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1.
FP Essent ; 484: 28-32, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454215

RESUMO

The effects of vision impairment and blindness on children can last a lifetime. Most children with vision impairments need a multidisciplinary team of teachers, child development specialists, and social workers. Blindness often is associated with other risk factors, disease processes, and/or disabilities. In the United States, the Social Security Administration defines children as legally blind when best corrected visual acuity is less than 20/200. The US law concerning accommodations for children with impairments is part of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), and specifically the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which covers preschool-age and school-age children. Accommodations for children with vision impairment include low vision aids allowing them to stay in mainstream classes and schools.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Transtornos da Visão , Cegueira/complicações , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/reabilitação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(6): 928-931, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124517

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the knowledge of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and habilitation services for children with visual loss from ROP, among health care professionals (HCPs) involved in care of preterm children and to explore their attitudes and practices in relation to referral for habilitation. Methods: A modified knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire were administered to ophthalmologists and paediatricians associated with ROP care. Data were collected about their knowledge, beliefs and practices of ROP and referral to rehabilitation facilities. Data were analysed to establish level of knowledge, type of attitude and practices and its association with speciality. Results: Response rate was 78% (25/32). Most (14/25, 56%) were ophthalmologists. All (100%) participants knew that ROP can cause blindness. Knowledge about Indian ROP screening criteria was poor among a third (8/25, 32%), more so in paediatricians (5/11, 45.5%). Most (21/25, 84%) did not have knowledge of what a habilitation service entails and where such facilities are located. More than two-thirds (18/25, 72%) believed that special education should be preferred over inclusive education. Overall, 10/25 (40%) of the HCPs had never referred a child for rehabilitation. More than a half (13/25, 52%) were not confident of counselling parents of blind children. All agreed that rehabilitation services are not part of but should be included in medical curriculum. Conclusion: Indian guidelines for ROP screening are not universally known among HCPs. Educating medical undergraduates, providing counselling training to professionals and integration of rehabilitation into the health system will ensure continuity of care for children with visual loss and their families.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Pediatras/normas , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/reabilitação , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/complicações , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3494-3503, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119510

RESUMO

Research that focused on Theory of Mind (ToM) development in blind children showed that they were delayed, but not permanently deficient, in various types of false belief tasks. More recent studies reported first evidence of typical ToM development in blind children and suggested that more comprehensive tools to evaluate ToM had to be used. The current paper analyzed ToM development in blind children, using the adapted version of the ToM Storybooks; this is a standardized comprehensive test developed to provide a reliable and stable measurement, in comparison with the false belief tasks. Results showed that blind children's ToM performances were very similar to the ones of matched typically developing children, matched on chronological age and gender. The current finding supported the importance of the use of a more comprehensive tool to assess ToM in atypical population.


Assuntos
Cegueira/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Teoria da Mente , Cegueira/reabilitação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214799, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995244

RESUMO

It is well known that people who read print or braille sometimes make eye or finger movements against the reading direction. The way these regressions are elicited has been studied in detail by manipulating linguistic aspects of the reading material. Actually, it has been shown that reducing the physical intensity or clarity of the visual input signal can also lead to increased regressions during reading. We asked whether the same might be true in the haptic realm while reading braille. We set the height of braille dots at three different levels (high, medium, and low) and asked adult blind, practiced braille readers to read standardized texts without any repetition of content. The results show that setting the braille dot height near the tactile threshold significantly increased the frequency of regressive finger movements. Additionally, at the lowest braille dot height, braille reading speed significantly diminished. These effects did not occur at braille dot heights that were closer to the height of standard braille (medium and high). We tentatively conclude that this effect may be due to a heightened sense of uncertainty elicited by perception near the threshold that seems to be common to the reading process, independent of the sensory input modality. Furthermore, the described effect may be a feature of a brain area that contributes to the reading process mediated by vision as well as touch.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Leitura , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Limiar Sensorial , Tato/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Syst ; 43(4): 88, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820679

