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1.
Food Res Int ; 154: 110951, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337551

RESUMO

This study integrated metagenomics and metabolomics to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch sources on the microbial community, metabolic functions, and resultant metabolites in the cecum of finishing pigs. In this study, 48 crossbred growing barrows were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups with eight replicate pens of 3 pigs each. Pigs were fed a tapioca starch (TS) diet or a pea starch (PS) diet (the ratio between amylose and amylopectin of the two diets were 0.11 and 0.44, respectively) for 44 days. The results showed that, compared with the TS diet, the PS diet increased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of amylolytic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus spp., and Streptococcus spp., and decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of some inflammatory bacteria, such as Tyzzerella, Porphyromonas, and Tannerella in the cecum of pigs. In addition, analysis of microbial functions showed that 11 carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as GH73, AA3, and AA6, were enriched in the PS group (P < 0.05), while 26 other enzymes, such as GH2, GH35, and GH53, were enriched in the TS group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed a decreasing trend (P < 0.1) for energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism pathways, and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the lipid metabolism pathways in the PS group. Correspondingly, the resultant metabolites related to amino acids and their derivatives (such as decreased histamine and indole, while increased γ-aminobutyric acid and pyroglutamic acid), and fatty acids and lipids (such as increased tetradecanoylcarnitine and monoacylglycerol) were also changed (P < 0.05) in the cecum of pigs fed the PS diet. In summary, these findings indicated that the cecal microbiota and metabolism underwent responsive changes to diets with different starch sources, and a high ratio of amylose to amylopectin in diets may be beneficial to intestinal health of pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Amido , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Amido/química , Suínos
2.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304897

RESUMO

Galactomannan and its degradation products have been gaining attention based on their possible means for improving the natural defense of the host through modulation of the bacterial population in the gut. Herein, incomplete degradation products of galactomannan (IDPG) was supplemented into the diet of aged laying hens to investigate the efficacy of IDPG on the gut microbiome. Four treatments with six replicates of twelve 68-wk-old laying hens (Hy-Line variety brown) each were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% IDPG for 8 wk. Results showed that the propionate concentration significantly increased in laying hens fed a diet supplemented with 0.025% or 0.05% IDPG relative to the control diet (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that there was a notable elevation of microbiome species diversity due to the addition of IDPG, with a noted enrichment to phyla Bacteroidetes at the expense of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Metabolic prediction of the cecal microbiome suggested significant improvements to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and a significant depletion for energy metabolism and infectious diseases. More importantly, a strong positive correlation between levels of genera Bacteroides, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, and Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 with high production of propionate was found using multivariate analysis. Our study demonstrated that IDPG acted by mainly enriching the phyla Bacteroidetes in the cecum, increasing species diversity, and cecal propionate concentrations. It seems that IDPG can be used as feed additives in laying hen farming due to its capacity to positively modulate the cecal microbiome and aid improve overall health.


The health and nutritional status of poultry are largely interconnected with the gut microbiome, which directly or indirectly affects gut morphology, nutrition, and immune responses. Dietary fiber is resistant to digestion in the small intestines of monogastric animals but is completely or partially fermented in the distal gut, thus it is understood that they could stimulate gut health. Incomplete degradation products of galactomannan (IDPG) is an important member of the dietary fiber family of molecules, however, there exists scant research on their beneficial effects on human or animal health. Our study demonstrated that IDPG acted by mainly enriching the phyla Bacteroidetes in the cecum, which are common bacteria in the gut that are involved in the fermentation of carbohydrates. Thereafter, the enriched phyla Bacteroidetes produced propionate and reduced the abundance of phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria by competitive inhibition. IDPG has also increased species diversity and enhanced the stability of intestinal flora, thereby exhibiting excellent prebiotic activity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sesbania , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Mananas , Propionatos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 76, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rearing systems can affect livestock production directly, but whether they have effects on intestinal growth states and ceca microorganisms in ducks is largely unclear. The current study used Nonghua ducks to estimate the effects of rearing systems on the intestines by evaluating differences in intestinal growth indices and cecal microorganisms between ducks in the floor-rearing system (FRS) and net-rearing system (NRS). RESULTS: The values of relative weight (RW), relative length (RL) and RW/RL of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca in the FRS were significantly higher than those in the NRS during weeks 4, 8 and 13 (p < 0.05). A total of 157 genera were identified from ducks under the two systems, and the dominant microorganisms in both treatments were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria at the phylum level. The distribution of microorganisms in the ceca of the two treatments showed significant separation during the three time periods, and the value of the Simpson index in the FRS was significantly higher than that in the NRS at 13 weeks (p < 0.05). Five differential microorganisms and 25 differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 4, seven differential microorganisms and 25 differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 8, and four differential microorganisms and two differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 13. CONCLUSIONS: The rearing system influences duck intestinal development and microorganisms. The FRS group had higher intestinal RL, RW and RW/RL and obviously separated ceca microorganisms compared to those of the NRS group. The differential metabolic pathways of cecal microorganisms decreased with increasing age, and the abundance of translation pathways was higher in the NRS group at week 13, while cofactor and vitamin metabolism were more abundant in the FRS group.


