Telocytes were observed in-between the muscle fibers and formed a network during the post-hatching period. Because of fermentation and other bacterial or chemical processes that have been shown to occur in the ceca, this study supports two hypotheses: the cecal development is related to diet and the cecal epithelium act as a site for primary absorption of nutrients or for re-absorption of electrolytes or amino acids derived from the urine.


Assuntos
Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/embriologia , Coturnix , Organogênese , Animais , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4243, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862868

RESUMO

Avian ceca, a pair of blind sacs arising from the junction of the ileum and colon, are homologous to the cecum in mammals. Cecal size is hypothesized to depend on dietary proclivities and pressures, with faunivorous species having short ceca, whereas herbivorous species have long ceca. Previous tests of this hypothesis, however, did not account for phylogenetic pseudoreplication among closely related taxa. We collated published data on cecal length, dietary category, flying ability, and body mass from 155 avian taxa. Character states were mapped onto a phylogenetic framework, and the permutation tail probability test was used to detect phylogenetic signal in each character. Phylogenetic signal is significant among the characters. As with the cecoappendicular complex in mammals, closely-related birds tend to have similar cecal length. To account for phylogenetic pseudoreplication, we performed phylogenetic generalized least squares regression on cecal length and body mass with dietary category, superordinal-level clade, and flying ability as cofactors. The best-fitting regression model supports the dietary hypothesis for the avian cecum. Among sampled birds of comparable body mass, mean cecal length is significantly longer in herbivorous species than in carnivorous ones (p = 0.008), presumably allowing the extraction of nutrients without the burden of fermenting bulky masses of dietary fiber. Exceptions to this trend, however, suggest that avian ceca are functionally complex and may have additional roles in water balance and nitrogen recycling.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Ceco/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
8.
Wiad Lek ; 71(7): 1398-1403, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: According to numerous domestic and foreign researchers, morphofunctional structure of the digestive system of humans and rats have much in common, therefore, rats are used as the laboratory animals during the experiments. The aim of the paper was the comparative study of the histological structure of the gastrointestinal mucosa in human and white rat through the bibliographic analysis of the publications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The material for the investigation was current publications on the study of the histological structure of the intestine mucosa in human and white rat by analyzing, synthesizing and generalizing the resulting data. RESULTS: Review and discussion: Histologically, the gastrointestinal mucosa in white rat is similar to the human one. The gastrointestinal mucosa in white rats (with the exception of the generic difference in the structure of the stomach and the caecum), in its histological structure, is quite similar to the human one, to be studied in the experimental simulation of the specific lesions of the digestive system.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Estômago/anatomia & histologia
9.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 24(6): 311-316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226480

RESUMO

Background/Aims: To compare water exchange (WE) method with conventional air insufflation (AI) method for colonoscopy, evaluating the technical quality, screening efficacy, and patients' acceptance. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials comparing WE colonoscopy with AI colonoscopy. The pooled data of procedure-associated and patient-related outcomes were assessed, using the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables and relative risk (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous variables, respectively. Results: A total of 13 studies involving 7056 patients were included. The cecum intubation rate was similar between WE and AI methods (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.02,P = 0.37); however, a significantly longer cecum intubation time was shown in WE group (WMD = 1.56, 95% CI = 0.75-2.37,P = 0.002). Compared with AI, WE was associated with a higher risk of adenoma detection rate (ADR) (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.18-1.38,P < 0.00001) and polyp detection rate (PDR) (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.21-1.39,P < 0.00001). Patients in WE group experienced significantly less maximum pain score (WMD = -1.99, 95% CI = -2.68 to -1.30,P < 0.00001) and less requested on-demand sedation (RR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.44-0.77,P = 0.0002). Likewise, they also experienced less abdominal compression (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.51-0.74,P < 0.00001) and reposition (RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.63-0.86,P = 0.0001). Moreover, patients' willingness to repeat colonoscopy was significantly greater for WE (RR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.21,P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirmed that WE method could significantly increase ADR/PDR and improve patients' acceptance of colonoscopy, while reducing the degree of pain and minimize the need for on-demand sedation and adjunct maneuvers, despite requiring more cecal intubation time.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Colonoscopia/métodos , Insuflação/métodos , Água/administração & dosagem , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Ar/normas , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação/métodos , Intubação/tendências , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
J Morphol ; 279(9): 1282-1289, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187940

