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1.
Life Sci ; 245: 117353, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987873

RESUMO

AIMS: Present study was conducted to optimize the processing parameters for galactooligosaccharides (GOS) synthesis from whey powder followed by exploring its prebiotic efficiency. MAIN METHODS: All factors (initial lactose concentration, pH, reaction time, temperature and enzyme to substrate ratio; E/S) were analyzed by single factor analysis and optimization for GOS yield was done following the orthogonal experimental design. For in vivo analysis, 60 mice were equally divided into four groups (normal control, NC; low, medium, and high dose of GOS, LG, MG and HG) and fed varying levels (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg bw per day) of GOS, for 30 days and sampling was done at the end of experiment regarding gut health, immunity, cecal microbiota and metabolites. KEY FINDINGS: Optimum yield of GOS (25.1%) was obtained at reaction time 25 min, temperature 50 °C, pH 4.5 and the enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S) of 20 U/g. In vivo experiment, shallower crypt and greater villus to crypt ratio (V/C) were found in the duodenum of LG treatment compared to NC mice (P < .05). The GOS promotes thymus development and improve immunity. Intervention with GOS increased the population of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus in MG and bifidobacterium in LG mice (P < .05), and was accompanied by decreased proliferation of desulfovibrio. Correlation analysis also supported the above findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This study optimized the processing parameters for GOS preparation and provided data encouraging to suggest that GOS can be a potential option to improve the gut health and immunity.


Assuntos
Galactose/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Lactose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110896, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654707

RESUMO

Metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) are increasingly used in the food and agriculture industries, making human consumption nearly unavoidable. The goal of this study was to use the Gallus gallus (broiler chicken) intra-amniotic administration of physiologically relevant concentrations of TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO to better understand the effects of NP exposure on gut health and function. Immediately after hatch, blood, cecum, and small intestine were collected for assessment of iron (Fe)-metabolism, zinc (Zn)-metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) functional, and pro-inflammatory related proteins gene expression; blood Fe and Zn levels; cecum weight; and the relative abundance of intestinal microflora. NP type, dose, and the presence or absence of minerals was shown to result in altered mineral transporter, BBM functional, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Metal oxide NP also altered the abundance of intestinal bacterial populations. Overall, the data suggest that the in vivo results align with in vitro studies, and that NP have the potential to negatively affect intestinal functionality and health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microvilosidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Âmnio , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Injeções , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Titânio/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 314: 108391, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689613

RESUMO

Poultry production is the fastest growing meat sector worldwide. In the last five years, growing concerns have been expressed by international health agencies and consumers about the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from poultry meat to human. Consequently, poultry producers have adopted alternative production systems based on reduced antibiotic usage, including organic and antibiotic-free (AF) production. However, the effect of these production systems on the antibiotic resistance of the gut flora in slaughtered poultry has been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that organic and AF production systems reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance in the commensal Escherichia coli of broilers at slaughter compared with conventional production. Cecal content from broilers raised in conventional (292), AF (291), or organic (272) flocks (855 broilers in total) belonging to the same company was sampled. E. coli loads [colony-forming units (CFU/g)] and numbers of E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid (E. colinal) were determined for each sample. Antibiotic susceptibility of one isolate per sample was evaluated using the disc diffusion method; colistin resistance was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The differences in bacterial loads from the three production types were evaluated using one-way ANOVA. Differences in the proportion of resistant isolates in the three production lines were evaluated using Pearson's χ2 or Fisher's test. The strength of the association was evaluated by using odds ratio (OR), with the conventional production type as a reference (OR = 1). Overall, the analysis revealed a high level of resistance (50% or higher) to ampicillin, cefazolin, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline, independently of the production type. High proportion of ciprofloxacin resistance (52%) was observed, with 4.5% isolates resistant to cefotaxime and 1.8% resistant to colistin. The average loads (log CFU/g cecal content) of E. colinal were determined as 6.84 for AF, 6.38 for organic type, and 7.27 for conventional type. The difference was significant (p < 0.00001). Interestingly, broilers from AF flocks had higher E. colinal loads than broilers from organic flocks. This trend (conventional > AF > organic) was confirmed by qualitative data. However, the magnitude of the effect, measured as a reduced risk of resistance, varied broadly for the antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that poultry production systems alternative to the conventional broiler production are associated with reduced frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli among the commensal gut flora, posing a lower risk to the environment and the consumer.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1274-1284, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet plays an important role in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Starch is the main source of carbohydrates in diets of broilers. This study investigated the effects of dietary corn starch and resistant starch on composition and function of caecal microbiota of broilers. A total of 320, 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five groups including normal corn-soybean (NC) diet, corn starch (CS) diet group, 4%, 8% and 12% resistant starch (RS) diet groups. The caecal contents of 42-day old broilers were sampled and microbiota community was analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequences. RESULTS: The CS group increased the abundances of Bilophila, Eggerthella, Olsenella and Sellimonas and decreased proportion of Akkermansia, Eisenbergiella, Oscillospira, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group and Synergistes in the caecum of birds compared to the NC group. However, the birds from RS groups had higher abundances of Anaerofilum, Bacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella and lower abundances of Alistipes, Bilophila, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Eggerthella and Ruminiclostridium 1 than the CS group. Functional prediction of these changes in microbiota revealed that the CS diet drove caecal microbiota that were more inclined to utilize carbohydrates through glycolysis/gluconeogenesis metabolism, while the 8%RS and 12%RS diets depleted microbial glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and amino acids metabolism. CONCLUSION: Dietary CS and RS alter the microbial composition and diversity, and modulate the metabolic pathways of microbial metabolism in caecum of broilers, which may further affect nutrient utilization and hindgut health of the host. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ceco/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Masculino , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Iran Biomed J ; 24(1): 54-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454864