RESUMO

This paper presents Google speech API based aid for deaf and blind people. The live streaming speech on the microphone is sent to Google API server which converts the speech signal into text and displaying onto a LCD screen and amplifies the speech via speaker. The aid will use Request procedure protocol to send the encoded Mp3 audio to Google API server where the speech signal is converted into suitable text and sent back to the Raspberry pi using repeated request protocol. This aid is designed to address issue with mild deafness and blind person. This will enable the deaf and blind persons to work effectively at home, office and any public places with ease. The aid works at low latency at good internet connectivity.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Cegueira/reabilitação , Auxiliares de Comunicação para Pessoas com Deficiência , Desenho de Equipamento , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 26(1): 7-18, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To comprehensively measure the impacts of cataract surgery on patients' activities and mental and physical health, caregivers' well-being, and household incomes in a resource-poor setting Methods: One thousand two hundred thirty-four bilaterally blind older adults in Amhara region, Ethiopia, were interviewed at baseline and 1030 (83%) re-interviewed at follow-up 1 year later. Six hundred ninety three (45%) at baseline were diagnosed with cataracts and offered free surgery, of which 484 (73%) were operated. Difference-in-difference was used to estimate impacts of surgery, using surgery-ineligible, mostly non-cataract blind as controls. RESULTS: For patients, surgery resulted in a 0.31 standard deviation increase in an index of social participation (p < 0.001), a 30% proportional increase in ability to perform activities of daily living (p < 0.001), and a 17% proportional reduction in Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) depression score (p < 0.001). A small (6%) increase in work participation occurred among men (p = 0.093) in this elderly sample. No change occurred in individual or household food insecurity, household consumption, or assets. Caregivers' mental health improved slightly (7.3% proportional reduction in CES-D; p = 0.024). Estimates show no change in caregiver work participation or social participation; however, subjective responses regarding changes from surgery suggest that reduced caregiving time was an important benefit to households. CONCLUSION: Cataract surgery significantly improved the vision as well as mental health, social engagement, and physical functioning of older adults. However, increases in work participation were very limited, likely reflecting the advanced age of the patients (mean = 76 years); in addition, possibly, to cumulative impacts of blindness on ability to work or on household assets. Earlier surgery may lead to larger economic effects.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Extração de Catarata , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Acuidade Visual , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Idoso , Cegueira/psicologia , Cegueira/reabilitação , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
7.
Disabil Rehabil ; 41(3): 357-365, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) provides multiple benefits to children with visual impairments (VI) and their families. However, the empirical literature base is underdeveloped on how family PA experiences impact participation for children with VI. The purpose of this study was two-fold; that is: (a) to explore why families with children with VI seek out and participate in PA, and (b) to describe the strategies and supports needed by families of children with VI to improve PA participation. METHOD: The research method was descriptive-qualitative positioned in the theoretical framework of the theory of planned behavior. Participants were parents of children with VI (n = 10) who took part in one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic line-by-line analysis. RESULTS: Three salient, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data analyses. These themes were: (a) committed, (b) challenged, and (c) access. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed that parents valued PA, but they lacked the skills to teach and advocate for their children regarding PA. As a consequence, parents voiced the need for a support system that would allow their families to be more physically active. Implications for Rehabilitation Results of this study demonstrated that parents valued physical activity, but they lacked the skills necessary to confidently engage their children in physical activity. Physical activity interventions are needed to enhance the quality of life of children with visual impairments and their families. Physical activity programs and interventions are most likely to enhance intentions to engage in physical activity among children with visual impairments and their parents. Results demonstrated that parents of children with visual impairments were interested to work side-by-side with physical activity professionals to enhance recreational physical activity opportunities available to their children.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Crianças com Deficiência , Exercício Físico , Saúde da Família , Participação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Cegueira/psicologia , Cegueira/reabilitação , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(9): 720-726, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169351

RESUMO

Touchscreen-based, multimodal graphics represent an area of increasing research in digital access for individuals with blindness or visual impairments; yet, little empirical research on the effects of screen size on graphical exploration exists. This work probes if and when more screen area is necessary in supporting a pattern-matching task. PURPOSE: Larger touchscreens are thought to have distinct benefit over smaller touchscreens for the amount of space available to convey graphical information nonvisually. The current study investigates two questions: (1) Do screen size and grid density impact a user's accuracy on pattern-matching tasks? (2) Do screen size and grid density impact a user's time on task? METHODS: Fourteen blind and visually impaired individuals were given a pattern-matching task to complete on either a 10.5-in tablet or a 5.1-in phone. The patterns consisted of five vibrating targets imposed on sonified grids that varied in density (higher density = more grid squares). At test, participants compared the touchscreen pattern with a group of physical, embossed patterns and selected the matching pattern. Participants were evaluated on time exploring the pattern on the device and their pattern-matching accuracy. Multiple and logistic regressions were performed on the data. RESULTS: Device size, grid density, and age had no statistically significant effects on the model of pattern-matching accuracy. However, device size, grid density, and age had significant effects on the model for grid exploration. Using the phone, exploring low-density grids, and being older were indicative of faster exploration time. CONCLUSIONS: A trade-off of time and accuracy exists between devices that seems to be task dependent. Users may find a tablet most useful in situations where the accuracy of graphic interpretation is important and is not limited by time. Smaller screen sizes afforded comparable accuracy performance to tablets and were faster to explore overall.


