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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD004406, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics provide only modest benefit in treating sore throat, although their effectiveness increases in people with positive throat swabs for group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). It is unclear which antibiotic is the best choice if antibiotics are indicated. This is an update of a review first published in 2010, and updated in 2013, 2016, and 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing clinical relapse (i.e. recurrence of symptoms after initial resolution); and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). To assess the evidence on the comparative incidence of adverse effects and the risk-benefit of antibiotic treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 3 September 2020: CENTRAL (2020, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946), Embase Elsevier (from 1974), and Web of Science Thomson Reuters (from 2010). We also searched clinical trial registers on 3 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind trials comparing different antibiotics, and reporting at least one of the following: clinical cure, clinical relapse, or complications and/or adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened trials for inclusion and extracted data using standard methodological procedures as recommended by Cochrane. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies according to the methods outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and used the GRADE approach to assess the overall certainty of the evidence for the outcomes. We have reported the intention-to-treat analysis, and also performed an analysis of evaluable participants to explore the robustness of the intention-to-treat results. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 trials reported in 18 publications (5839 randomised participants): six trials compared penicillin with cephalosporins; six compared penicillin with macrolides; three compared penicillin with carbacephem; one compared penicillin with sulphonamides; one compared clindamycin with ampicillin; and one compared azithromycin with amoxicillin in children. All participants had confirmed acute GABHS tonsillopharyngitis, and ages ranged from one month to 80 years. Nine trials included only, or predominantly, children. Most trials were conducted in an outpatient setting. Reporting of randomisation, allocation concealment, and blinding was poor in all trials. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence mainly due to lack of (or poor reporting of) randomisation or blinding, or both; heterogeneity; and wide confidence intervals. Cephalosporins versus penicillin We are uncertain if there is a difference in symptom resolution (at 2 to 15 days) for cephalosporins versus penicillin (odds ratio (OR) for absence of symptom resolution 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.12; 5 trials; 2018 participants; low-certainty evidence). Results of the sensitivity analysis of evaluable participants differed (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 5 trials; 1660 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if clinical relapse may be lower for cephalosporins compared with penicillin (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.99; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 50; 4 trials; 1386 participants; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence showed no difference in reported adverse events. Macrolides versus penicillin We are uncertain if there is a difference between macrolides and penicillin for resolution of symptoms (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.35; 6 trials; 1728 participants; low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis of evaluable participants resulted in an OR of 0.79, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.09; 6 trials; 1159 participants). We are uncertain if clinical relapse may be different (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.48 to 3.03; 6 trials; 802 participants; low-certainty evidence).  Azithromycin versus amoxicillin Based on one unpublished trial in children, we are uncertain if resolution of symptoms is better with azithromycin in a single dose versus amoxicillin for 10 days (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.05; 1 trial; 673 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis for per-protocol analysis resulted in an OR of 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; 1 trial; 482 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are also uncertain if there was a difference in relapse between groups (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.82; 1 trial; 422 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were more common with azithromycin compared to amoxicillin (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.99; 1 trial; 673 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Carbacephem versus penicillin There is low-certainty evidence that compared with penicillin, carbacephem may provide better symptom resolution post-treatment in adults and children (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99; NNTB 14.3; 3 trials; 795 participants). Studies did not report on long-term complications, so it was unclear if any class of antibiotics was better in preventing serious but rare complications.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain if there are clinically relevant differences in symptom resolution when comparing cephalosporins and macrolides with penicillin in the treatment of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis. Low-certainty evidence in children suggests that carbacephem may be more effective than penicillin for symptom resolution. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions regarding the other comparisons in this review. Data on complications were too scarce to draw conclusions. These results do not demonstrate that other antibiotics are more effective than penicillin in the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. All studies were conducted in high-income countries with a low risk of streptococcal complications, so there is a need for trials in low-income countries and Aboriginal communities, where the risk of complications remains high.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Ampicilina/efeitos adversos , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Faringite/microbiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547106