Assuntos
Ceco , Patos , Animais , Bactérias , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Intestinos
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 144: 115-125, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123157

RESUMO

The present study assessed the modulation of cecal microbiota and correlations with Campylobacter colonization and animal welfare status. For these purposes, we conducted a cross sectional study of the cecal microbiota from 187 broilers reared in 13 batches from 10 poultry farms by performing 16S rRNA sequencing (regions V3-4). The welfare of each batch was assessed using a simplified Welfare Quality® protocol, scoring higher in organic batches, compared to both antibiotic-free and conventional batches. The bioinformatics analyses were conducted in QIIME 2 and a linear discriminant analysis determined the association between microbiota and animals with different Campylobacter carriage status and welfare levels. In the microbiota from the subjects negative for Campylobacter or with high welfare scores, Bacteroidetes was the predominant phylum with the genus Megamonas significantly increased in abundance. A greater abundance of Parabacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Helicobacter in poultry negative for Campylobacter was also found at the genus level. Animals with the lowest welfare scores showed an increased abundance of Proteobacteria. The results suggested a different microbial composition and diversity in the analyzed groups.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/genética , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2249, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145167

RESUMO

Super dosing copper (Cu) has long been used as an alternative to antibiotic growth-promoters in broiler chickens' diet to improve gut health. This study was designed to compare nutritional and growth-promoting levels of Cu hydroxychloride (CH) with CuSO4 on gut health bio-markers and liver mineral profile of broiler chickens. Ross 308 chicks (n = 864) were randomly assigned to eight treatments, as basal diet containing no supplemental Cu; the basal diet with 15 or 200 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4; or 15, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg Cu from CH. The highest liver Cu content was observed in birds fed the diets with 200 mg/kg CuSO4 (P < 0.01). Serum FITC-d concentration as the leaky gut marker, and liver malondialdehyde concentration were not affected. Copper level or source had no effect on cecal short chain fatty acid and the mRNA expression of five jejunal genes involved in gut integrity. Negative linear responses of Cu were observed on Lactobacillus (P = 0.032), Bacteroides (P = 0.033), and Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.028) counts. The jejunal villus height increased in birds fed CH at 200 and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Increasing Cu levels, linearly and quadratically (P < 0.001), increased Cu excretion.


Assuntos
Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Cobre/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0195421, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170999

