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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445758

RESUMO

This study was designed to develop and verify a fully automated cephalometry landmark identification system, based on multi-stage convolutional neural networks (CNNs) architecture, using a combination dataset. In this research, we trained and tested multi-stage CNNs with 430 lateral and 430 MIP lateral cephalograms synthesized by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to make a combination dataset. Fifteen landmarks were manually and respectively identified by experienced examiner, at the preprocessing phase. The intra-examiner reliability was high (ICC = 0.99) in manual identification. The results of prediction of the system for average mean radial error (MRE) and standard deviation (SD) were 1.03 mm and 1.29 mm, respectively. In conclusion, different types of image data might be the one of factors that affect the prediction accuracy of a fully-automated landmark identification system, based on multi-stage CNNs.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cefalometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 117-128, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Krapina rock shelter has yielded a large assemblage of early Neandertals. Although endocranial volume (ECV) has been estimated for four individuals from the site, several published values that appear in the literature warrant revisiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used virtual methods, including high-resolution surface models of fossils and 3D geometric morphometrics, to reconstruct endocasts and estimate ECV for five Krapina crania. We generated 10 reconstructions of each endocast to quantify missing data uncertainty. To assess the method and our ECV estimates, we applied these techniques to the Spy II Neandertal, and estimated ECV of a human reference endocast simulating the missing data of the Krapina fossils. RESULTS: We obtained an average ECV estimate of 1,526 cm3 for Spy II, consistent with previous research. Estimated ECV of juveniles Krapina 1 and 2 average 1,419 and 1,286 cm3 , respectively. Estimates for the relatively complete adults Krapina 3 and 6 range from 1,247 to 1,310 cm3 and 1,135 to 1,207 cm3 , respectively, while the more fragmentary Krapina 5 averaged 1,397 cm3 . The missing data simulation suggests more fragmentary crania yield more uncertain and possibly overestimated ECVs. CONCLUSIONS: We have provided new estimates of brain size of the Krapina Neandertals, including the first estimates for Krapina 2. Brain size at Krapina was similar to other pre-Würm Neandertals, within the range of but lower than the average of later Neandertals. Although the virtual approach overcomes many challenges of fossil preservation, our results are nevertheless subject to future revision.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Homem de Neandertal/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Fósseis , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22778, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the sagittal positions of the mandibular prominence and maxillary central incisors in adult Chinese Han men to establish their aesthetic profile characteristics. METHODS: Seventy-four Chinese Han men aged 18 to 40 years underwent cone beam computed tomography for detecting the distances between Glabella and Subnasale, Subnasale and Menthon of soft tissue, Condyle and Gonion, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line, Facial Axis point of maxillary central incisor and the Goal Anterior Limit Line as well as the angle of the Occlusal Plane. Dolphin Imaging and Photoshop software packages were used to generate silhouette profiles. Thirteen orthodontists assessed the silhouette profiles and assigned visual analog scale scores. Scores >70 were assigned to the aesthetic (group 1), scores of 60to 70 to the general (group 2), scores of 50 to 60 to the acceptable (group 3), and scores of <50 to the unaesthetic profile (group 4). RESULTS: A total of 15 men were assigned to group 1, 35 to group 2, 14 to group 3, and 10 to group 4. There were no significant differences in the variables examined between groups 1, 2, and 3, but comparing group 1 with group 4, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line (1.16 ±â€Š2.61 mm vs -1.44 ±â€Š2.92 mm, P = .046) and Facial Axis-Goal Anterior Limit Line (-0.61 ±â€Š2.54 mm vs 1.70 ±â€Š2.62 mm, P = .038) there were significant differences. CONCLUSION: Compared with the unaesthetic profile group, the sagittal positions of the maxillary central incisors were slightly posterior, and the chin was slightly anterior in adult Chinese Han men with an aesthetic profile.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Queixo/anatomia & histologia , Queixo/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. ADM ; 77(5): 244-246, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146798