RESUMO

BAckground: Recently, exploring novel dietary nondigestible carbohydrates, which are able to influence the gut flora, has drawn much attention. The objective of this study was to find out the effective dose of levan, as a prebiotic, in rats in order to further apply in food industry. Methods: Levan at various doses (2-10%) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once a day for 90 days. At the end of experiment, fecal and blood samples were collected to measure gut bacteria population and to carry out serum biochemical assay. The rats were sacrificed, and the colon tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by histopathology. Results: Of note, levan effectively controlled body weight gain in the rats. Serum biochemical analysis revealed that 5% levan significantly diminished the serum level of total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose as well. More notably, 5% levan intake significantly increased the abundance of bifidobacteria population, highlighting its bifidogenic effect. Furthermore, our histopathological result revealed that daily intake of levan was associated with a higher degree of thickness of the mucosa layer compared to the rats in control group. Moreover, these findings manifested no colon inflammation in the rats fed with levan. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide the fundamental data to use levan at a definite dose for further development in functional foods.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutanos/farmacologia , Saúde , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109920, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733937

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the influences of mercuric chloride (HgCl2, 250 ppm, drink water) on the growth performance, cecal morphology and microbiota of chickens (n = 60) after 30, 60, and 90 days of exposure. A control group of sixty chickens received water free of HgCl2. Our results suggested that mercury exposure reduced the body weight and changed the cecal morphology of chickens after the 90-day treatment. Furthermore, sequence analysis of 16 S rRNA gene revealed that the diversity and composition of cecal microbiota in chickens differed between the control and exposure group. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria and Tenericutes phyla both significantly increased in mercury exposure groups on day 30 while only Tenericutes phyla significantly increased on day 60. At the genus level, we observed that the change in microbial populations are most dramatic on day 30. Besides, compared with the control group, the genus Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 significantly increased in exposure group on day 30 but showed no significant difference on day 60, whereas there was a significant decrease on day 90. PICRUSt analysis revealed potential metabolic changes, such as Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells and Metabolism of xenobiotics, associated with mercury exposure in chickens. Taken together, the data show that subchronic exposure to mercury not only affected the growth and development but also caused the dysbiosis of gut microbiota, which may further induced metabolic disorders in chickens.