RESUMO

Three difficult-to-cultivate, strictly anaerobic strains, AN20T, AN421T, and AN502, were analyzed within a project studying possible probiotics for newly hatched chickens. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strains AN20T, AN421T, and AN502 formed two well-separated phylogenetic lineages in all phylogenetic and phylogenomic trees comprising members of the family Bacteroidaceae. Comparison to reference genomes of type species Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343T, Phocaeicola abscessus CCUG 55929T, and Capsularis zoogleoformans ATCC 33285T showed low relatedness based on the calculated genome-to-genome distance and orthologous average nucleotide identity. Analysis of fatty acid profiles showed iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c, and iso-C17:0 3OH as the major fatty acids for all three strains and additionally C16:0 3OH for AN421T and AN502. A specific combination of respiratory quinones different from related taxa was found in analyzed strains, MK-5 plus MK-11 in strain AN20T and MK-5 plus MK-10 in strains AN421T and AN502. Strains AN421T and AN502 harbor complete CRISPR loci with CRISPR array, type II-C, accompanied by a set of cas genes (cas9, cas1, and cas2) in close proximity. Interestingly, strain AN20T was found to harbor two copies of nimB gene with >95% similarity to nimB of B. fragilis, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer between these taxa. In summary, three isolates characterized in this study represent two novel species, which we proposed to be classified in two novel genera of the family Bacteroidaceae, for which the names Paraphocaeicola brunensis sp. nov. (AN20T = CCM 9041T = DSM 111154T) and Caecibacteroides pullorum sp. nov. (AN421T= CCM 9040T = DSM 111155T) are proposed. IMPORTANCE This study represents follow-up research on three difficult-to-cultivate anaerobic isolates originally isolated within a project focused on strains that are able to stably colonize newly hatched chickens, thus representing possible probiotics. This project is exceptional in that it successfully isolates several miscellaneous strains that required modified and richly supplemented anaerobic media, as information on many gut-colonizing bacteria is based predominantly on metagenomic studies. Superior colonization of newly hatched chickens by Bacteroides spp., Phocaeicola spp., or related taxa can be considered of importance for development of future probiotics. Although different experiments can also be performed with provisionally characterized isolates, precise taxonomical definition is necessary for subsequent broad communication. The aim of this study is therefore to thoroughly characterize these isolates that represent novel genera and precisely determine their taxonomic position among related taxa to facilitate further research and communication involving these strains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidaceae/genética , Bacteroides fragilis/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Antibacterianos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidaceae/classificação , Bacteroidaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides fragilis/classificação , Bacteroides fragilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroides fragilis/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Science ; 375(6579): 460-463, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084962

RESUMO

Hibernation is a mammalian strategy that uses metabolic plasticity to reduce energy demands and enable long-term fasting. Fasting mitigates winter food scarcity but eliminates dietary nitrogen, jeopardizing body protein balance. Here, we reveal gut microbiome-mediated urea nitrogen recycling in hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). Ureolytic gut microbes incorporate urea nitrogen into metabolites that are absorbed by the host, with the nitrogen reincorporated into the squirrel's protein pool. Urea nitrogen recycling is greatest after prolonged fasting in late winter, when urea transporter abundance in gut tissue and urease gene abundance in the microbiome are highest. These results reveal a functional role for the gut microbiome during hibernation and suggest mechanisms by which urea nitrogen recycling may contribute to protein balance in other monogastric animals.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hibernação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sciuridae/metabolismo , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Ureia/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estações do Ano , Simbiose , Ureia/sangue , Urease/genética , Urease/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011095

RESUMO

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is known as the most expensive spice. C. sativus dried red stigmas, called threads, are used for culinary, cosmetic, and medicinal purposes. The rest of the flower is often discarded, but is now being used in teas, as coloring agents, and fodder. Previous studies have attributed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-depressant, and anticancer properties to C. sativus floral bio-residues. The aim of this study is to assess C. sativus flower water extract (CFWE) for its effects on hemoglobin, brush boarder membrane (BBM) functionality, morphology, intestinal gene expression, and cecal microbiome in vivo (Gallus gallus), a clinically validated model. For this, Gallus gallus eggs were divided into six treatment groups (non-injected, 18 Ω H2O, 1% CFWE, 2% CFWE, 5% CFWE, and 10% CFWE) with n~10 for each group. On day 17 of incubation, 1 mL of the extracts/control were administered in the amnion of the eggs. The amniotic fluid along with the administered extracts are orally consumed by the developing embryo over the course of the next few days. On day 21, the hatchlings were euthanized, the blood, duodenum, and cecum were harvested for assessment. The results showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in hemoglobin concentration, villus surface area, goblet cell number, and diameter. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in Paneth cell number and Mucin 2 (MUC2) gene expression proportional to the increase in CFWE concentration. Additionally, the cecum microbiome analysis revealed C. sativus flower water extract altered the bacterial populations. There was a significant dose-dependent reduction in Lactobacillus and Clostridium sp., suggesting an antibacterial effect of the extract on the gut in the given model. These results suggest that the dietary consumption of C. sativus flower may have negative effects on BBM functionality, morphology, mineral absorption, microbial populations, and iron status.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Crocus/química , Flores/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvilosidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas
9.
Food Funct ; 13(2): 806-824, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985061