RESUMO

La importancia del análisis cefalométrico dentro del diagnóstico en ortodoncia ha ido incrementando a través de los años, por ello, el interés de comparar la confiabilidad de los sistemas digitales con el trazado manual convencional. Objetivo: Definir el grado de concordancia entre los resultados de trazado cefalométrico manual y con Nemoceph. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron ocho medidas lineales y angulares del análisis cefalométrico de Steiner. Se realizó un estudio transversal, correlacional, en el cual se analizaron 70 radiografías laterales de cráneo digitales. Los resultados se dividieron en dos grupos, trazado manual y trazado cefalométrico con Nemoceph, los cuales fueron evaluados con un índice de correlación intraclase. Conclusión: Se reportó un grado de correlación intraclase mayor a 0.75, estableciendo que el sistema digital exhibe la misma precisión del manual, con algunas ventajas convenientes a la época (AU)


The importance taken by the cephalometric analysis within the orthodontic diagnosis has been increasing over the years, for that reason the interest of comparing the reliability of the digital systems with the conventional manual tracing. Objective: To define the degree of concordance between the results of manual cephalometric tracing and with Nemoceph. Material and methods: Eight linear and angular measurements of Steiner's cephalometric analysis were used. A crosssectional, correlational study was conducted in which 70 digital skull lateral radiographs were analyzed. The results were divided into two groups; manual tracing and cephalometric tracing with Nemoceph, which were evaluated with an intraclass correlation index. Conclusion: a correlation degree greater than 0.75 was reported. Establishing that the digital system exhibits the same precision of the manual, with some advantages suited to the age (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cefalometria/métodos , Radiografia Dentária Digital , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , México
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933221

RESUMO

Background: Upper lip appearance received major attention with the introduction of diverse treatment modalities, including lip augmentation, rhinoplasty surgery, and dental treatment designed to support the upper lip. Our objectives were to define the prevalence and characteristics of the upper lip horizontal line (ULHL), which is a dynamic line appearing during a smile, in relation to gender, malocclusions, aging, and facial morphology. Methods: First, the prevalence and gender distribution of ULHL was examined from standardized en-face imaging at full smile of 643 randomly selected patients. Second, cephalometric and dental cast model analyses were made for 97 consecutive patients divided into three age groups. Results: ULHL appears in 13.8% of the population examined, and prevailed significantly more in females (78%). The prevalence of ULHL was not related to age nor to malocclusion. Patients presenting ULHL showed shorter upper lip and deeper lip sulcus. The skeletal pattern showed longer mid-face, shorter lower facial height and greater prevalence of a gummy smile. Conclusions: Female patients with short upper lip, concavity of the upper lip, and gummy smile are more likely to exhibit ULHL. The ULHL is not age-related and can be identified in children and young adults. Therefore, it should be considered when selecting diverse treatment modalities involving the upper lip.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Má Oclusão , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Sorriso , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820067