Assuntos
Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Computadores de Mão , Apresentação de Dados , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Smartphone , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(9): 747-756, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169353

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: This work describes a preliminary evaluation of a wearable collision warning device for blind individuals. The device was found to provide mobility benefit in subjects without (or deprived of) vision. This preliminary evaluation will facilitate further testing of this developmental stage device in more naturalistic conditions. PURPOSE: We developed a wearable video camera-based device that provided tridirectional collision warnings (right, center, and left) via differential feedback of two vibrotactile wristbands. We evaluated its mobility benefit in blind and normally sighted (NS) blindfolded individuals in indoor mobility courses. METHODS: Three evaluation experiments were conducted. First, the ability of the device to provide warnings for hanging objects not detected by a long cane was evaluated in eight NS and four blind subjects in an obstacle course with and without the device. Second, the accuracy of collision warning direction assignment was evaluated in 10 NS subjects as they walked toward a hanging object at random offsets and verbally reported the obstacle offset position with respect to their walking path based on the wristbands' vibrotactile feedback. Third, the mobility benefit of collision warning direction information was evaluated by 10 NS and 4 blind subjects when walking with and without differential wristband feedback. RESULTS: In experiment 1, collisions reduced significantly from a median of 11.5 without to 4 with the device (P < .001). Percent preferred walking speed reduced only slightly from 41% without to 36% with the device (P = .04). In experiment 2, the most likely reported relative obstacle positions were consistent with the actual positions. In experiment 3, subjects made more correct navigational decisions with than without the collision warning direction information (91% vs. 69%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial mobility benefit of the device was seen in detection of aboveground collision threats missed by a long cane and in enabling better navigational decision making based on the tridirectional collision warning information.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/instrumentação , Cegueira/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(9): 766-773, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169354

RESUMO

There is an immediate need for noninvasive therapies to improve the functional abilities of persons blinded by traumatic injury. The BrainPort Vision Pro, an updated hands-free oral electronic vision device, enables perception of visual information using the tongue as a substitute for the eye. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the BrainPort Vision Pro on real-world functional task performance in persons who are profoundly blind (light perception or worse) due to traumatic injury (ocular or cortical). METHODS: This was a prospective, within-subjects, repeated-measures study. Participants received ten hours of device training and were required to use the device independently for 1 year. Functional performance measures of object identification, orientation and mobility, word identification, and environmental awareness were assessed at baseline, post-device training, and quarterly throughout the year. RESULTS: Seventeen profoundly blind adults were enrolled in the study. No clinically significant device-related adverse events were reported, demonstrating minimal risks associated with the BrainPort Vision Pro. None of the participants could successfully perform any of the functional tasks at baseline, without the device. After 1 year of independent device use, all participants could identify objects, and 41% identified words beyond chance level while using the device. Forty-one percent of participants could locate a sign, 94% followed a line without veering off, 71% avoided obstacles, 71% walked through a doorway without collision, 100% of participants recognized a door, and 71% identified a window. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate significant improvements in real-world functional task performance in skill areas important to everyday life. The BrainPort Vision Pro offers a nonsurgical method for improving visual function in persons blinded by trauma. The device can enhance independence and support the successful integration of profoundly blind persons, including veterans and returning service members, into community life.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Traumatismos Oculares/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Oculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(9): 902-907, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169364