Assuntos
Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Microbiota , Animais , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Ceco/patologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1133-1147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695016

RESUMO

Numerous studies have evaluated the composition of gut microbiota in experimental animals fed high-fat or low-fiber diets. However, few reports have focused on the effects of different fatty acid (FA) compositions on the diversity of gut microbiota and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different dietary fats on liver mRNA expression levels of genes related to cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism, as well as to investigate cecal microbiota composition and bacterial metabolites composition in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar/ST rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 30 days, including from different sources (soybean oil, lard, menhaden oil, or tuna oil). Then, the rats' cecal microbiota composition was determined by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene using next-generation sequencing. Lard diet drastically decreased the expression level of liver ATP-binding cassette subfamily G genes (Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes) compared with other diets. Menhaden oil diet increased the fecal BA excretion compared with soybean oil and lard diets. Fecal BA excretion tended to be positively correlated with the relative abundance of Firmicutes, and negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. These results have shown that dietary fats with different FA compositions have a different effect on the relative composition of cecal microbiota, and in particular, menhaden oil may have very different effects compared to other experimental fats. The effects of fish oils on the cecal microbiota may differ greatly depending on the ratio of EPA to DHA and the composition of FA other than n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Our results provided new insights on the way different dietary fat sources affect sterol metabolism and alter cecal microbiota composition in rats.


Assuntos
Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Microbiota , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/síntese química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
8.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7063-7080, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621728

RESUMO

Evidence has proven that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor contributing to obesity by altering host energy harvest and storage. We performed a high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing association study and serum metabolomics profiling in rats with a high-sugar diet. Our studies revealed that the high sugar diet reduced the diversity of cecal microorganisms, while the combination of theabrownin and the high sugar diet increased the diversity of cecal microorganisms and promoted reproduction of Alloprevotella, Coprostanoligenes_group, Bacteroides, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Desulfovibrio, Intestinimonas, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010 and Staphylococcus. The combination also inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus, Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1_group and Tyzzerella. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio can be significantly reduced after the intervention of theabrownin in high sugar diet rats, and the reproduction of Bacteroides acidifaciens (BA) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus can be promoted. We found that the obesity-associated gut microbial species were linked to the changes in circulating metabolites. Serum levels of deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, 1H-indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indole acrylic acid and melatonin were negatively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but positively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum and Gut_metagenome. 2-Hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-3-carboxylic acid, l-homoserine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine were positively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but negatively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, and Gut_metagenome. In a high sugar diet mode, theabrownin reduced the body weight and triglycerides and improved insulin resistance mainly by targeting the reproduction of intestinal microorganisms such as BA, Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, Gut_metagenome and so on. A strong correlation between cecal microorganisms and serum metabolites, obesity and insulin resistance was observed. Theabrownin has high potential in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes and obesity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Ácido Cólico/sangue , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/sangue , Masculino , Melatonina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 770, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host genotype plays a crucial role in microbial composition of laying hens, which may lead to dissimilar odor gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among layer breed, microbial structure and odor production. RESULTS: Thirty Hy-Line Gray and thirty Lohmann Pink laying hens were used in this study to determine the impact of cecal microbial structure on odor production of laying hens. The hens were managed under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. Results of in vivo experiments showed a lower hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from Hy-Line hens and a lower concentration of soluble sulfide (S2-) but a higher concentration of butyrate in the cecal content of the Hy-Line hens compared to Lohmann Pink hens (P < 0.05), which was consistent with the in vitro experiments (P < 0.05). However, ammonia (NH3) production was not different between genotypes (P > 0.05). Significant microbial structural differences existed between the two breed groups. The relative abundance of some butyrate producers (including Butyricicoccus, Butyricimonas and Roseburia) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (including Mailhella and Lawsonia) were found to be significantly correlated with odor production and were shown to be different in the 16S rRNA and PCR data between two breed groups. Furthermore, some bacterial metabolism pathways associated with energy extraction and carbohydrate utilization (oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, energy metabolism, two component system and secretion system) were overrepresented in the Hy-Line hens, while several amino acid metabolism-associated pathways (amino acid related enzymes, arginine and proline metabolism, and alanine-aspartate and glutamate metabolism) were more prevalent in the Lohmann hens. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that genotype of laying hens influence cecal microbiota, which in turn modulates their odor production. Our study provides references for breeding and enteric manipulation for defined microbiota to reduce odor gas emission.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos , Feminino , Odorantes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546967

RESUMO

Historically, investigators have assumed microorganisms identified in mother's milk to be contaminants, but recent data suggest that milk microbiota may contribute to beneficial maternal effects. Microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of newborn mammals are derived, at least in part, from the maternal microbial population. Milk-derived microbiota is an important source of this microbial inocula and we hypothesized that the maternal diet contributes to variation in this microbial community. To evaluate the relationship between a mother's diet and milk microbiome, we fed female rats a low- or high-protein diet and mated all individuals. Milk and cecal contents were collected from dams at peak lactation (14-day post-partum), and the bacterial composition of each community was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our findings revealed higher dietary protein intake decreased fecal microbial diversity but increased milk microbial and pup cecum diversity. Further, the higher dietary protein intake resulted in a greater abundance of potentially health-promoting bacteria, such as Lactobacillus spp. These data suggest that dietary protein levels contribute to significant shifts in the composition of maternal milk microbiota and that the functional consequences of these changes in microbial inocula might be biologically important and should be further explored.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473634