RESUMO

An 11-week-old unvaccinated, term Amish boy initially presented with poor feeding, microcephaly, failure to thrive, and developmental delays. His physical examination was significant for both weight and head circumference being less than the third percentile, and he was noted to have micrognathia, truncal hypotonia, and head lag. He was admitted to the pediatric hospital medicine service for further diagnostic evaluation. Laboratory studies assessing for endocrinological and metabolic etiologies yielded negative results, and imaging studies (including a chest radiograph, echocardiogram, and abdominal ultrasound) were normal. However, intracranial calcifications were noted on a head ultrasound. The etiology of his constellation of symptoms was initially thought to be infectious, but the ultimate diagnosis was not made until after discharge from the pediatric hospital medicine service.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Calcinose/sangue , Calcinose/complicações , Cefalometria/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcefalia/sangue , Microcefalia/complicações , Hipotonia Muscular/sangue , Hipotonia Muscular/complicações , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/complicações
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A missing mandible is a common problem in facial identification cases requiring forensic facial approximation or reconstruction. The Sassouni and Sassouni-Plus methods which are currently used to predict the missing mandible from the cranium produce low levels of accuracy. AIMS: This study proposes a new method for the estimation of the overall dimensions of the mandible based upon linear cranial measurements, the proposed method has the potential to be utilised in the facial reconstruction of a range of adult skulls with dentition. SAMPLE AND METHOD: 21 measurements were taken from a sample of 90 skulls, 44 male, 43 female and three juvenile, originating from 9 different geographical areas. Ordinary least-squares regression, hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to investigate trends in the data and to produce equations for the estimation of condylar height, corpus length and anterior height. CONCLUSION: When tested the equations produced an overall mean error of 0.09 mm with a standard deviation of ±4.84. The proposed method offers an improvement upon the currently used methods. It can be used to estimate the overall mandibular dimensions with a good level of accuracy.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 599-610, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of isolated craniosynostosis and the influence of syndromic forms confound the understanding of craniofacial morphologic development. This study attempts to clarify the individual influences of isolated bicoronal synostosis, Apert syndrome, and Crouzon syndromes on skull base morphology. METHODS: One hundred seventeen computed tomographic scans were included (nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis, n = 36; Apert syndrome with bicoronal synostosis, n = 25; Crouzon syndrome with bicoronal synostosis, n = 11; controls, n = 45). Cephalometric measurements were analyzed using Materialise software. RESULTS: Nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis patients developed a shortened cranial base length, with a significantly shortened distance between nasion and sella (p = 0.005). The cranial base angles of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis in both the cranial side (N-S-BA) and facial side (N-SO-BA) increased significantly, by 17.04 degrees (p < 0.001) and 11.75 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, both the N-S-BA and N-SO-BA angles of Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome were narrowed more than that of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis [by 12.11 degrees (p < 0.001) and 12.44 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively, in Apert syndrome; and by 11.66 degrees (p = 0.007) and 13.71 degrees (p = 0.007), respectively, in Crouzon syndrome]. However, there is no statistically significant difference of these two angles between Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome, when they were only associated with bicoronal synostosis. Contrary to the relatively normal subcranial space of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis, both Apert and Crouzon syndromes developed a reduced subcranial space. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated bicoronal synostosis resulted in a flattened cranial base, whereas Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome developed a normal cranial base angle when only associated with bicoronal synostosis. The syndromic skulls had additional significantly reduced subcranial space.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Suturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
9.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 17(2): 87-92, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195096

RESUMO

En la actualidad la relación entre oclusión y posturología despierta un gran interés científico, sobre todo de cara a la instauración de un tratamiento multidisciplinar. Sin embargo, la diversidad de estudios se refiere sobre todo a la población adulta y no hay un consenso común entre las diferentes investigaciones. En base a ello nos planteamos como objetivo estudiar la posición craneocervical en diferentes oclusiones en población en desarrollo. Mediante un diseño de carácter transversal fueron seleccionados 64 pacientes pediátricos con historia clínica completa y radiografías laterales de cráneo de calidad. Las variables analizadas mediante el software de ImageJ® y Nemoceph® fueron FP-MP, ángulo ANB, OPT-SN, CVT-SN y Ad1-Ba. El análisis estadístico descriptivo y comparativo se llevó a cabo mediante el programa programa IBM SPSS® hallan-do posteriormente la fiabilidad intraexaminador. Los valores p obtenidos para cada una de las variables fueron 0,846 para FP-MP, 0,008 para el ángulo ANB, 0,155 para OPT-SN, 0,415 para CVT-SN y 0,221 para Ad1-Ba. Por todo ello, creemos que la posición craneofacial en las diferentes oclusiones podría estar determinada por el hecho de que el desarrollo todavía no ha finalizado