RESUMO

Several muroid rodent species are distributed throughout southern Africa. Some species are reportedly classified as opportunistic omnivorous rodents consuming plant, seed, and insect material. This study aims to provide a detailed morphometric analysis of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of four such omnivorous species, including stomach content analysis. Fixed GIT specimens (n = 5 of each) of Rhabdomys dilectus (Mesic four-striped grass mouse), Rhabdomys pumilio (Xeric four-striped grass mouse), Aethomys chrysophilus (Red rock rat), and Lemniscomys rosalia (Single-striped grass mouse) were weighed. Length and circumference measurements of each anatomically distinct GIT region were determined to calculate the basal surface area (BSA). Histological sections from each GIT region were used to calculate a surface enlargement factor (SEF). The BSA and SEF were multiplied to calculate the luminal surface area (LSA) of each GIT region. Stomach content was analyzed both macroscopically and histologically. All species had a similar GIT morphology, namely a unilocular, hemiglandular stomach with a clear limiting ridge, which indicated the transition from stratified squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium. A large loosely spiralled cecum was present in all species. A narrowing of the cecal apex accompanied by lymph aggregates, confirmed histologically in both Rhabdomys species, indicated a cecal appendix. A single short colonic loop with a unique folding pattern for each species was present in the proximal colon. The colonic mucosal surface presented with proximal V-shaped, and distal longitudinal folds. Intermediate transitional S-shaped folds were present in three species (R. dilectus, R. pumilio, and L. rosalia). Colonic mucosal folds indicated hindgut specialization similar to other muroid rodents. The hindgut specialization was further supported by morphometric analysis, which indicated large BSA and LSA measurements in the cecum and colon. These adaptations are consistent with herbivory, despite stomach content analysis revealing omnivorous tendencies.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Estômago/anatomia & histologia
11.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190769, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304153

RESUMO

Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP) and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK) activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Taninos , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos Endogâmicos WF , Albumina Sérica , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/anatomia & histologia
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 108: 1300-1309, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138000

RESUMO

A prospective completely randomized experimental study was conducted using 48 animals to evaluate the physiometabolic effects of Agave salmiana fructans as a dietary supplement in healthy Wistar rats. Five fructans concentrations from 5 to 20% (w/w) and one control were used in the rats' diet and were divided into six groups (n=8 rats/group). The treatments were carried out for 35days, during which glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, body-weight gain, food intake, fecal excretion, organ weights, renal and hepatic functions and a histological analysis of the cecum were evaluated. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, renal and hepatic functions were not significantly affected by any treatment. Body-weight gain and food intake were lower in the rat groups fed fructans than in the control group. Increased fecal excretion (p<0.05) was observed only in animals fed 12.5 and 20% fructans. Mice supplemented with fructans exhibited increased weight and length (p<0.05) in the cecum and colon. A histological analysis of the cecum showed cellular proliferation with a dose of 12.5% and membrane lysis at doses of 15 and 20%. In conclusion, the inclusion of 12.5% of Agave salmiana fructans in the animals' diets exerts beneficial physiometabolic effects after the seventh treatment day.


Assuntos
Agave/química , Frutanos/farmacologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/química , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Colo/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Clin Anat ; 30(7): 887-893, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631339

RESUMO

Little information is available on the length of the normal large intestine and its component parts in children. This information would be useful for procedures such as colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the length of the large intestine and its component parts in New Zealand children. Archival deidentified pediatric supine abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively analyzed. After exclusion criteria, a total of 112 scans (57 males and 55 females) were included in the study and divided into three age groups: 0-2 years (n = 33), 4-6 years (n = 40), and 9-11 years of age (n = 39). The length of the large bowel increased from a mean of 52 cm in children aged <2 years to 73 cm at 4-6 years and 95 cm at 9-11 years. In all age groups, the transverse colon was the longest segment, contributing ∼30% of the total length of the large bowel. In comparison to total large bowel length, the mean proportional length of the rectum (9-12%), sigmoid colon (23-27%), descending colon (19-22%), transverse colon (27-32%), and ascending colon (14-17%) varied little between the three age groups. There were no significant differences between males and females in all age groups. The cecum was located in the right upper quadrant in 27% of children aged 0-2 years but in the right lower quadrant in all 9-11 year olds. These data provide useful information on the length of the large intestine and its component parts in living children, which are particularly relevant to pediatric colonoscopy and surgery. Clin. Anat. 30:887-893, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Reto/anatomia & histologia , Canal Anal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ceco/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo Ascendente/anatomia & histologia , Colo Ascendente/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo Descendente/anatomia & histologia , Colo Descendente/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo Sigmoide/anatomia & histologia , Colo Sigmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo Transverso/anatomia & histologia , Colo Transverso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Morphol ; 278(6): 780-790, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28370359