RESUMO

In the present study, the purpose is to compare the effect of water extraction and alkali-assisted extraction on the structural characteristics and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBTPs). The results indicated that water-extracted FBTPs (W-FBTPs) and alkali-extracted FBTPs (A-FBTPs) had similar molecular weights but different monosaccharide compositions, of which A-FBTPs had a higher yield and uronic acid groups corresponding to galacturonic acid (GalA). Moreover, A-FBTPs had stronger ability to promote phagocytic capacity, acid phosphatase activity and nitric oxide (NO) secretion in macrophages in vitro. In the in vivo study, A-FBTPs exhibited a promising effect to adjust the immune imbalance by enhancing the body features, antioxidant activities, immune response and intestinal mucosal barrier in cytoxan (CTX)-induced immunosuppressive mice. Besides, A-FBTP supplementation effectively improved CTX-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, including promoting the abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g., Lactobacillus) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and Ruminococcaceae), along with reducing the growth of potentially pathogenic microbes (e.g., Desulfovibrionaceae and Helicobacter). These findings suggested that alkaline extraction might be a promising way to obtain high-quality acidic polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT), and A-FBTPs could be developed as novel potential prebiotics and immunomodulators for further application in food formulations.


Assuntos
/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Água
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 991, 2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046416

RESUMO

The microbiota in broiler chicken intestines affects the animals' health, metabolism, and immunity both positively and negatively. Accordingly, it has a significant impact on animal productivity. Phages, host-specific parasites of bacterial cells, are a promising antimicrobial alternative that selectively target pathogens without disturbing the microbiota. The purpose of this study is to further characterize the commensal microbial community at production scale in broiler chickens treated with a Salmonella phage treatment. We evaluated the cecal microbiota of broilers reared in a commercial farming system where a phage cocktail against Salmonella, SalmoFree was supplied to animals. To do so, two field trials were conducted, incorporating three doses of phages in the broilers' drinking water. Our results showed that the core microbiome (taxa that were present in more than 50% of samples) contained species that are key to microbiota adaptation in the last stage of the production cycle. Among these, there are some important degraders of complex polysaccharides and producers of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as Eisenbergiella and Lachnoclostridium. The phage cocktail did not affect the normal development of the microbiota's structure. The addition of the phage cocktail resulted in a significant reduction in Campylobacter and an increase in Butyricimonas, Helicobacter and Rikenellaceae, which are common inhabitants in chicken gut with known negative and positive effects on their health and metabolism. Altogether, we consider that these results contribute valuable information to the implementation of large-scale phage therapy technologies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Terapia por Fagos/veterinária , Fagos de Salmonella , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Cells ; 11(2)2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053298

RESUMO

A considerable percentage of the population is affected by alcoholic liver disease (ALD). It is characterized by inflammatory signals from the liver and other organs, such as the intestine. The NLR family pyrin domain containing 6 (NLRP6) inflammasome complex is one of the most important inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel mouse model for ALD characterized by 8-week chronic-plus-binge ethanol administration and to investigate the role of NLRP6 inflammasome for intestinal homeostasis and ALD progression using Nlrp6-/- mice. We showed that chronic-plus-binge ethanol administration triggers hepatic steatosis, injury, and neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, we discovered significant changes of intestinal microbial communities, including increased relative abundances of bacteria within the phyla Bacteroidota and Campilobacterota, as well as reduced Firmicutes. In this ALD model, inhibiting NLRP6 signaling had no effect on liver steatosis or damage, but had a minor impact on intestinal homeostasis via affecting intestinal epithelium function and gut microbiota. Surprisingly, Nlrp6 loss resulted in significantly decreased hepatic immune cell infiltration. As a result, our novel mouse model encompasses several aspects of human ALD, such as intestinal dysbiosis. Interfering with NLRP6 inflammasome activity reduced hepatic immune cell recruitment, indicating a disease-aggravating role of NLRP6 during ALD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/metabolismo , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/microbiologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Poult Sci ; 101(3): 101654, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007930