Currently, the relationship between occlusion and posture arouses great scientific interest, especially during the establishment of a multidisciplinary treatment. However, the diversity of studies refers mostly to the adult population and there is no common agreement among the different investigations. Based on this, we aimed to study the craniocervical position in different occlusions in the developing pediatric population. Through a cross-sectional design, 64 pediatric patients with complete clinical history and high-quality lateral skull radiographs were selected. The variables analyzed by ImageJ® and Nemoceph® software's were FP-MP, ANB angle, OPT-SN, CVT-SN and Ad1-Ba. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis was carried out with IBM SPSS Statistics® software, subsequently finding intra-examiner agreement. P-values obtained for each of these variables were 0.846 for FP-MP, 0.008 for ANB angle, 0.155 for OPT-SN, 0.415 for CVT-SN, and 0.221 for CVT-SN. Based on these results, we believe that the craniofacial position in the different occlusions could be determined by the fact that the development has not yet been completed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/fisiologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/fisiologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Deformidades Dentofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalos de Confiança , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101743, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659706

RESUMO

The aim in this study was to evaluate the influence of skeletal class, facial type, and sex on soft tissue thickness (STT) of the craniofacial midline in a Brazilian subpopulation. Thus, 121 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (54 males and 67 females, age 21 to 40 yrs) composed the study sample. Patients were classified according to skeletal class (class I, II, and III) and facial type (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic), and STT was measured (mm) in 10 landmarks in the craniofacial midline for each CBCT scan. Multivariate analysis of covariance evaluated facial STT with regard to multiple independent variables (sex, age - covariate, facial type, and skeletal class). TEM and rTEM assessed the intra-examiner agreement. STT was significantly greater in males than in females for all regions measured (p < 0.05), except for the pogonion-pogonion' landmark (p>0.05). In general, class III individuals had significantly thicker soft tissue in the maxilla - subspinale-subnasale', prosthion-labrale superius', and incision-stomion' regions, while class II subjects had thicker soft tissue in the infradentale-labrale inferius' mandibular landmark (p < 0.05). Regarding facial type, dolichocephalic individuals showed significantly thicker soft tissue in the supramentale-supramentale' mandibular landmark, whereas brachycephalic subjects had thicker soft tissue in maxillary regions - prosthion-labrale superius' and incision-stomion' (p < 0.05). rTEM values were below 5% for most landmarks, and all TEM values were below 1 mm. Skeletal class and facial type influence STT, showing a soft tissue compensation, with deeper soft tissue in areas with lower skeletal development, and/or where bone is positioned more posteriorly.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Tecido Conjuntivo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(9): 1723-1731, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital microtia may be associated with hemifacial microsomia, but little is known about their correlation and development with aging. Historically, facial asymmetry is easily assessed by observing the occlusal cant using a tongue depressor. We serially measured the occlusal cant in children with microtia to evaluate change in facial asymmetry with growth. METHODS: Since 2011, frontal photographs of patients with congenital microtia biting a tongue depressor were obtained and reviewed. The occlusal angle was compared between the baseline and final photographs, and the change was compared between cant-positive (>3° at baseline) and cant-negative (<3° at baseline) groups. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine variables associated with the change in occlusal angle. RESULTS: Overall, 105 patients were enrolled. With a mean age of 5.4 years at baseline and a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, clinically significant aggravation was observed in 15.4% and 24.2% of cant-positive and cant-negative patients, respectively. Hemifacial microsomia (OR, 4.825; p = 0.005) and occlusal angle at baseline (OR, 0.821; p = 0.045) were associated with aggravation, but the severity of microtia showed no significant association. CONCLUSIONS: When hemifacial microsomia was present, the occlusal cant seemed to be aggravated in children with microtia at later ages. When the occlusal cant was present without noticeable hemifacial microsomia, some compensation in facial asymmetry was expected. The use of a wooden tongue depressor is a simple, non-invasive, and radiologic hazard-free aid to detect notable change in facial asymmetry in children with microtia.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/instrumentação , Cefalometria/métodos , Microtia Congênita/complicações , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