RESUMO

The management of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant organisms has been a challenge. We report a rare emergence of resistance to the novel beta-lactam/ beta-lactamase combination ceftolozane/tazobactam by Klebsiella pneumoniae, causing urinary tract infection. The K. pneumoniae, in this case, was reported to be sensitive to the other novel beta-lactam/ beta-lactamase combination of ceftazidime/avibactam. The timely administration of ceftazidime/avibactam resulted in prompt clinical resolution of the urinary tract infection caused by an extensively drug-resistant K. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104186, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360831

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Repurposing existing drugs offers the fastest opportunity to identify new indications for existing drugs as a stable solution against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a critical target for designing potent antiviral agents against COVID-19. In this study, we identify potential inhibitors against COVID-19, using an amalgam of virtual screening, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and binding-free energy approaches from the Korea Chemical Bank drug repurposing (KCB-DR) database. The database screening of KCB-DR resulted in 149 binders. The dynamics of protein-drug complex formation for the seven top scoring drugs were investigated through MD simulations. Six drugs showed stable binding with active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro indicated by steady RMSD of protein backbone atoms and potential energy profiles. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations suggested the community-acquired bacterial pneumonia drug ceftaroline fosamil and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor telaprevir are potent inhibitors against Mpro. Molecular dynamics and interaction analysis revealed that ceftaroline fosamil and telaprevir form hydrogen bonds with important active site residues such as Thr24, Thr25, His41, Thr45, Gly143, Ser144, Cys145, and Glu166 that is supported by crystallographic information of known inhibitors. Telaprevir has potential side effects, but its derivatives have good pharmacokinetic properties and are suggested to bind Mpro. We suggest the telaprevir derivatives and ceftaroline fosamil bind tightly with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and should be validated through preclinical testing.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/química , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , /química , Hepatite C/enzimologia , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , /enzimologia
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2056-2073, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309374