RESUMO

MHCY is a candidate region for influencing immune responses in chickens. MHCY contains multiple specialized, polymorphic MHC class I loci along with loci belonging to 4 additional gene families. In this study, MHCY haplotypes were tested for association with cecal colonization after Campylobacter jejuni infection of a backcross [(Line 61 × Line N) × Line N] population derived from 2 White Leghorn research lines, Line 61 and Line N, that were previously shown to exhibit heritable differences in colonization. Samples were obtained for 51 birds challenged with 108 CFU Campylobacter jejuni at 3 wk of age. Viable C. jejuni in the ceca were enumerated 5 d postinfection and counts were log-transformed for analysis. Birds were assigned to either low or high colonization groups based on the individual count being below or above the mean bacterial count for all birds. The mean bacterial count of the low infection group differed significantly from the high infection group. Sex and MHCB haplotype had similar distributions within the 2 groups. Overall, 7 MHCY haplotypes were found to be segregating. Two were significantly associated with C. jejuni colonization. MHCY Y18 was associated with low colonization (P = 3.00 × 10-5); whereas MHCY Y11a was associated with high colonization (P = 0.008). The MHCY haplotype impacted the mean bacterial count among all birds with MHCY Y18 having the lowest bacterial count compared with MHCY Y11a and all other MHCY (Y5, Y7, Y8, Y11b, and Y11c) haplotypes. These findings support further investigation of the contribution of chicken MHCY in resistance to Campylobacter colonization.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Haplótipos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
13.
Poult Sci ; 101(3): 101671, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066383

RESUMO

The study of neurochemical-based interkingdom signaling and its impact on host-microbe interaction is called microbial endocrinology. Neurochemicals play a recognized role in determining bacterial colonization and interaction with the gut epithelium. While much attention has been devoted to the determination of neurochemical concentrations in the mammalian gut to better understand tissue and region-specific microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms of host-microbe interaction, little is known regarding the biogeography of neurochemicals in the avian gut. Greater resolution of avian gut neurochemical concentrations is needed especially as recent microbial endocrinology-based investigations into bacterial foodborne pathogen colonization of the chicken gut have demonstrated neurochemicals to affect Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella spp. in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of stress-related neurochemicals in the tissue and luminal content of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of the broiler intestinal tract, and to investigate if this biogeography changes with age of the bird. While all neurochemicals measured were detected in the intestinal tract, many displayed differences in regional concentrations. Whereas the catecholamine norepinephrine was detected in each region of the intestinal tract, epinephrine was present only in the cecum and colon. Likewise, dopamine, and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were found in the greatest quantities in the cecum and colon. Serotonin and histamine were identified in each gut region. Region-specific age-related changes were observed (P < 0.05) for serotonin, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid as well as for histamine. Several neurochemicals, including norepinephrine, were found in the contents of each gut region. Epinephrine was not detected in the gut content of any region. Salsolinol, a microbial-produced neuroactive compound was detected in the gut content but not in tissue. Together, our data establish a neurochemical biogeography of the broiler chicken intestinal tract. By providing researchers with a region-by-region map of in vivo gut neurochemical concentrations of a modern broiler chicken breed, this neurochemical map is expected to inform future investigations that seek to utilize avian enteric neurochemistry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(6): 2242-2252, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medium-chain monoglycerides (MGs) are a group of 1-monoglycerides of medium-chain fatty acids with strong antibacterial activity, which may influence the gut microbiota in the diet of broilers. The present study evaluated the effects of mixed MGs on the community and function of gut microbiota in broilers. A total of 528 newly hatched male yellow feathered broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned into four groups, including a basal diet (CON), a basal diet containing 300 mg kg-1 MG (MG300), 450 mg kg-1 MG (MG450), or 600 mg kg-1 MG (MG600). RESULTS: The cecal acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid and total short-chain fatty acid of broilers in the MG-containing groups were notably increased compared with the CON group. Dietary MG selectively increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae, Bacteroides and an unclassified genus of Lachnospiraceae family, but decreased the proportion of an unclassified genus of Barnesiellaceae and a norank genus of Flavobacteriaceae family in the cecum of broilers. Functional prediction revealed that MG supplementation enriched the microbial gene abundance of amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, while depleted the gene abundance of fat metabolism and energy metabolism. Moreover, the modulation of gut microbiota by MG supplementation was closely correlated with the alteration of muscle amino acids. CONCLUSION: Dietary MGs altered the gut microbiota community structure and metabolites, and modulated the gene abundance of microbial metabolism pathways in the cecum of broilers, which may further influence the growth performance, nutrient utilization and meat quality of the host. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Monoglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
J Nutr Biochem ; 101: 108900, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748919