RESUMO

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estatura , Cefalometria/métodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Antropologia , Fatores de Tempo , Albânia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Kosovo
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 963e-974e, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients underwent bimaxillary surgery with computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates (experimental group) or computer-aided design and manufacturing splints (control group). Preoperative and postoperative imaging data were collected and then analyzed using Mimics Research 19.0, Geomagic Studio, and IBM SPSS Version 21.0. RESULTS: Deformity evaluation and posttreatment assessment were performed for all patients. The experimental group had fewer postoperative complications. Comparison of the linear and angular differences to facial reference planes revealed more accurate repositioning of the mandible and condyles in the experimental group, although the position of several landmarks still requires small adjustments. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates effectively corrected skeletal class III malocclusion, providing positional control of segments with reasonable surgical accuracy. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentação , Osteotomia de Le Fort/instrumentação , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Placas Ósseas , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomia de Le Fort/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Contenções , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Titânio , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 17(1): 57-63, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189750

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica para evaluar la posible relación entre los patrones de crecimiento facial con la maduración dental y esquelética en pacientes en crecimiento. La maduración dental y esquelética son dos indicadores que nos permiten es-tablecer en qué momento del desarrollo se encuentra el paciente en crecimiento. Actualmente, para la valoración de la maduración esquelética se emplea la visualización de las vértebras cervicales en la radiografía lateral de cráneo, ya que es un método que permite disminuir la exposición radiológica del paciente que se encuentra en estudio ortodóncico, en comparación con la radiografía de muñe-ca, la cual suponía la realización de una radiografía adicional. Para el análisis de la maduración dental, la radiografía panorámica es la más empleada mediante la visualización del desarrollo de los siete dientes mandibulares izquierdos. Los pacientes que se encuentran en edad infantil presentan diversos patrones de crecimiento facial, entre los que podemos encontrar, braquifacial, mesofacial y dolicofacial. Para poder establecer el patrón de crecimiento que presenta el paciente existen diversos métodos que, a través de mediciones cefalométricas, nos clasifican al paciente en uno de los tres grupos. Existen diversos trabajos que estudian la posible relación entre los patrones de crecimiento facial y la maduración dental y esquelética. Según la literatura revisada podemos concluir que los pacientes que presentan un patrón de crecimiento vertical muestran una maduración dental y esquelética más avanzada en comparación con los pacientes que presentan un patrón de crecimiento horizontal


The objective of this paper is to present a bibliographical review to evaluate the possible relationship between facial growth patterns and dental and skeletal maturation in growing patients.Dental and skeletal maturation are two indicators that allow us to establish at what point the patient is in his growth. Currently, for the evaluation of skeletal maturation, the visualisation of the cervical vertebrae in the lateral x-ray of the skull is used, since this is a method that diminishes the radiological exposure of the patient undergoing an orthodontic study, in comparison with the x-ray of the wrist, which means taking an additional x-ray.For the analysis of dental maturation, the panoramic x-ray is the most used through visualisation of the development of the seven left jaw teeth. Children in young ages present different facial growth patterns, among which we can find brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial. In order to establish the growth pattern the patient presents, there are different methods that, through cephalometric measurements, classify the patient in one of the three groups. Different papers study the possible relationship between facial growth patterns and dental and skeletal maturation. According to the reviewed literature, we can conclude that the patients who present a vertical growth pattern show more advanced dental and skeletal maturation in comparison with the patients who present a horizontal growth pattern


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Arco Dental/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/fisiologia , Maxila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ossos Faciais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Radiografia Panorâmica , Cefalometria/métodos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7238263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149128

RESUMO

This study focus on the changes of the position and morphology of jaw and condyle after MEAW (the multiloop edgewise arch wire) treatment in adults with a nonlow angle (mean angle or high angle SN - MP > 27°) of skeletal class III (mild to moderate skeletal classs III means -5° < ANB < 0°) malocclusions measured by CBCT (cone beam computed tomography). Twenty adult patients (aged 17-26) with a nonlow angle of skeletal class III malocclusions were selected in this study taken orthodontic treatment by MEAW. CBCT was taken before and after the treatment to analyze the changes of the jaw and condyle. After treatment, the angle of L7-MP decreased 12.2°, L6-MP decreased 10.5°, L1-MP decreased 8.8° (P < 0.001 for each) and U1-SN increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant changes between anterior and posterior APDI index and between anterior and posterior spaces of the TMJ (temporomandibular joint) (P > 0.05). The linear ratio of the TMJ was the LR > 12 before treatment, while it was -12 < LR < 12 after treatment; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them (P > 0.05). There was also no significant change in anterior and posterior position and morphology of the condyle within the joint fossa after the treatment by MEAW in this study. MEAW technology in correcting the class III with nonlow angle patients mainly relies on the compensation of distally and posterior mandibular teeth, rather than the mandible and condyle moving backward to establish a neutral occlusal. This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University (No. KYJJ2013002).