RESUMO

Our objectives were to compare the effects of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) and ampicillin trihydrate (AMP) treatments of cows diagnosed with metritis on uterine health, behavior, reproductive, and productive responses. A controlled randomized clinical trial was designed. Metritis was defined as vaginal discharge (VD) = 5 (fetid, watery, red/brown) within 21 d in milk (DIM) and rectal temperature (RT) <39.5°C, whereas VD = 5 and RT ≥39.5°C was defined as puerperal metritis. On the day of diagnosis (d 0), cows were paired by parity and severity of metritis (metritis vs. puerperal metritis) and assigned randomly to the AMP and CCFA treatments. Cows enrolled in the AMP (n = 308) treatment were moved to a nonsalable-milk pen, where they were treated once daily for 5 d, and were moved back to their original pen 72 h after the last treatment (d 7). Cows enrolled in the CCFA (n = 310) treatment remained in their original pen and received 2 treatments of CCFA, 72 h apart. Rectal temperature was measured daily from d 0 to 6 and on d 11. Vaginal discharge was evaluated on d 4, 6, and 11 to assess cure. Cure was defined as the absence of treatment with additional antimicrobial before experiment d 11, VD <5, and RT <39.5°C. Cows were examined at 28 ± 3 DIM for purulent VD (PVD) and at 35 ± 3 DIM for cytological endometritis. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40 ± 3 and 60 ± 7 d after first and second artificial inseminations. Cure of metritis did not differ between treatments on d 11 (AMP = 64.6 ± 3.1, CCFA = 63.5 ± 3.1%). Cows treated with AMP had greater RT from experiment d 1 to 6 compared with cows treated with CCFA (AMP = 39.1 ± 0.02, CCFA = 39.0 ± 0.02°C). Cows in the AMP treatment had greater prevalence of PVD at 28 ± 3 DIM (AMP = 82.6 ± 2.3, CCFA = 74.4 ± 2.7%) and tended to have greater prevalence of cytological endometritis at 35 ± 3 DIM (AMP = 77.8 ± 6.2 vs. CCFA = 61.7 ± 7.5%) than CCFA-treated cows. Treatment did not affect the hazard of pregnancy among multiparous cows; however, among primiparous cows, CCFA treatment reduced the hazard of pregnancy and increased the median days to pregnancy (AMP = 145 vs. CCFA = 169 d). Finally, average daily milk yield up to 14 wk postpartum was not affected by treatment (AMP = 38.0 ± 0.4, CCFA = 37.5 ± 0.4 kg). We conclude from the current experiment that CCFA was more effective in reducing RT and improving uterine health of metritic cows; however, the improved hazard of pregnancy of primiparous cows treated with AMP is important and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Leite , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Descarga Vaginal/veterinária
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To counter the global health threat of antimicrobial resistance, effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are needed to improve antimicrobial use (AMU) among dentists in addition to physicians. This study aimed to investigate the nationwide epidemiology of AMU among Japanese dentists to facilitate the development of dentist-centered programs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based study using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan to analyze the AMU among Japanese dentists between 2015 and 2017. AMU was quantified as the defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID). The trends in dentist-prescribed AMU were examined according to antimicrobial category and administration route. We also compared outpatient oral AMU between dentists and physicians as well as between on-site and off-site dispensing. RESULTS: The DID values of dentist-prescribed AMU were 1.23 in 2015, 1.22 in 2016, and 1.21 in 2017. During this study period, outpatient oral antimicrobials comprised the majority (approximately 99%) of dentist-prescribed AMU, and cephalosporins were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials (>60% of all antimicrobials). The DID values of outpatient oral AMU were 1.21 for dentists and 12.11 for physicians. The DID value for on-site dispensing was 0.89 in 2017, in which cephalosporins were the predominantly used antimicrobials (DID: 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that target dentists in Japan should focus on on-site dispensing of oral antimicrobials (especially cephalosporins) for outpatients. Further studies are needed to ascertain the underlying factors of oral cephalosporin prescriptions to guide the development of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Japão/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 804, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misuse and overuse of antibiotics by physicians in the treatment of children is common in China. This study aimed to reveal the overall use of antibiotics to treat children hospitalized in four types of pediatric wards. METHODS: Seven independent point prevalence surveys (PPSs) were conducted in Shanghai Children's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University over the period 2012 to 2018. Pediatric ward types were defined general pediatric medical, pediatric surgical, pediatric intensive care units (PICU), and neonatal. RESULTS: A total of 3975 pediatric patients were included in the study, of which 63.9% received at least one dose antibiotic. The top five classes of antibiotics administered were cephalosporins (43.8%, n = 1743), penicillins (13.2%, n = 526), carbapenems (8.7%, n = 347), nitroimidazoles (7.1%, n = 281) and macrolides (6.5%, n = 257). The five most commonly used generic antibiotics were cefuroxime (14.9%, n = 594), ceftriaxone (9.7%, n = 387), cefotaxime (9.0%, n = 358), meropenem (8.1%, n = 320) and ampicillin/sulbactam (6.0%, n = 239). Meropenem was among top five antibiotics prescribed in the general pediatric, PICU and neonatal wards and sixth in the pediatric surgical wards. Of all children on antibiotics, 23.4% received prophylactic treatment, and prophylaxis accounted for 68.1% of indications for treatment in the pediatric surgical wards. CONCLUSIONS: Given that over-treatment with third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems has been associated with treatment-resistant infections, the prescription of these drugs should be strictly controlled and monitored, and measures should be taken to improve the management of surgical prophylaxis in hospitalized children in China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Pediátricos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Carbapenêmicos/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prescrições , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1906-1911, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058575

RESUMO

Cephalosporins belong to the betalactam group and are frequently prescribed in both out and inpatient settings. Their broad spectrum of activity allows a varied use in most medical specialties, ranging from preoperative prophylaxis to treatment of febrile agranulocytosis. There are currently five generations of cephalosporins, mainly differentiated according to their structure, spectrum of activity and side-effect profile. So-called siderophore cephalosporins are active against many multiresistant bacteria, especially in cases of complicated urinary tract infections or ventilator-associated pneumonia. This article intends to review some general clinical principles in prescription and monitoring of patients treated with cephalosporins.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Prescrições , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(3S): S37-S45, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928460