RESUMO

A 63-year-old man with a history of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease underwent defunctioning loop ileostomy for obstructing metastatic rectal cancer prior to receiving long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Four months post completion of neoadjuvant therapy, he underwent an uncomplicated elective ultra-low anterior resection with formation of colonic J pouch and first stage liver metastasectomy for bilobar liver disease. At 1 year, he proceeded to an elective closure of loop ileostomy. Unfortunately, his postoperative course was complicated by profuse diarrhoea with subsequent colonic perforation, necessitating an emergency laparotomy and ileocolic resection with end ileostomy formation. Histopathology and stool studies were consistent with Salmonella Typhi infection. At the present time, Salmonella Typhi causing toxic megacolon and subsequent colonic perforation is an uncommon phenomenon in Australia. Here, we present an unusual case and explain why bowel perforation in this instance likely had a multifactorial aetiology.


Assuntos
Ceco/lesões , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Megacolo Tóxico/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/etiologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Humanos , Ileostomia/métodos , Perfuração Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Megacolo Tóxico/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5257-5264, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399742

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of high temperature on the cecal microbiota of laying hens and analyze the correlation between variation in feed intake, body temperature, and the relative abundance of specific bacterial genera. Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-Line laying hens were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates and raised in 3 controlled climate chambers. Birds were allocated to either a thermoneutral group (TC, 21 ± 1°C, ad libitum), high cyclic temperature group (HT, 29-35°C, ad libitum), or a pair-feeding group (PF, 21 ± 1°C, pair-feeding on the daily feed intake of HT hens) for 4 wk. There was no significant difference in diversity estimators of laying hens between the HT and TC or PF groups (P > 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCoA) based on unweighted UniFrac distance showed that the HT group did not form a distinct cluster that was clearly separated from the PF group, but was separated from the TC group. Similarity analysis (ANOSIM) confirmed that the TC group was significantly different from the HT (R = 0.259, P = 0.020) and the PF (R = 0.348, P = 0.011) groups, but the HT group was similar with the PF group (R = 0.107, P = 0.153). In addition, there was a significant correlation between feed intake and principal coordinate 1 (PC1) in PCoA (R = -0.494, P = 0.037), but no correlation between core temperature and PC1 (R = 0.025, P = 0.923). Linear discriminant analysis identified 15 genera that discriminated between the HT and TC groups (score ≥2). Among these, the feed intake was significantly related with the relative abundance of 10 genera, however, the core temperature was only significantly correlated with one specific genus. In conclusion, a high cyclic temperature of 29-35°C had significant effects on microbial composition and structure of laying hens, which was mainly related with decreased feed intake.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5644-5655, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433413

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health concern worldwide and is considered to be associated with disruption of host-microbial homeostasis, especially microbiota composition in the gastrointestinal tract. Use of microbiota-directed foods or nutraceuticals therefore represents a promising approach for the control of obesity. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, has been proven to be one of the most effective anti-obesity natural products. However, its action mechanism is yet to be unraveled, especially with respect to its role in the modulation of gut microbiota composition. In the present study, profiles of microbiota in both the cecal and fecal samples from BALB/c mice given respectively the following treatments were examined: normal chow diet (NCD), NCD + fucoxanthin (NCDF), high-fat-diet (HFD), and HFD + fucoxanthin (HFDF). The results showed that fucoxanthin supplementation for 4 weeks significantly changed the composition of both cecal and fecal microbiota. In addition, a differential effect was observed between the supplementation to NCD and to HFD. The changes in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and the abundance of S24-7 and Akkermansia were identified to be among the major gut microbiota modulating events associated with the anti-obesity bioactivity of fucoxanthin. Hence, our results suggested that fucoxanthin could be a promising microbiota-targeted functional-food ingredient.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/microbiologia , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1389-1399, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406033