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Oclusão Dentária , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/patologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/terapia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Côndilo Mandibular/anatomia & histologia , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Fios Ortodônticos , Articulação Temporomandibular/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(3): 291-297, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134025

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the presence of dentofacial asymmetry in patients with odontoma by panoramic radiography. Methods: Panoramic images with odontoma were selected among all panoramic radiographs (3058 patients). Maxillary odontoma was detected in 27 patients while mandibular odontoma was detected in 25 patients. In addition, 30 patients with similar age and gender characteristics were selected as the control group. Skeletal angular, skeletal linear and dental measurements were performed on panoramic radiographs. The odontoma region and the opposite side of the odontoma of the individuals were examined. The dentofacial asymmetry of the odontoma groups was compared with the control group. Paired t-test was used to determine dentofacial asymmetry on the right and left side of the patients with odontoma. The ANOVA test was used for testing the differences among groups. Results: As a result of study, no significant difference was found between the region of the odontoma and the symmetrical region in the maxilla and mandibula (P > 0.05). In the control group, a statistically significant difference was found in the angle between the mandibular canal and the mental foramen, lower incisor size, PFH/CutCat(°), and Co-Mc-Me(°) measurements (P < 0.05). In the maxillary and mandibular odontoma groups, a statistically significant difference was found in the angle between the mandibular canal and the menton, CH (mm), RH (mm), and CrH (mm) in the comparison of the odontoma and the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: No difference was found between the right and left sides of the jaws related with the asymmetry of the maxilla and mandible.


Assuntos
Deformidades Dentofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Mandibulares/complicações , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Maxilares/complicações , Odontoma/complicações , Radiografia Panorâmica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Neoplasias Mandibulares/patologia , Neoplasias Maxilares/patologia , Odontoma/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 790e-802e, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apert syndrome causes normal or enlarged intracranial volume overall as patients grow. This study aimed to trace the segmental anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae volume and structural morphology in these patients, to help discern a more focused and individualized surgical treatment plan for patients with Apert syndrome. METHODS: This study included 82 preoperative computed tomographic scans (Apert, n = 32; control, n = 50) divided into five age-related subgroups. The scans were measured using image processing and three-dimensional modeling software. RESULTS: The middle cranial fossa volume was increased and was the earliest change noted. It was increased by 45 percent (p = 0.023) compared with controls before 6 months of age and remained increased into adulthood (161 percent, p = 0.016), with gradually increasing severity. The anterior and posterior cranial fossae volumes also increased, by 35 percent (p = 0.032) and 39 percent (p = 0.007), respectively. Increased depth of cranial fossae contributed most to the increase in volumes of patients with Apert syndrome, with correlation coefficients of 0.799, 0.908, and 0.888 for anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossa, respectively. The intracranial volume was increased 12 percent (p = 0.098) across the entire test age range (0 to 26 years old), but only had statistical significance during the age range of 6 to 18 years (22 percent, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malformation of the middle cranial fossa is an early, perhaps the initial, pivotal cranial morphologic change in Apert syndrome. Increased cranial fossae depth is an inherent characteristic of the maldevelopment. Normalization of cranial volume and circumference overall may not achieve a normal skull structure, as it does not correct regional craniocerebral disproportion.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/cirurgia , Cefalometria/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Base do Crânio/patologia , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acrocefalossindactilia/patologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 55, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the difference of palatal morphology in different vertical patterns between skeletal Class I subjects and skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible. METHODS: Seventy-six skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible (38 females, 38 males) and 85 skeletal Class I subjects (45 females, 40 males) were collected retrospectively and divided into hyperdivergent, normodivergent and hypodivergent groups. CBCT images of these subjects were reoriented by Dolphin 3D Imaging software. Three-dimensional (3D) maxilla was segmented by ProPlan software before using Geomagic Studio software to reconstruct 3D palatal morphology. Deviation patterns on 3D colored map analysis was performed to compare the difference of 3D palatal morphology between different groups. RESULTS: 3D colored map analysis showed that male's palate was higher and wider than that of female in the posterior part, regardless of different sagittal and vertical patterns. In skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible, males with hyperdivergent and normodivergent showed higher and narrower in the posterior part of palate, while females with hyperdivergent and normodivergent had a higher but no obviously narrow palate compared with the hypodivergent subjects. Skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible showed flatter and narrower in the posterior part of palate than that of skeletal Class I subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Sagittal and vertical patterns have great influence on the palatal morphology and as the vertical dimension increased, the palate tended to be higher and narrower.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/patologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Palato/patologia , Dimensão Vertical , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/patologia , Radiografia Dentária Digital/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(4): 934-939, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068728