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the association between use of specific cephalosporins and macrolides and hospital length of stay in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who are admitted with acute chest syndrome, and determine treatment risk factors for acute chest syndrome-related 30-day readmission. METHODS: Patients admitted to 48 US hospitals within the Pediatric Health Information System between January 2008 and December 2016 with associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) or ICD-10 diagnoses of SCD and acute chest syndrome were included. Primary outcomes were hospital length of stay and acute chest syndrome-related and all-cause 30-day readmission. Data were analyzed with t tests, ANOVA, and bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: In 21,126 visits (representing 8,856 patients), median age was 11.2 years (interquartile range 6.1 to 16.5 years), 53.5% were male patients, and 77.2% had hemoglobin SS genotype. Median length of stay was 4 days (interquartile range 2 to 6 days; mean 4.76 days [SD 4.62 days]). Ceftriaxone alone (length of stay 4.75 days [SD 4.66 days]; P<.001) or the combination of ceftriaxone and azithromycin (length of stay 4.84 days [SD 4.74 days]; P<.001) was associated with the shortest length of stay and a reduced risk of acute chest syndrome-related readmission (ceftriaxone odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27 to 0.35; ceftriaxone+azithromycin OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.24). Albuterol (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.98) and RBC transfusion (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.83) were also associated with decreased rates of acute chest syndrome-related 30-day readmission. All-cause 30-day readmission rate was 16.7% (95% CI 16.2% to 17.3%). CONCLUSION: Guideline-compliant therapy for acute chest syndrome could preferentially include ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All-cause 30-day readmission for acute chest syndrome is lower than that reported for all-cause readmissions for SCD and more consistent with rates of readmission for pneumonia in the general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 676, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raoultella planticola(R.planticola) is a very rare opportunistic pathogen and sometimes even associated with fatal infection in pediatric cases. Recently,the emergence of carbapenem resistance strains are constantly being reported and a growing source of concern for pediatricians. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported 4 cases of neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola. Their gestational age was 211 to 269 days, and their birth weight was 1490 to 3000 g.The R. planticola infections were detected on the 9th to 27th day after hospitalization and occured between May and June. They clinically manifested as poor mental response, recurrent cyanosis, apnea, decreased heart rate and blood oxygen, recurrent jaundice, fever or nonelevation of body temperature. The C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were elevated at significantly in the initial phase of the infection,and they had leukocytosis or leukopenia. Prior to R.planticola infection,all of them recevied at least one broad-spectrum antibiotic for 7-27d.All the R.planticola strains detected were only sensitive to amikacin, but resistant to other groups of drugs: cephalosporins (such as cefazolin, ceftetan,etc) and penicillins (such as ampicillin-sulbactam,piperacillin,etc),and even developed resistance to carbapenem. All the infants were clinically cured and discharged with overall good prognosis. CONCLUSION: Neonatal septicemia caused by Raoultella planticola mostly occured in hot and humid summer, which lack specific clinical manifestations. Pediatricians should keep in mind that R. planticola can be a potential source of neonatal sepsis and even has the potential to acquire carbapenem-resistance. Preventing outbreaks of epidemics requires early detection, timely diagnosis and treatment, and active isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Piperacilina/farmacologia , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21896, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925724

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the differences in antibiotic usage patterns in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis according to hospital type and region in Korea.The claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis in 2010-2014. Usage of each class of antibiotics was expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD)/event.The average antibiotic usage per inpatient event was 11.3 DDD. The average antibiotic usage was the highest among patients admitted to tertiary hospitals (13.8 DDD), followed by those admitted to secondary hospitals (11.5 DDD), clinics (10.0 DDD), and primary hospitals (9.8 DDD). According to the geographic analyses, third-generation cephalosporins were highly prescribed in some southern regions; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were highly prescribed in some centrally located regions of the Korean peninsula. The hotspots for carbapenem usage included Seoul and Gyeonggi province cluster and Busan cluster: these regions include the capital city and the second biggest city in Korea, respectively.In conclusion, the antibiotic usage patterns for acute pyelonephritis in Korea differ according to the hospital type and region.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925914