RESUMO

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone density that poses a high risk of bone fractures, is associated with aging, diet, and menopause. Despite the various known therapeutic methods for osteoporosis treatment, the development of a new therapeutic agent without side effects in long-term use is required. Cinnamic acid (CA) is a phytochemical found in cinnamon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CA on osteoporosis and demonstrated its mechanism in MC3T3E1 preosteoblasts and ovariectomized mice. CA treatment induced osteoblast differentiation with elevation of osteogenic markers both in vitro and in vivo. CA treatment ameliorated bone loss resulting in better bone indices, increased gut microbial diversity, and recovered changes in the gut microbial composition induced by ovariectomy. These changes were accompanied by an increase in BMP/TGFß/Smad signaling. Therefore, CA has the potential to suppress the progress of bone loss via the enhancement of bone density through the regulation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Ceco/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Ovariectomia
16.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(3): 817-831, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729663

RESUMO

Endothermic mammals have a high energy cost to maintain a stable and high body temperature (Tb , around 37°C). Thyroid hormones are a major regulator for energy metabolism and Tb . The gut microbiota is involved in modulating host energy metabolism. However, whether the interaction between the gut microbiota and thyroid hormones is involved in metabolic and thermal regulations is unclear. We hypothesized that thyroid hormones via an interaction with gut microbiota orchestrate host thermogenesis and Tb . l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroid Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and Tb , whereas Methimazole-induced hypothyroid animals decreased RMR. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid animals differed significantly in faecal bacterial community. Hyperthyroidism increased the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter and Rikenella, and decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria Butyricimonas and Parabacteroides, accompanied by reduced total bile acids and short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, the hyperthyroid gerbils transplanted with the microbiota from control donors increased type 2 deiodinase (DIO2) expression in the liver and showed a greater rate of decline of both serum T3 and T4 levels and, consequently, a more rapid recovery of normal RMR and Tb . These findings indicate that thyroid hormones regulate thermogenesis depending on gut microbiota and colonization with normal microbiota by caecal microbial transplantation attenuates hyperthyroid-induced thermogenesis. This work reveals the functional consequences of the gut microbiota-thyroid axis in controlling host metabolic physiology and Tb in endotherms.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo , Termogênese , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Gerbillinae/metabolismo , Hipertireoidismo/terapia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
17.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(3): 844-861, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264533

RESUMO

It has been established that gut microbiota influences chicken growth performance and fat metabolism. However, whether gut microbiota affects chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, seven-week-old chickens with high or low body weight were used in the present study. There were significant differences in body weight, breast and leg muscle indices, and cross-sectional area of muscle cells, suggesting different growth performance. The relative abundance of gut microbiota in the caecal contents at the genus level was compared by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of LEfSe indicated that high body weight chickens contained Microbacterium and Sphingomonas more abundantly (P < 0.05). In contrast, low body weight chickens contained Slackia more abundantly (P < 0.05). The results of H & E, qPCR, IHC, WB and blood analysis suggested significantly different fat metabolism level in serum, liver, abdominal adipose, breast and leg muscles between high and low body weight chickens. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that fat metabolism positively correlated with the relative abundance of Microbacterium and Sphingomonas while negatively correlated with the abundance of Slackia. Furthermore, faecal microbiota transplantation was performed, which verified that transferring faecal microbiota from adult chickens with high body weight into one-day-old chickens improved growth performance and fat metabolism in liver by remodelling the gut microbiota. Overall, these results suggested that gut microbiota could affect chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbiota , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ceco/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
J Inorg Biochem ; 226: 111654, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740036