RESUMO

The transgenerational maintenance of symbiotic microbes that benefit host nutrition and health is evolutionarily advantageous. In some vertebrate lineages, coprophagy is used as a strategy for effectively transmitting microbes across generations. However, this strategy has still not been studied in birds. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of maternal cecal feces consumption by Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica) chicks as a strategy for acquiring essential gut microbes. Both the duration of coprophagy behavior by the chicks and the development process of the chick cecal microbiome (n=20 one- to three-week-old chicks, from three broods) were investigated. In all three broods, coprophagy behavior was only observed from 3 to 18 days of age. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 1-week-old chicks (n=651) and adults (n=609), and most of the main OTUs observed in the adults were already present in the 1-week-old chicks. These results indicate that, in this precocial bird species, coprophagy may contribute to the early establishment of cecal bacteria that are essential for food digestion and, thus, chick survival. In fact, Japanese rock ptarmigan chicks consume the same food as their hens from the time of hatching. This behavior may have applications to ex-situ conservation.


Assuntos
Coprofagia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Codorniz/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Japão , Codorniz/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
16.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105123, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401191

RESUMO

Salmonella Zega isolated from natural outbreaks that were characterized by high mortality in poultry farms in three Southwestern States of Nigeria was used to inoculate two week-old chicks through different routes in order to determine and compare the clinical signs, pathological and immunohistochemical changes in each route of infection. The birds were divided into 4 groups of 25 each as groups A (orally inoculated), B (intraperitoneally inoculated), C (inoculated per cloaca) and D (uninoculated control). All the birds were inoculated with 0.2 ml of 1 × 108 cfu of the bacteria. Clinical signs were observed and recorded according to the route of infection, and with the days post-infection from day 0 till day 10 post-infection. Two birds from each group were sacrificed every 24 h and examined for gross lesions, which were described and scored according to the route of infection and days post-infection. Samples of visceral organs were collected for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Clinical signs in chicks infected orally and intraperitoneally were weakness, anoraexia lethargy, somnolescence, yellowish diarrhoea observed from 4 days till day 10 post infections. Mild sign of weakness was observed in chickes infected per cloaca, from day 3 to 7. The gross lesions were congestion, oedema and enlargement and necrosis in visceral organs from day 4 to 10 post infection in orally and intraperitoneally infected chicks, but mild vascular changes were observed in chicks infected per cloaca, except in the caecum were lesions of necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were moderate to severe. Microscopic lesions were necrosis of host cells and infiltration by lymphocytes, heterophils and macrophages in multiple organs observed from day 4 to 10 post infection in orally and intraperitoneally infected chicks. Immunoreactions were observed in all the visceral organs examined. Clinical signs, pathological and immunohistochemical findings were mild in chicks infected per cloaca, except caecal lesions. Salmonella Zega isolated from an outbreak in poultry farms in Abeokuta, Nigeria was highly pathogenic in chicken and produced similar findings in oral and intraperitoneal infections; while per cloacal infection showed a localized infection of the caecum.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Progressão da Doença , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/fisiopatologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109588, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450035

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is one of the most hazardous metals to human and wildlife and it also has multiple negative impacts on birds. However, its influences on bird gut morphology and intestinal microbiota were still unclear. We used female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) to examine the effects of chronic lead exposure (0, 50 ppm and 1000 ppm) on cecal histology, microbial communities and immune function. The results showed 50 ppm lead exposure caused subtle damages of cecum cell structure. However, 1000 ppm lead exposure caused severe cecum histopathological changes characterized by mucosa abscission, Lieberkühn glands destruction and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, both lead concentrations induced ultrastructural damages featured by nucleus pyknosis, mitochondrial vacuolation and microvilli contraction. Meanwhile, microbial community structure, species diversity, taxonomic compositions and taxa abundance in the cecum were affected by lead exposure. Furthermore, the mRNA relative expression of immunity-related genes such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was significantly downregulated while that of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and natural killer kappa B (NF-κB) was significantly upregulated in the cecum of 50 and 1000 ppm lead exposure groups. We concluded that lead exposure may cause gut health impairment of female Japanese quails by inducing cecal histopathological changes, microbiota dysbiosis and cecal immune disorder.


