Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.892
Filtrar
2.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13044, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606124

RESUMO

In the property listing task (PLT), participants are asked to list properties for a concept (e.g., for the concept dog, "barks," and "is a pet" may be produced). In conceptual property norming (CPNs) studies, participants are asked to list properties for large sets of concepts. Here, we use a mathematical model of the property listing process to explore two longstanding issues: characterizing the difference between concrete and abstract concepts, and characterizing semantic knowledge in the blind versus sighted population. When we apply our mathematical model to a large CPN reporting properties listed by sighted and blind participants, the model uncovers significant differences between concrete and abstract concepts. Though we also find that blind individuals show many of the same processing differences between abstract and concrete concepts found in sighted individuals, our model shows that those differences are noticeably less pronounced than in sighted individuals. We discuss our results vis-a-vis theories attempting to characterize abstract concepts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Animais , Cegueira , Formação de Conceito , Cães , Humanos , Conhecimento
4.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(5. Vyp. 2): 268-274, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669337

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative disorders comprising one of the main causes of irreversible blindness. Glaucoma-related blindness is a globally relevant problem. By now, many aspects of glaucoma pathogenesis have been studied: impact of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) on the development of optic neuropathy, ischemia and reperfusion of the retina, most of the direct mechanisms of neuronal death (excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, etc). However, the only effective glaucoma treatment is lowering the IOP, while early glaucoma diagnosis is based on determining structural and functional retinal defects. Therefore, it is important to emphasize further research on the insufficiently studied aspects of glaucoma pathogenesis - such as neuroinflammation, translaminar pressure, genetic factors, association of glaucomatous damage with changes in the brain, mitochondrial pathologies, and others. The article reviews the most perspective directions in research of the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Cegueira , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/etiologia , Humanos , Nervo Óptico , Retina
5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(5. Vyp. 2): 340-345, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669346

RESUMO

Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is one of the most common causes of blindness and low vision in the world. The disease occurs in 60-68% of cases. The causes of optic nerve atrophy are diverse: inflammatory and vascular diseases of the optic nerve and retina, glaucoma, atherosclerosis of the main vessels of head and neck, diseases of central nervous system, intoxication of various etiologies, as well as congenital and hereditary diseases. The literature review presents data on the diagnosis and classification of optic nerve atrophy, as well as on drug and non-drug treatment in combination with physiotherapy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Atrofia Óptica , Baixa Visão , Atrofia , Cegueira , Humanos , Atrofia Óptica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Óptica/etiologia , Atrofia Óptica/terapia , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Óptico/patologia
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577482

RESUMO

Herein, we describe the Virtually Enhanced Senses (VES) system, a novel and highly configurable wireless sensor-actuator network conceived as a development and test-bench platform of navigation systems adapted for blind and visually impaired people. It allows to immerse its users into "walkable" purely virtual or mixed environments with simulated sensors and validate navigation system designs prior to prototype development. The haptic, acoustic, and proprioceptive feedback supports state-of-art sensory substitution devices (SSD). In this regard, three SSD were integrated in VES as examples, including the well-known "The vOICe". Additionally, the data throughput, latency and packet loss of the wireless communication can be controlled to observe its impact in the provided spatial knowledge and resulting mobility and orientation performance. Finally, the system has been validated by testing a combination of two previous visual-acoustic and visual-haptic sensory substitution schemas with 23 normal-sighted subjects. The recorded data includes the output of a "gaze-tracking" utility adapted for SSD.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Cegueira , Humanos , Sensação
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577901

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. The prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region's inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, and maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen's kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between the presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with a mean age of 66.0 ± 9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataracts, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of the affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k = 0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k = 0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k = 0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k = -0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two thirds of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.


Assuntos
Catarata , Glaucoma , Degeneração Macular , Idoso , Cegueira , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
10.
Nurse Educ Today ; 106: 105080, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient deterioration should be detected early and responded appropriately for patient safety. It is necessary to strengthen situational awareness regarding patient deterioration. Inattentional blindness is a major factor that hinders situational awareness about patient deterioration in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impact of patient deterioration simulation using inattentional blindness (PDS-IB) on situational awareness and patient safety competency-attitude among final year nursing students. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Final year nursing students at a university in South Korea. METHODS: Students were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 47) was given a PDS-IB. The control group (n = 44) received a simple patient deterioration simulation. Situational awareness and patient safety competency-attitude were measured at baseline, post intervention, and at 2 weeks follow-up. Data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: There were statistically significant group effects, time effects, and group and time interaction effects in situational awareness and patient safety competency-attitude. CONCLUSION: PDS-IB is an effective educational strategy that increases situational awareness and patient safety competency-attitude in final year nursing students.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Conscientização , Cegueira , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Simulação de Paciente , República da Coreia
11.
Cortex ; 142: 342-356, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352637