RESUMO

Tachyoryctes splendens (Northeast African mole-rat) and Heliophobius emini (Emin's mole-rat) are two African mole-rats that represent separate allopatric rodent families namely Spalacidae and Bathyergidae respectively. While these species consume a similar diet of underground plant storage organs such as roots and tubers, T. splendens has been reported to additionally consume small amounts of aerial foliage. This study aims to provide detailed gross morphological and histological morphometric analyses of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these two subterranean species. The formalin fixed gastrointestinal tracts of T. splendens (n = 9) and H. emini (n = 6) were photographed, weighed and measured. The length and basal surface areas were calculated for each anatomically distinct region. Representative histological samples were prepared and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin. Microscopic luminal measurements were used to calculate a surface enlargement factor and the luminal surface area of each region. Tachyoryctes splendens had a large double chambered hemi-glandular stomach with a macroscopically visible transition from keratinized stratified squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium. The cecum was large and the luminal surface revealed a single spiral fold. The ascending colon of T. splendens was arranged in a spiral, with two centripetal and two centrifugal windings. The descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop, similar to H. emini. A narrow colonic groove was accompanied by V-shaped folds on either side. Heliophobius emini had a simple glandular stomach, a large, haustrated cecum that displayed a cecal appendix and the descending colon was arranged in a single parallel loop. The internal aspect of the colon revealed a wide colonic groove extending from the ceco-colic junction to distal colon. As both species originate from a similar geographical region and ingest very similar diets, it is likely that the differences in the GIT morphology are attributed to phylogeny as the species represent two different families of mole-rats.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Ratos-Toupeira/anatomia & histologia , África Oriental , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Estatística como Assunto , Estômago/anatomia & histologia
15.
J Feline Med Surg ; 19(2): 85-93, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26316516

RESUMO

Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic and endoscopic appearance and characteristics of the caecum in asymptomatic cats, and to correlate these findings with histology. Methods Ex vivo ultrasonographic and histologic evaluations of a fresh caecum were initially performed. Then, 20 asymptomatic cats, privately owned or originating from a reproductive colony, were recruited. All cats had an ultrasonographic examination of the ileocaecocolic junction, where the thickness of the caecal wall, ileocolic lymph nodes and the echogenicity of the local fat were assessed. They all underwent a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the mucosa and biopsies for histology. Results An ultrasonographic hypoechoic nodular inner layer, which corresponded to the coalescence of multiple lymphoid follicles originating from the submucosa and protruding in the mucosa on histology, was visible in all parts of the caecum. The combined mucosa and submucosa was measured ultrasonographically and defined as the follicular layer. Although all cats were asymptomatic, 3/19 cats showed mild caecal inflammation on histology. The most discriminatory ultrasonographic parameter in assessing this subclinical inflammation was the thickness of the follicular layer at the entrance of the caecum, with a cut-off value of 2.0 mm. All cats (20/20) showed some degree of macroscopic 'dimpling' of the caecal mucosa on endoscopy. Conclusions and relevance Lymphoid follicles in the caecal mucosa and submucosa constitute a unique follicular layer on ultrasound. In asymptomatic cats, a subtle, non-clinically relevant inflammation may exist and this is correlated with an increased thickness of the follicular layer on ultrasound. On endoscopy, a 'dimpled aspect' to the caecal mucosa is a normal finding in the asymptomatic cat.


Assuntos
Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Ceco/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonoscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
16.
Lab Anim ; 51(3): 245-255, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27381195

RESUMO

Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection is the most frequently used method for implementing parenteral therapies in rats and mice. Whether the caecum is located in the right caudal quadrant or left caudal quadrant in the abdominal cavity is not clear. For that reason, we have developed a method for identifying the location of the caecum in rats and mice and thus revealed the most reliable location for i.p. injection in these animals. Two hundred Wistar albino rats and 100 BALB/c mice were used. The location of the caecum was determined by revealing the intra-abdominal organs immediately following euthanasia, photographing the organs, and archiving the images. Both digital photographic images and computed tomographic (CT) sections were analysed in terms of caecum morphology and location. In both rats and mice, the caecum was most commonly located on the animal's left side. It was less frequently located on the right side or in the centre. The caecum was typically comma-shaped, but it was round or S-shaped in some animals. The direction of rotation of the caecum from the basis to the apex was mostly counterclockwise. Additionally, the apex showed a tendency to be evenly centred. This study demonstrated that the caecum was mostly located on the animal's left side; and for that reason, the most suitable location for i.p. injection in these animals was understood to be the right caudal quadrant. Furthermore, when we compared the CT images and autopsy findings, the caecum did not change location in the abdominal cavity postmortem.