RESUMO

Here we show that Preyssler-type polyoxotungstates (Preyssler-type POTs, [NaP5W30O110]-14) complexed with peptides can prevent the dysbiotic expansion of anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, symptom remission of C57BL/6 J mice with colitis is achieved by orally treated with POT complexes. Ten days of daily administration of POT complexes reduces 5% body weight loss and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers (77% reduction for Il6, 73% reduction for Tnf, 91% reduction for Cxcl1) in the caecum and proximal colon. Bacterial population analysis reveals that these Enterobacteriaceae population in the caecal content decline by one order of magnitude after administration of POT complexes. POT complexes exert anti-inflammatory effects indirectly on the host immune system by inhibition of malignant expansion of anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae during gut inflammation. Furthermore, POTs show negligible effect on bacterial growth in vitro, healthy mice and their microbiota composition under homeostatic conditions. Rationally designed POT complexes will provide distinctive approach to improve enteric bacteria dysbiosis-associated gut inflammation by balancing bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Colite , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Disbiose , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Tungstênio/farmacologia , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Camundongos
19.
J Nutr Biochem ; 99: 108860, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520853

RESUMO

Diets supplemented with protein and fiber are well known to reduce food intake and weight gain; however, less is known about the combined effects of protein and prebiotic fiber on energy balance and gut microbiota composition. We compared effects of diets containing high egg or whey protein with cellulose or prebiotic (inulin) fiber on energy balance, gut microbiota, hormones, and metabolites. Male obese rats (n=8/group) were allocated to four diets: Egg albumen+Cellulose (EC), Egg albumen+Inulin (EI), Whey protein+Cellulose (WC), and Whey protein+Inulin (WI). Results revealed that diet-induced hypophagia was transient with EC and prolonged with EI and WI, compared to WC. Importantly, CCK-1 receptor antagonist (Devazepide) attenuated the hypophagic effects of EC, EI, and WI. Further, EC, EI and WI decreased respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, weight and adiposity gains, and improved glycemia, relative to WC. Propranolol (ß1-ß2-receptor blocker) attenuated diet-induced changes in energy expenditure. Transcript abundance of thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue, plasma hormones, and metabolites especially acyl-carnitines and glycerophospholipids, were differentially altered by diets. Diet explained 25% of compositional differences in cecal microbiomes, but diets with same fiber type did not differ. Microbiota differing between groups also strongly correlated with gut hormones and metabolites. Species most strongly correlated to a marker for butyrate production were in highest abundance in inulin diets. Together, these findings indicate that inulin enriched diets containing egg or whey protein improved energy balance, decreased adiposity, and modulated gut microbiota and metabolites, with CCK signaling partly mediating the satiety effects of diets.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prebióticos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Food Prot ; 85(3): 527-533, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914838

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Foodborne salmonellosis is commonly associated with poultry and poultry products, necessitating continued development of pre- and postharvest food safety interventions and risk management strategies. Evaluation of technologies and strategies is limited by availability of cost-effective, rapid laboratory methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate a commercial qualitative PCR assay and its novel quantitative application to detect and enumerate Salmonella in poultry ceca as an analytical matrix. Ceca were collected at harvest, the contents were homogenized, and paired samples were evaluated with buffered peptone water (BPW) and BAX MP + Supplement (MPS) preenrichment broths followed by PCR screening with a BAX System Q7 PCR and by culture isolation. Additional ceca were inoculated with Salmonella to develop a standard curve for the BAX System SalQuant quantitative PCR application (QA), and estimates were obtained by the QA and most-probable-number (MPN) methods. For preenrichment media, PCR outcomes were equivalent to those of culture isolation for detecting Salmonella in ceca with 95.65 and 87.88% sensitivity and 82.00 and 100.00% specificity (P = 0.074) for BPW and MPS, respectively. However, at the sample level, BPW performed significantly worse (47.92%) than did MPS (68.75%) for overall isolation of Salmonella (P < 0.0001). After standard curve development, the mean QA estimates obtained for the inoculated samples were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62 to 1.66), 1.79 (1.50 to 2.08), 2.91 (2.65 to 3.17), and 3.76 (3.26 to 4.25) log CFU/mL for each targeted inoculation of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/mL, respectively, and were within or comparable to the 95% CI values of paired MPN estimates. These data support the use of MPS for the detection and isolation of Salmonella enterica from poultry ceca when screening with PCR and indicate that QA may be useful as an alternative tool to estimate Salmonella loads in poultry ceca, which may support preharvest food safety interventions.


Assuntos
Ceco , Aves Domésticas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação
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