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacterales from turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Québec, and Ontario. Isolates were obtained with and without selective enrichment cultures and compared to isolates from diagnostic submissions of suspected colibacillosis cases in Ontario. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF and susceptibility to ESCs was assessed by disk diffusion. The presence of blaCMY, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV was tested by PCR. Transformation experiments were used to characterize blaCMY plasmids. Genome sequencing with short and long reads was performed on a representative sample of blaCTX-M-positive isolates to assess isolates relatedness and characterize blaCTX-M plasmids. For the positive enrichment cultures (67% of total samples), 93% (587/610) were identified as E. coli, with only a few other Enterobacterales species identified. The frequency of ESC resistance was low in E. coli isolates from diagnostic submission (4%) and fecal samples without selective enrichment (5%). Of the ESC-resistant Enterobacterales isolates from selective enrichments, 71%, 18%, 14%, and 8% were positive for blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. IncI1 followed by IncK were the main incompatibility groups identified for blaCMY plasmids. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was found repeatedly on IncI1 plasmids of the pMLST type 3, while blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55, and blaCTX-M-65 were associated with a variety of IncF plasmids. Clonal spread of strains carrying blaCTX-M genes between turkey farms was observed, as well as the presence of an epidemic blaCTX-M-1 plasmid in unrelated E. coli strains. In conclusion, Enterobacterales resistant to ESCs were still widespread at low concentration in turkey feces two years after the cessation of ceftiofur use. Although blaCMY-2 is the main ESC resistance determinant in E. coli from Canadian turkeys, blaCTX-M genes also occur which are often carried by multidrug resistance plasmids. Both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are involved in parallel in the spread of blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacterales from Canadian turkeys.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010285, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The main intervention for acute PID is broad-spectrum antibiotics administered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. We assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens to treat PID. SEARCH METHODS: In January 2020, we searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2020, located through hand and electronic searching; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; four other databases; and abstracts in selected publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing antibiotics with placebo or other antibiotics for the treatment of PID in women of reproductive age, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. We limited our review to a comparison of drugs in current use that are recommended by the 2015 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for treatment of PID. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and conducted GRADE assessments of the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 39 RCTs (6894 women) in this review, adding two new RCTs at this update. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to high, the main limitations being serious risk of bias (due to poor reporting of study methods and lack of blinding), serious inconsistency, and serious imprecision. None of the studies reported quinolones and cephalosporins, or the outcomes laparoscopic evidence of resolution of PID based on physician opinion or fertility outcomes. Length of stay results were insufficiently reported for analysis. Regimens containing azithromycin versus regimens containing doxycycline We are uncertain whether there was a clinically relevant difference between azithromycin and doxycycline in rates of cure for mild-moderate PID (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.55; 2 RCTs, 243 women; I2 = 72%; very low-quality evidence). The analyses may result in little or no difference between azithromycin and doxycycline in rates of severe PID (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.05; 1 RCT, 309 women; low-quality evidence), or adverse effects leading to discontinuation of treatment (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.34; 3 RCTs, 552 women; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). In a sensitivity analysis limited to a single study at low risk of bias, azithromycin probably improves the rates of cure in mild-moderate PID (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.67; 133 women; moderate-quality evidence), compared to doxycycline.  Regimens containing quinolone versus regimens containing cephalosporin The analysis shows there may be little or no clinically relevant difference between quinolones and cephalosporins in rates of cure for mild-moderate PID (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.14; 4 RCTs, 772 women; I2 = 15%; low-quality evidence), or severe PID (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.23; 2 RCTs, 313 women; I2 = 7%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether there was a difference between quinolones and cephalosporins in adverse effects leading to discontinuation of treatment (RR 2.24, 95% CI 0.52 to 9.72; 6 RCTs, 1085 women; I2 =  0%; very low-quality evidence). Regimens with nitroimidazole versus regimens without nitroimidazole There was probably little or no difference between regimens with or without nitroimidazoles (metronidazole) in rates of cure for mild-moderate PID (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; 6 RCTs, 2660 women; I2 = 50%; moderate-quality evidence), or severe PID (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.01; 11 RCTs, 1383 women; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that there was little to no difference in in adverse effects leading to discontinuation of treatment (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.61; 17 studies, 4021 women; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). . In a sensitivity analysis limited to studies at low risk of bias, there was little or no difference for rates of cure in mild-moderate PID (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12; 3 RCTs, 1434 women; I2 = 0%; high-quality evidence). Regimens containing clindamycin plus aminoglycoside versus quinolone We are uncertain whether quinolone have little to no effect in  rates of cure for mild-moderate PID compared to clindamycin plus aminoglycoside (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.13; 1 RCT, 25 women; very low-quality evidence). The analysis may result in little or no difference between quinolone vs. clindamycin plus aminoglycoside in severe PID (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.19; 2 studies, 151 women; I2 =  0%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether quinolone reduces adverse effects leading to discontinuation of treatment (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.72; 3 RCTs, 163 women; I2 =  0%; very low-quality evidence). Regimens containing clindamycin plus aminoglycoside versus regimens containing cephalosporin We are uncertain whether clindamycin plus aminoglycoside improves the rates of cure for mild-moderate PID compared to cephalosporin (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; 2 RCTs, 150 women; I2 =  0%; low-quality evidence). There was probably little or no difference in rates of cure in severe PID with clindamycin plus aminoglycoside compared to cephalosporin (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.06; 10 RCTs, 959 women; I2= 21%; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether clindamycin plus aminoglycoside reduces adverse effects leading to discontinuation of treatment compared to cephalosporin (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.42; 10 RCTs, 1172 women; I2 =  0%; very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain whether one treatment was safer or more effective than any other for the cure of mild-moderate or severe PID Based on a single study at a low risk of bias, a macrolide (azithromycin) probably improves the rates of cure of mild-moderate PID, compared to tetracycline (doxycycline).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Viés de Publicação , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759380