Assuntos
Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Coturnix/imunologia , Coturnix/microbiologia , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Ceco/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 298, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary structure in ruminants is closely connected with the composition of gastrointestinal microbiota. Merging study has shown that dietary induced SARA causes the alteration of microbial community in the cecum leading to the local inflammation. However, the mechanisms of cecum inflammation elicited by the shift of microbial flora in ruminants are largely unknown, and whether the development of this inflammation is modified by epigenetic modifications. RESULTS: Ten multiparous lactating goats were randomly seperated into two groups and received either a low concentrate diet (LC, 40% concentrate, n = 5) or a high concentrate diet (HC, 60% concentrate) to induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Compared with LC, HC-induced SARA altered the predominant phyla and genera, thereby increasing the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Meanwhile, HC-induced SARA enhanced the mRNA expression of cytokines and chemokines and the expression of mRNA and protein of GPR41, GPR43, p38 and ERK1/2, while HC-induced SARA had no effect on TLR4 and p65. Furthermore, HC-induced SARA decreased the percentage of chromatin compaction and DNA methylation at the area of the promoters of GPR41 and GPR43. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that HC diet induced SARA resulted in the alteration in the composition of cecal microbiota. This alteration increased the concentration of LPS, but failing to activate TLR4 signaling pathway due to the tolerance effect of intestinal epithelial cell to certain level of LPS, as well as elevated the concentration of SCFAs, thereby activating GPR41 and GPR43 signaling pathway to produce cytokines and chemokins and cause the cecal inflammation. And epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of this inflammation in the lactating goats suffering from SARA.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Leite/química , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Gravidez , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5908-5912, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289821

RESUMO

Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. We have detected Campylobacter in chicken livers available at retail. The objective of the current project was to determine the prevalence and subtype of Campylobacter associated with livers and ceca of the same broiler carcasses at commercial slaughter. Within 2 min of commercial evisceration, we collected liver and ceca of one broiler carcass from each of 70 discreet flocks over a 12-mo period. Liver surface, liver internal tissue, and cecal contents were cultured for Campylobacter using standard methods. One example of the predominant colony type was selected from each positive sample for whole genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. We detected Campylobacter in at least one sample from 58 of 70 (83%) carcasses/flocks; 41 ceca, 57 liver surface samples, and 19 liver internal tissue samples were positive. For 11 of 18 carcasses from which all samples were positive, the predominant colony types were indistinguishable. However, some carcasses did have multiple subtypes of Campylobacter. Of carcasses with Campylobacter on the surface of the liver and within the ceca, it was more likely that the subtypes be the same than different (P < 0.01). However, Campylobacter subtypes detected in internal liver tissue were not more likely to be the same as those detected in ceca (P > 0.05). We detected different subtypes of Campylobacter from internal liver tissue and liver surface of seven broiler carcasses/flocks. Livers from a large percentage of broiler carcasses/flocks can have one or more subtypes of Campylobacter.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fígado/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
20.
Anaerobe ; 59: 167-175, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302308

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of starter feeding on caecal mucosal bacterial composition and the expression of genes involved in immune and tight junctions in pre-weaned lambs. Six pairs of new-born twin lambs were selected. From 10 days of age, one lamb of each pair received ewe's milk only (M group, n = 6), while the other one was fed ewe's milk plus starter feed (M + S group, n = 6). At 56 days of age, the lambs were sacrificed, and then cecum digesta was collected to measure pH values and concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), and caecal mucosa were collected to determine the changes in bacterial communities and the mRNA expression of cytokines, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and tight junction proteins. The results showed the body weight and average daily gain were not significantly different between both groups. Starter feeding significantly (P < 0.05) increased the concentrations of propionate and butyrate; the proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate to total concentrations of VFA; and decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate in caecal contents. Principal coordinate analysis showed that samples from the M + S group could be distinguished from those from the M group; starter feeding also increased the diversity of caecal mucosal bacteria. At the genus level, starter feeding significantly (FDR < 0.05) increased the relative abundance of Alistipes, Parabacteroides, Parasutterella and Butyricimonas, and caused a decreasing trend (FDR < 0.10) in the relative abundance of Campylobacter and Helicobacter. The real-time PCR results showed that starter feeding significantly (FDR < 0.05) decreased the relative mRNA expression level of IL-12, TNF-α and TLR4 and increased the relative mRNA expression level of claudin-4. These results indicate that starter feeding altered caecal mucosal bacterial communities and decreased the expression of inflammatory factors, which may be beneficial in alleviating the weaning stress of lambs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Ovinos , Desmame
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