RESUMO

Although humans are unique among animals in their ability to manipulate symbolic numbers, we share with other species an approximate number sense that allows us to estimate and compare the number of objects or events in a set, such as the number of apples in a tree. Our ability to discriminate the numerosity of two sets decreases as the ratio between them becomes smaller (e.g., 8 vs 16 items is harder to discriminate than 8 vs 32 items). The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) plays a key role in this numerical approximation. Neuronal populations within the IPS code for numerosity, with stimuli of different numerosities eliciting discriminable spatial patterns of activity. The developmental origins of these IPS number representations are not known. Here, we tested the hypothesis that representations of number in the IPS require visual experience with object sets, by working with individuals blind from birth. While undergoing fMRI, congenitally blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 25) participants judged which of two sequences of beeps was more numerous. In both sighted and blind individuals, patterns of activity in the IPS discriminated among different numerosities (4, 8, 16 vs 32), with better discrimination in the IPS of the blind group. In both groups, decoding performance decreased as the ratio between numerosities decreased (e.g., 8 vs 16 was less discriminable than 8 vs 32). These findings suggest that number representations in the IPS either have innate precursors, or that auditory or tactile experience with sets is sufficient for typical development.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal , Cegueira , Humanos , Tato , Visão Ocular
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 197, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most estimates of visual impairment and blindness worldwide do not include data from specific minority groups as indigenous populations. We aimed to evaluate frequencies and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a large population sample from the Xingu Indigenous Park. METHODS: Cross-sectional study performed at Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil, from 2016 to 2017. Residents from 16 selected villages were invited to participate and underwent a detailed ocular examination, including uncorrected (UVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The main cause of UVA < 20/32 per eye was determined. RESULTS: A total of 2,099 individuals were evaluated. Overall, the frequency of visual impairment and blindness was 10.00% (95% CI: 8.72-11.29%) when considering UVA, decreasing to 7.15% (95% CI: 6.04-8.25%) when considering BCVA. For each increasing year on age, the risk  of being in the visually impaired or blind category increased by 9% (p < 0.001). Cataracts (39.1%) and uncorrected refractive errors (29.1%) were the most frequent causes of visual impairment and blindness in this population. The main causes among those aged 45 years and more were cataracts (54.5%) while refractive errors were the main cause in adults aged 18 to 45 years (50.0%) and children up to 18 years old (37.1%). CONCLUSIONS: A higher frequency of visual impairment and blindness was observed in the indigenous population when compared to worldwide estimates with most of the causes being preventable and/or treatable. Blindness prevention programs should focus on accessibility to eye exam, cataract surgeries and eyeglass distribution.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Baixa Visão , Adolescente , Adulto , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 19(2)ago. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337747

RESUMO

Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la ceguera está definida como la agudeza visual inferior a 3/60 (20/400) en el mejor ojo y un campo visual menor a 10° desde el punto central de fijación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir las características clínico demográficas de pacientes con diagnóstico de ceguera irreversible atendidos en el Servicio de Oftalmología General de la Clínica Belén - Coronel Oviedo (Paraguay). Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de corte transversal. Se realizó la revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de ceguera irreversible atendidos en el Servicio de Oftalmología General de la Clínica Belén, entre el 1 de febrero 2018 y el 28 de febrero 2019. Se analizaron la edad, sexo, escolaridad, procedencia, agudeza visual, comorbilidades y etiología de la deficiencia visual. El análisis estadístico fue mediante el cálculo de frecuencias absolutas y relativas para las variables cualitativas, y el promedio y desviación estándar para las cuantitativas. Se estudiaron 78 pacientes, con predominio del sexo masculino (56,4%), edad de 71 a 95 años (43,6%) y primaria incompleta (41%). La hipertensión arterial (55,6%) fue la principal comorbilidad y glaucoma (43,6%) la etiología de ceguera más frecuente. El glaucoma fue más frecuente en varones que en mujeres (59% vs 32%) y en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad (50%). En esta serie, los pacientes presentaron ceguera irreversible bilateral, en mayor frecuencia en varones, mayores de 50 años de edad, hipertensión como comorbilidad y glaucoma como etiología más frecuente


According to the World Health Organization, blindness is defined as visual acuity less than 3/60 (20/400) in the better eye and a visual field less than 10 ° from the central fixation point. The objective was to describe the clinical demographic characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of irreversible blindness treated at the General Ophthalmology Service of the "Clínica Belén" - "Coronel Oviedo" (Paraguay). This was an observational, descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional study. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with a diagnosis of irreversible blindness treated at the General Ophthalmology Service of the "Clínica Belén" between February 1, 2018 and February 28, 2019 was carried out. Age, sex, education, origin, visual acuity, comorbidities and etiology of visual impairment were analyzed. The statistical analysis was through the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies, as well as the average and standard deviation. Seventy eight patients were studied, with a slight predominance of males (56.4%), aged 71 to 95 years (43.6%), incomplete primary school (41%) and from "Coronel Oviedo" (25.6 %) and surroundings. Arterial hypertension (55.6%) was the main comorbidity and glaucoma (43.6%) the most frequent blindness etiology. Glaucoma was more common in male patients than female patients (59% and 32%, respectively) and in patients older than 50 years of age (50%). In this series, patients presented bilateral irreversible blindness, more frequent in men, older than 50 years of age, hypertension as comorbidity and glaucoma as the most frequent etiology