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of community and health care-associated bacteremia, with authors of recent studies estimating the incidence of S aureus bacteremia (SAB) in high-income countries between 8 and 26 per 100 000 children per year. Despite this, <300 children worldwide have ever been randomly assigned into clinical trials to assess the efficacy of treatment of SAB. A panel of infectious diseases physicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric SAB identified 7 key clinical questions. The available literature is systematically appraised, summarizing SAB management in children in relation to these priority clinical questions. The management of neonates, children, and adolescents with SAB is predominantly based on clinical experience and trial data extrapolated from adult studies, with limited high-quality evidence available to guide management. The optimal, comprehensive management strategies for SAB in children will remain unknown until the questions outlined are answered through prospective observational cohorts and inclusion of children with SAB in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnica Delfos , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Glicopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravenosas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1635-1639, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828135

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is showing an exponential growth, mandating an urgent need to develop an effective treatment. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy is still lacking. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to standard care in patients with COVID-19. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial conducted at three major university hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-four patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study after signing informed consent. They were equally randomized into two arms: 97 patients administrated HCQ plus standard care (HCQ group) and 97 patients administered only standard care as a control arm (control group). The primary endpoints were recovery within 28 days, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. There was no significant difference between them regarding any of the baseline characteristics or laboratory parameters. Four patients (4.1%) in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) patients in the control group needed mechanical ventilation (P = 0.75). The overall mortality did not differ between the two groups, as six patients (6.2%) died in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) died in the control group (P = 0.77). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCQ treatment was not significantly associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients. So, adding HCQ to standard care did not add significant benefit, did not decrease the need for ventilation, and did not reduce mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infections continue to be a significant public health threat worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance among 147 S. Typhimurium isolates collected from patients in Henan, China from 2006 to 2015. METHODS: 147 S. Typhimurium isolates were collected from March 2006 to November 2015 in Henan Province, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed, and the resistant genes of ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefoxitin) and azithromycin were detected and sequenced. Clonal relationships were assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Of the 147 isolates, 91.1% were multidrug resistant (MDR), with 4.1% being resistant to all antibiotic classes tested. Of concern, 13 MDR isolates were co-resistant to the first-line treatments cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin, while three were also resistant to azithromycin. Seven PFGE patterns were identified among the 13 isolates. All of the isolates could be assigned to one of four main groups, with a similarity value of 89%. MLST assigned the 147 isolates into five STs, including two dominant STs (ST19 and ST34). Of the 43 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, 39 carried double gyrA mutations (Ser83Phe, Asp87Asn/Tyr/Gly) and a single parC (Ser80Arg) mutation, including 1 isolate with four mutations (gyrA: Ser83Phe, Asp87Gly; parC: Ser80Arg; parE: Ser458Pro). In addition, 12 isolates not only carried mutations in gyrA and parC but also had at least one plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene. Among the 32 cephalosporin-resistant isolates, the most common extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) gene was blaOXA-1, followed by blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1, and blaCMY-2. Moreover, the mphA gene was identified in 5 of the 15 azithromycin-resistant isolates. Four MDR isolates contained ESBL and PMQR genes, and one of them also carried mphA in addition. CONCLUSION: The high level of antibiotic resistance observed in S. Typhimurium poses a great danger to public health, so continuous surveillance of changes in antibiotic resistance is necessary.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7377-7391, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505402