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Toys for children with visual impairment and blindness are very limited. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D)-printed Braille puzzle with a potential for educational use. PURPOSE: This article describes the development of a novel Braille toy using 3D printing technology that potentially could be used for teaching Braille for children with blindness and/or profound visual impairment. METHODS: Fittle is a 3D-printed puzzle with embossed Braille letters. Upon correct fitting of the puzzle, one not only can spell the Braille word but also would be able to feel the contour of the representative object that the word denotes. A smartphone application (Sound of Fittle) was developed to be used in conjunction with Fittle. A pilot testing was done on participants with vision impairment. Time taken to solve the puzzle and/or identify the Braille letters was calculated. Three Fittle puzzles were tested. Instructions to solve the puzzle were given only after the first attempt. RESULTS: Seven participants (one adult and six children) were recruited. The mean time taken for the first attempt was longer (4.5 minutes), and upon instructions, the time taken to solve the puzzle was reduced on an average by a factor of 2.5. All the subjects were able to fit and read the embossed Braille in the Fittle. CONCLUSIONS: Fittle is a novel Braille toy made using 3D printing technology. Fittle can potentially be used as an educational toy. The Sound of Fittle application gives the experiential sound for the associated word. The designs for the Fittle and the application are made available as open source on the Internet. Anyone with an access to a 3D printer can print, produce, and use the Fittle for free. With instructions, an individual can quickly learn to solve and play with the puzzle.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Educação/métodos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Leitura , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Impressão Tridimensional , Adulto Jovem
12.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 26(9): 1727-1734, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047892

RESUMO

Echolocation enables people with impaired or no vision to comprehend the surrounding spatial information through the reflected sound. However, this technique often requires substantial training, and the accuracy of echolocation is subject to various conditions. Furthermore, the individuals who practice this sensing method must simultaneously generate the sound and process the received audio information. This paper proposes and evaluates a proof-of-concept light detection and ranging (LIDAR) assist spatial sensing (LASS) system, which intends to overcome these restrictions by obtaining the spatial information of the user's surroundings through a LIDAR sensor and translating the spatial information into the stereo sound of various pitches. The stereo sound of relative pitch represents the information regarding objects' angular orientation and horizontal distance, respectively, thus granting visually impaired users an enhanced spatial perception of his or her surrounding areas and potential obstacles. This paper is divided into two phases: Phase I is to engineer the hardware and software of the LASS system and Phase II focuses on the system efficacy study. The study, approved by the Penn State Institutional Review Board, included 18 student volunteers, who were recruited through the Penn State Department of Psychology Subject Pool. This paper demonstrates that the blindfolded individuals equipped with the LASS system are able to quantitatively identify the surrounding obstacles, differentiate their relative distance, and distinguish the angular location of multiple objects with minimal training.


Assuntos
Percepção Espacial , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Próteses Visuais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adulto , Algoritmos , Cegueira/reabilitação , Calibragem , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers , Luz , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Software , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cornea ; 37(9): 1198-1203, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this focused review was to explore the etiologies of corneal blindness worldwide and compare them with the indications and type of keratoplasties (eg, full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty, anterior lamellar keratoplasty, or endothelial keratoplasty) performed. METHODS: A literature search of the articles published in the top 10 journals (based on the Altmetrics score) relevant to corneal transplantation within the past 20 years was performed to determine how the focus within corneal transplantation has changed over time. These data were compared with the prevalence and etiology of corneal blindness in each respective region worldwide. RESULTS: The leading etiologies of corneal blindness worldwide are primarily due to anterior corneal pathology with a normal endothelium, and the prevalence is highest in developing countries. In addition, the number and type of corneal transplantations performed globally indicate that current practices are disproportionately skewed in favor of endothelial keratoplasty, which is targeted for the pathology prevalent in developed countries. Despite the large number of individuals who would benefit from anterior lamellar keratoplasty, this technique seems to be infrequently performed. CONCLUSIONS: Most corneal blindness worldwide is secondary to anterior corneal pathology because of infections and trauma. However, this does not align with the current trends and practices in the field of corneal transplantation. We discuss potential solutions to address the current leading causes of global corneal blindness, including increasing the number of anterior lamellar keratoplasties performed, using long-term preserved corneas by trained surgeons, and improving eye bank handling and distribution of procured tissues.


Assuntos
Cegueira/etiologia , Cegueira/reabilitação , Doenças da Córnea/complicações , Transplante de Córnea/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Córnea/cirurgia , Bancos de Olhos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
14.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(9): 727-737, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877901