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acuidade Visual , Cegueira/cirurgia , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/tratamento farmacológico , Paraguai
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1117-1125, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397018

RESUMO

Background: : Visual morbidities increase the burden of care and negatively impact the quality of life of older people. Few empirical reports exist on the visual status of older Nigerians. Aim: This study describes the visual morbidities and determinants of visual impairment among persons aged 60 years and above who presented at a geriatric center in southwestern Nigeria and discusses the merits of focused geriatric care at a single location. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from electronic health records and case files of 628 older patients (≥60 years) who attended the facility between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018. Data extracted included, age, sex, married status, occupational status, visual acuity, eye diagnoses, eye medications, previous surgeries, and anthropometric measurements. Results: Mean age of patients was 70.1 ± 7.4 years and 378 (60.2%) were females. Two out of every three patients had more than one visual diagnosis. Significantly, glaucoma (P < 0.001) and cataract (P = 0.01) were common among men, whereas dry eye syndrome (P < 0.001) and allergic conjunctivitis (P = 0.01) were common in women. Antiglaucoma medications (55.8%) were the commonest medications used and 21.0% had previous eye surgery. Assessment of presenting visual acuity demonstrated that 28.7% of patients had moderate-severe visual impairment (MSVI) in both eyes at presentation while 10.3% were bilaterally blind. Increasing age (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.01) were the factors significantly associated with blindness. Conclusion: MSVI and blindness were common in our setting with glaucoma and cataract being the most prevalent associated diagnosis. Information obtained should stimulate advocacy for the prompt management of preventable causes of poor vision in older Nigerians.


Assuntos
Catarata , Baixa Visão , Idoso , Cegueira , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344653

RESUMO

We describe a rare complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a young man who presented with sudden, severe, bilateral visual loss after surgery. His ophthalmological examination was non-revealing; however, MRI of the brain revealed bilateral occipital lobe infarction. His infarction was presumed to be secondary to emboli arising from surgical manipulation within the atherosclerotic ascending aorta or from a cardiogenic thrombus formed due to perioperative arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Aorta , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Cegueira/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360078

RESUMO

Discovering the role of negative attitudes in the social functioning of people with disabilities, tools were developed to measure these attitudes, of which the Multidimensional Attitude Scale of People with Disabilities (MAS) is a good one. It is particularly important to study the attitudes of people who are professionally involved in meeting the needs of people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes towards people with physical disabilities among medical and health sciences students regarding gender, year of study, field of study, and place of residence. The study was conducted among 625 students in Poland with the use of the MAS-PL scale. The results obtained indicate that women display more positive attitudes towards people with disabilities than men in the cognition and behavioural domains. In the emotional domain, these attitudes were more negative than in the other domains and almost identical for both genders. The year of study, field of study, and place of residence did not differentiate students in terms of their MAS score. Since the sociodemographic variables studied do not determine a positive attitude, educational interventions to increase contact with people with disabilities should be undertaken in future research, and this factor should be investigated as an element of attitude modulation.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cegueira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 555-556, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252053

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that improved eye health offers the potential to progress toward achieving United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). With Vision 2020: Right to Sight Initiative coming to an end and the emergence of the coronavirus pandemic, it is necessary to revisit the priority of pediatric eye health. Considering the profound impact of childhood blindness and visual impairment, it is important to draw the attention of public health leaders, policymakers, organizations, and governments to create innovative and effective strategies to combat the emerging eye health challenges of children and their families.


Assuntos
Cegueira/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos
19.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 28(1): 29-35, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study aims to know the glaucoma diagnoses and legal blindness from glaucoma among a tertiary referral center in Riyadh (King Abdulaziz Medical City [KAMC]-Riyadh patients). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on chart review, where all eligible glaucoma patients attending the ophthalmology clinic at KAMC-Riyadh, between 2018 and 2019; were included. RESULTS: A total of 248 patients were included in the study; 142 patients (57.3%) were females and 106 (42.7%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 ± 18 years and most of them (93.5%) did not have a family history of glaucoma. Nearly one-quarter (26.6%; n = 66) of the included patients were legally blind, out of those, 36.4% had their right eye affected, 34.8% had their left eye affected, and 28.8% had both eyes affected. Legally, blind patients (LBGs) did not show a statistically significant reduction in the intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right eye (P = 0.103), on comparing the IOP in both visits. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant reduction in the IOP of the left eye among the LBGs in both visits (P = 0.016). Regarding the nonblind group of patients, there were highly statistically significant reductions in both eyes (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present findings show a high prevalence rate of legal blindness among glaucoma patients, with IOP reduction, age, and glaucoma diagnoses being the most important predictors among the study population.


Assuntos
Árabes , Cegueira , Glaucoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...