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrauterine administration of chitosan microparticles (CM) in curing metritis in dairy cows. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of metritis treatments on milk yield, survival, and reproductive performance. Cows with a fetid, watery, red-brownish vaginal discharge were diagnosed with metritis. Holstein cows (n = 826) with metritis from 3 dairies located in northern Florida were blocked by parity (primiparous or multiparous) and, within each block, randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: CM (n = 276) = intrauterine infusion of 24 g of CM dissolved in 40 mL of sterile distilled water at the time of metritis diagnosis (d 0), 2 (d 2), and 4 (d 4) d later; ceftiofur (CEF; n = 275) = subcutaneous injection of 6.6 mg/kg ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in the base of the ear at d 0 and d 3; Control (CON; n = 275) = no treatment applied at metritis diagnosis. All groups could receive escape therapy if condition worsened. Cure was considered when vaginal discharge became mucoid and not fetid. A group of nonmetritic (NMET; n = 2,436) cows was used for comparison. Data were analyzed by generalized linear mixed and Cox's proportional hazard models. Cows in CM and CON had lesser risk of metritis cure on d 12 than cows in CEF (58.6 ± 5.0 vs. 61.9 ± 4.9% vs. 77.9 ± 3.9, respectively). The proportion of cows culled within 60 days in milk (DIM) was greater for cows in CM than for cows in CEF and CON (21.5 ± 2.7 vs. 9.7 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 2.0%, respectively). Treatment did not affect rectal temperature or plasma nonesterified fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and haptoglobin concentrations. Milk yield in the first 60 DIM differed for all treatments, and it was lowest for CM (35.8 ± 0.3 kg/d), followed by CON (36.8 ± 0.3 kg/d) and CEF (37.9 ± 0.3 kg/d). The hazard of pregnancy up to 300 DIM was lesser for CM than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.50-0.76), for CM than CON (hazard ratio = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.95) and for CON than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99). Culling was greater, and milk yield and fertility were lesser for CEF than NMET. In summary, CM did not improve the cure of metritis, and was detrimental to milk yield, survival, and fertility compared with CON. In contrast, CEF increased the cure of metritis, milk yield, and fertility compared with CM and CON. Finally, the negative effects of metritis on milk yield culling and fertility could not be completely reversed by CEF.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Florida , Lactação , Leite , Paridade , Tamanho da Partícula , Gravidez , Reprodução
17.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(3): 243-247, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if parenteral cephalosporin treatment is appropriate in stable elderly patients hospitalized with a urinary tract infection (UTI) in settings with a high prevalence of bacterial resistant organisms. METHODS: We selected 934 consecutive stable patients aged ≥65 years with a UTI, 94.4% (n = 882) treated with a parenteral cephalosporin. Patients were divided into those with and without bacterial resistance to initial antibiotic therapy (BRIAT). Outcome measures were response to antibiotic therapy at 72 hours, prolonged hospitalization (>5 days) and mortality. RESULTS: There were 316 patients (33.8%) with BRIAT. At 72 hours, 33.9% (107/316) did not respond to initial treatment. The odds of a prolonged hospitalization was 2.1 (95% confidence interval-1.6-2.9), but no patient with BRIAT died from urosepsis (0%, 95% confidence interval-0-1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly stable patients hospitalized with a UTI, treatment with a parenteral cephalosporin might be appropriate despite a high prevalence of resistant organisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
18.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(8): 2025-2032, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antipseudomonal cephalosporin/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftolozane/tazobactam could be a potential treatment option for cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary exacerbations. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftolozane/tazobactam in children with CF merits further evaluation. METHODS: This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of a phase 1, noncomparative trial that characterized PK, safety, and tolerability of single intravenous doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam in pediatric patients. This analysis compares ceftolozane and tazobactam plasma PK parameters, estimated from a population PK model, between patients with and without CF enrolled in that trial. Individual attainment of PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of ceftolozane and tazobactam (free ceftolozane concentration >4 µg/mL for >30% and free tazobactam concentration >1 µg/mL for 20% of the dosing interval) in patients with and without CF were evaluated. RESULTS: The study enrolled 18 patients aged greater than or equal to 2 to less than 18 years old, which included 9 with CF. Weight-normalized ceftolozane PK parameters were similar between patients with CF (clearance: 0.16 L/h/kg, half-life: 1.54 hours, volume of distribution: 0.26 L/kg) and without CF (clearance: 0.15 L/h/kg, half-life: 1.62 hours, volume of distribution: 0.26 L/kg), as were most weight-normalized tazobactam PK parameters. Weight-normalized tazobactam clearance was higher in patients with CF (0.73 L/h/kg) than patients without CF (0.42 L/h/kg). All patients achieved the prespecified PK/PD targets for ceftolozane and tazobactam. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis demonstrated generally similar weight-normalized plasma PK parameters for ceftolozane and tazobactam among children with and without CF; thus, projected doses for treatment of pediatric hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia, which are higher than the pediatric complicated urinary tract infection/intra-abdominal infection doses, may be appropriate for treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Fibrose Cística/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/sangue , Tazobactam/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/sangue , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Tazobactam/sangue , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 05 07.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395967