RESUMO

Resorbable and titanium systems have been used in maxillary fixation. The aim of this review was to evaluate stability and morbidity of Le Fort I osteotomy by comparing both systems. It was performed in 11 databases, and reported according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, and retrospective comparative studies with patients who underwent nonsegmented Le Fort I osteotomy were included. Eleven articles were selected, with a total of 262 patients treated with resorbable and 252 with titanium fixation. The meta-analysis showed that when measured at point A, horizontal stability was 0.06 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.19, 0.30), vertical stability for impaction was -0.43 mm (95% CI -0.94, 0.07), and for inferior repositioning was -1.29 mm (95% CI -2.62, 0.04). Morbidity was similar in the groups. Regarding infection, resorbable presented an absolute risk (AR) = 0.032, and titanium an AR = 0.025 (P = 1.0). For soft tissue reaction, an AR = 0.120 was shown for resorbable, and an AR = 0.132 for titanium (P = 0.85). Removal of fixation showed an AR = 0.024 for resorbable, and an AR = 0.025 for titanium (P = 1.0). Based on these results, resorbable and metal fixation systems seem to be equivalent with respect to stability and morbidity. This review was limited by the quality of the studies. Future studies should address these quality limitations to improve comparison between these 2 fixation approaches.


Assuntos
Craniotomia , Osteotomia de Le Fort , Titânio , Cefalometria/métodos , Humanos , Maxila/cirurgia
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 42, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of reference patterns such as the interincisal line, curve of the upper lip, width of the smile or shape of the teeth have been studied in different populations. Determining the frequency of different smile aesthetic parameters in a European Caucasian population and exploring possible gender differences is important in order to obtain predictable treatment outcomes. METHODS: Photographs were obtained under resting and forced smiling conditions in 140 individuals (70 males and 70 females) with a mean age of 20.1 ± 4.3 years. Different variables were recorded, including the position of the maxillary interincisal midline in relation to the facial midline, the arc and width of the smile, and the shape of the teeth. The data were processed using the SPSS version 15.0 statistical package, with application of the chi-squared test and a confidence level of 95%. The statistical power was 80%, and the level of significance 5% (α = 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 94.3% of the sample presented a maxillary interincisal midline coinciding with the facial midline, and 80% had a consonant smile line. The curve of the upper lip was upwards in 47.1% of the cases, followed by a straight curve in 41.4%. Most of the subjects (84.3%) presented a medium smile line with tooth exposure to the second premolar (61.4%). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of aesthetic criteria is needed in order to guarantee satisfactory and predictable dental treatment outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences between males and females. The maxillary interincisal midline coincided with the facial midline, with a consonant smile arc and a medium smile line, upward lip curve and oval tooth shape.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Face/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Sorriso , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dente , Adulto Jovem
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