Assuntos
Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Injeções Intraperitoneais/métodos , Injeções Intraperitoneais/veterinária , Ratos Wistar
17.
J Surg Res ; 203(2): 476-82, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27363658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is the most commonly used model to simulate human polymicrobial sepsis. However, the severity of CLP is difficult to be standardized across different laboratories. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of ligated cecal volume and length on mortality in mouse CLP model. METHODS: Cecal length and volume were measured from 120 Kunming mice subjected to CLP or sham operation. According to cecal volume, mice were divided into three groups, volume0.0∼0.2 (0.0 cm(3)-0.2 cm(3)), volume0.2∼0.4 (0.2 cm(3)-0.4 cm(3)), and volume>0.4 (larger than 0.4 cm(3)). The contents of cytokines, including interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and TNF-α, were measured at 3 h after surgery. The blood bacterial load and oxidative stress indicators (including malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase) were measured at 12 h after surgery. RESULTS: There was no significant difference on 72-h survival rate between the mice with cecum longer than 2 cm and shorter than 2 cm. Compared to the other volume groups, volume>0.4 group showed significantly increased blood bacterial load, malondialdehyde levels in lung and liver, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. Surprisingly, the survival rate in volume>0.4 (0%) group showed significant difference from those of volume0.0∼0.2 group (40%) and volume0.2∼0.4 group (40%). CONCLUSIONS: The mice in volume>0.4 group have much serious inflammatory reaction and are easier to die. As the proportion of volume>0.4 mice is near 20%, it can have large influence on most of the related studies using this CLP model.


Assuntos
Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos/cirurgia , Sepse/mortalidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ligadura/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Distribuição Aleatória , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/metabolismo
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 93(3): 121-128, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447828

RESUMO

In Gryllus bimaculatus, the size of the caecum decreases in the latter half of each instar to a stable minimal size with a steady minimal rate of digestive enzyme secretion until feeding resumes after ecdysis. The higher the percent protein in the newly ingested food, the faster and larger the caecum grows, and as a consequent the higher the secretion rate of trypsin and amylase. When hard boiled eggs (40% protein) are eaten the caecum is 2× larger, the trypsin secretion is almost 3× greater, and amylase 2.5× greater then when fed the same amount of apples (1.5% protein). Only dietary protein increases amylase secretion, whereas dietary carbohydrates have no effect on amylase secretion. The minimal caecal size and secretion rate must be supported by utilization of hemolymph amino acids, but the growth of the caecum and increasing enzymes secretions after the molt depend upon an amino acid source in the lumen. This simple regulation of digestive enzyme secretion is ideal for animals that must stop feeding in order to molt. This basic control system does not preclude additional regulation mechanisms, such as prandal, which is also indicated for G. bimaculatus, or even paramonal regulation.


Assuntos
Amilases/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Gryllidae/anatomia & histologia , Gryllidae/enzimologia , Gryllidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 78(1): 43-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26369293

RESUMO

The digestive organs in decapodiform cephalopod species morphologically vary by individual lifestyle. We examined the following six species of adult decapodiformes cephalopods representing different habitats: Todarodes pacificus, Loligo bleekeri, Loligo edulis, Watasenia scintillans (pelagic), Sepia lycidas and Euprymna morsei (benthic). L. bleekeri and L. edulis possess a bursiform cecal sac connected to the cecum. Pelagic species have a single digestive gland smaller than in benthic species. T. pacificus has an oval digestive gland larger than that of L. bleekeri and L. edulis, which possess withered-looking and smaller digestive glands. In contrast, the digestive glands in benthic species are paired. S. lycidas and E. morsei have well-developed and larger digestive glands than those of the pelagic species. Well-developed digestive duct appendages are found in benthic species. In qualification of the mass of digestive organs, pelagic species have smaller stomachs, digestive glands and digestive ducts' appendages than benthic species. Because pelagic species need to swim, they may possess smaller stomachs and larger cecums for more rapid digestion. A smaller digestive gland may have the advantage of reducing the body weight in pelagic species for rapid swimming. In contrast, since benthic species require a longer time for digestion than pelagic species, they compact more food in their stomachs and absorb nutrients via more organs, such as the digestive grand and digestive duct appendages, in addition to cecum.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/fisiologia , Cefalópodes/fisiologia , Decapodiformes/anatomia & histologia , Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Loligo/anatomia & histologia , Loligo/fisiologia , Sepia/anatomia & histologia , Sepia/fisiologia , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/fisiologia
20.
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol ; (5): 503-8, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26638238

RESUMO

We have studied the distribution of plant fibers of different sizes in the digestive tracts of two hare species: the brown hare (Lepus euopaeus) and the mountain hare (L. timidus). In all studied hares (18 specimens), the highest amount of fine-sized fibers (less than 0.25 mm length) was observed in the cecum (50-70% of the total fiber mass). It was found out that the fine-sized content in the digestive tract, and especially in the cecum, is provided not only by the separation mechanism of the colon, but also by coprophagy. It was shown that repeated passage of food through the digestive tract compensates small volume of the cecum and increases the period of digestion of the same portions of food.


Assuntos
Ceco/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Coprofagia/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lebres/fisiologia , Animais , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Lebres/anatomia & histologia
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