RESUMO

Penicillin allergy is commonly reported and often influences selection of antimicrobial treatment. Due to concerns about cross-allergic reactions, other beta-lactams - particularly cephalosporins - may also be avoided. This too often results in less effective treatment, more side effects and overconsumption of reserve antimicrobial agents. Most patients (> 90%) with a penicillin allergy label are not truly allergic, i.e., they do not have an 'immediate type' (IgE-mediated) allergy when tested. Based on current data, even in patients with a true penicillin allergy, the risk of severe cross-allergic reactions to cephalosporins is very low. Clinicians tend to overestimate this risk: this dilemma can be resolved with a systematic appraisal of risk probabilities. The limited risk of a true penicillin allergy being present and the subsequent low risk of a cross-allergic reaction to cephalosporins generally outweighs the disadvantages of selecting an alternative (non-beta-lactam) antimicrobial regimen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 858-861, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360135

RESUMO

In an 80-bed fee-based retirement home with nursing care, the dispatched-pharmacist has provided prescription recommendations to visiting physicians based on pathogen identification using Gram staining as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program. Thus, we evaluated the effects of pharmacist-supported antimicrobial stewardship. We calculated the total number of all antimicrobials and macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins prescriptions per 100 residents per month at the retirement home from January 2013 to December 2017. Using log-transformed monthly resident numbers with an offset before and after the intervention, we performed Poisson regression analyses that adjusted for monthly mean age. Interrupted time series analyses (ITSA) were conducted to examine the changes in the incidence rate ratios for the baseline and slope before and after the intervention. The total number of all antimicrobial prescriptions per 100 residents per month from 2013 to 2017 was 14.10, 18.51, 10.59, 5.41, and 3.90, respectively. Although there was a significant pre-intervention increase in the total number of all antimicrobial prescriptions, the intervention was followed by a significant decrease. There was also a significant reduction in the slope. ITSA of the changes in the prescription of macrolides and fluoroquinolones showed that there were significant pre-intervention increase and followed by a significant post-intervention decrease in the slope. There was no significant change in cephalosporin prescriptions by the intervention. Our study shows that pharmacist-supported AS can reduce antimicrobial prescriptions in a retirement home. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to collect and analyse more data on similar interventions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Violeta Genciana , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Japão , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Fenazinas , Aposentadoria , Coloração e Rotulagem
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