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: For people with limited vision, wearable displays hold the potential to digitally enhance visual function. As these display technologies advance, it is important to understand their promise and limitations as vision aids. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the potential of a consumer augmented reality (AR) device for improving the functional vision of people with near-complete vision loss. METHODS: An AR application that translates spatial information into high-contrast visual patterns was developed. Two experiments assessed the efficacy of the application to improve vision: an exploratory study with four visually impaired participants and a main controlled study with participants with simulated vision loss (n = 48). In both studies, performance was tested on a range of visual tasks (identifying the location, pose and gesture of a person, identifying objects, and moving around in an unfamiliar space). Participants' accuracy and confidence were compared on these tasks with and without augmented vision, as well as their subjective responses about ease of mobility. RESULTS: In the main study, the AR application was associated with substantially improved accuracy and confidence in object recognition (all P < .001) and to a lesser degree in gesture recognition (P < .05). There was no significant change in performance on identifying body poses or in subjective assessments of mobility, as compared with a control group. CONCLUSIONS: Consumer AR devices may soon be able to support applications that improve the functional vision of users for some tasks. In our study, both artificially impaired participants and participants with near-complete vision loss performed tasks that they could not do without the AR system. Current limitations in system performance and form factor, as well as the risk of overconfidence, will need to be overcome.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia
17.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 26(3): 583-593, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522402

RESUMO

This paper presents ALVU (Array of Lidars and Vibrotactile Units), a contactless, intuitive, hands-free, and discreet wearable device that allows visually impaired users to detect low- and high-hanging obstacles, as well as physical boundaries in their immediate environment. The solution allows for safe local navigation in both confined and open spaces by enabling the user to distinguish free space from obstacles. The device presented is composed of two parts: a sensor belt and a haptic strap. The sensor belt is an array of time-of-flight distance sensors worn around the front of a user's waist, and the pulses of infrared light provide reliable and accurate measurements of the distances between the user and surrounding obstacles or surfaces. The haptic strap communicates the measured distances through an array of vibratory motors worn around the user's upper abdomen, providing haptic feedback. The linear vibration motors are combined with a point-loaded pretensioned applicator to transmit isolated vibrations to the user. We validated the device's capability in an extensive user study entailing 162 trials with 12 blind users. Users wearing the device successfully walked through hallways, avoided obstacles, and detected staircases.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Adulto , Idoso , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vibração , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual
18.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 38(2): 223-229, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29252689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous recovery of visual loss resulting from injury to the brain is variable. A variety of traditional rehabilitative strategies, including the use of prisms or compensatory saccadic eye movements, have been used successfully to improve visual function and quality-of-life for patients with homonymous hemianopia. More recently, repetitive visual stimulation of the blind area has been reported to be of benefit in expanding the field of vision. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a literature review with main focus on clinical studies spanning from 1963 to 2016, including 52 peer-reviewed articles, relevant cross-referenced citations, editorials, and reviews. RESULTS: Repetitive visual stimulation is reported to expand the visual field, although the interpretation of results is confounded by a variety of methodological factors and conflicting outcomes from different research groups. Many studies used subjective assessments of vision and did not include a sufficient number of subjects or controls. CONCLUSIONS: The available clinical evidence does not strongly support claims of visual restoration using repetitive visual stimulation beyond the time that spontaneous visual recovery might occur. This lack of firm supportive evidence does not preclude the potential of real benefit demonstrated in laboratories. Additional well-designed clinical studies with adequate controls and methods to record ocular fixation are needed.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Hemianopsia/reabilitação , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Hemianopsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
19.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 96(3): 295-300, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to describe the population of children with congenital or early infancy blindness in Sweden, with regard to causes of blindness and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairments. METHODS: Medical, psychological and pedagogical records of Swedish children with congenital or early infancy blindness (total blindness or light perception at the most) born in 1988-2008 were analysed regarding year of birth, gender, cause of blindness, gestational age, associated neurological disorders/syndromes, associated neurodevelopmental impairments, cognitive level and type of school placement. RESULTS: A total of 150 individuals, 80 girls and 70 boys, were identified, corresponding to a prevalence of 7/100 000. Five causes of blindness dominated, constituting 76% of all represented aetiologies: retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), optic nerve atrophy (ONA) and microphthalmia/anophthalmia. Nearly three of four children in the study population had at least one additional disability besides blindness; the most common being intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More than half of the population had more than one additional disability. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was most common in children with ONH, ROP, LCA and microphthalmia/anophthalmia. CONCLUSION: In children born within the last decades, isolated blindness is uncommon and the rate of multidisabilities is high. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) seems to be more strongly associated with specific aetiological subgroups. Further development of the support to families and schools should be based on knowledge about the considerable heterogeneity of the population of children with blindness, and the common occurrence of coexisting neurodevelopmental disorders, especially ID and ASD.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Anormalidades Congênitas , Previsões , Vigilância da População , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Cegueira/etiologia , Cegueira/reabilitação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia/epidemiologia
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