Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.225
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1561, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With many medical equipment in hospitals coming in direct contact with healthcare workers, patients, technicians, cleaners and sometimes care givers, it is important to pay close attention to their capacity in harboring potentially harmful pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the role that medical equipment may potentially play in hospital acquired infections in four public health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to January 2018 in four public health facilities in Uganda. Each piece of equipment from the neonatal department, imaging department or operating theatre were swabbed at three distinct points: a location in contact with the patient, a location in contact with the user, and a remote location unlikely to be contacted by either the patient or the user. The swabs were analyzed for bacterial growth using standard microbiological methods. Seventeen bacterial isolates were randomly selected and tested for susceptibility/resistance to common antibiotics. The data collected analyzed in STATA version 14. RESULTS: A total of 192 locations on 65 equipment were swabbed, with 60.4% of these locations testing positive (116/192). Nearly nine of ten equipment (57/65) tested positive for contamination in at least one location, and two out of three equipment (67.7%) tested positive in two or more locations. Of the 116 contaminated locations 52.6% were positive for Bacillus Species, 14.7% were positive for coagulase negative staphylococcus, 12.9% (15/116) were positive for E. coli, while all other bacterial species had a pooled prevalence of 19.8%. Interestingly, 55% of the remote locations were contaminated compared to 66% of the user contacted locations and 60% of the patient contacted locations. Further, 5/17 samples were resistant to at least three of the classes of antibiotics tested including penicillin, glycylcycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and urinary anti-infectives. CONCLUSION: These results provides strong support for strengthening overall disinfection/sterilization practices around medical equipment use in public health facilities in Uganda. There's also need for further research to make a direct link to the bacterial isolates identified and cases of infections recorded among patients in similar settings.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Hospitais Públicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E449-E450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026313

RESUMO

SUMMARY: With the closure of most operating rooms (ORs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the traditional allocation of block OR time needed to be redesigned. An important factor permitting the treatment of patients in a prioritized fashion was our pre-existing centralized OR booking (CORB) framework, which already required surgeons to categorize the priority level for each patient. The CORB, in conjunction with the multidisciplinary OR oversight committee that was formed during COVID-19 to review and triage the urgent cases, allowed for prioritization of cases among surgical services. Centralized OR booking provided opportunities that were essential in OR planning during the pandemic, including the ability to plan surgeries to maximize OR efficiency, minimize the number of admissions on any given day to the wards and the intensive care unit, flatten the number of admissions over the week and provide the flexibility to ramp up or down the number of ORs as the crisis changed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Humanos
3.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(5): 839-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global health emergency and affected the resources in both the public and private health sectors significantly. The present study aims to assess the impact of the pandemic on the services by the department in the first 3 months since the first COVID case in the region. METHODS: The study period was from 16 March to 15 June 2020. We queried the database for data on site of the tumor, diagnosis, stage, tumor board decisions and planning, surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment, and follow-up details. The change in tumor board decision and actual treatment taken by the patient were all recorded, taking into consideration the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 1567 patient contacts, 1306 were out-patient visits and 261 teleconsultations. Fifty-four patients underwent surgery from the 87 admitted to the hospital. Ten preoperative patients and two postoperative patients were tested for COVID and reported to be negative. CONCLUSIONS: The dilemma of providing cancer surgery services to the patients in this pandemic has been global. Strict measures and guidelines can help to overcome the COVID pandemic time, keeping in mind the locoregional logistics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Oncologia Cirúrgica/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
4.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 369-371, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006841
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 729, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Demographic and clinical details, antibiotic management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records. Antibiotic susceptibility results of identified organisms were obtained from the National Health Laboratory Service database. RESULTS: The incidence risk of PABSI was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.34-6.54) PABSI episodes / 10,000 hospital admissions and the most common presenting feature was respiratory distress, 34/91 (37.4%). Overall, 69/91 (75.8%) of the PA isolates were susceptible to all antipseudomonal antibiotic classes evaluated. Fifty (54.9%) of the PABSI episodes were treated with appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. The mortality rate was 24.2% and in multivariable analysis, empiric antibiotic therapy to which PA isolates were not susceptible, infections present on admission, and not being in the intensive care unit at the time that PABSI was diagnosed were significantly associated with 14-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PABSI caused appreciable mortality, however, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was associated with reduced 14-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002074

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originating in the Chinese city of Wuhan has spread rapidly worldwide causing thousands of deaths. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is supported by SARS-CoV-2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Italy has been the first European country recording an elevated number of infected forcing the Italian Government to call for total lockdown. The lockdown had the aim to limit the spread of infection through social distancing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the pandemic has affected the patient's accesses to the Ophthalmological Emergency Department of a tertiary referral center in central-northern Italy, during the lockdown period. The charts of all patients that came to the Emergency Department during the lockdown period (March 10 -May 4, 2020) have been retrospectively collected and compared with those in the same period of 2019 and the period from 15 January- 9 March 2020. A significant reduction of visits during the lockdown has been observed, compared with those of pre-lockdown period (reduction of 65.4%) and with those of the same period of 2019 (reduction of 74.3%). Particularly, during the lockdown, minor and not urgency visits decreased whereas the undeferrable urgency ones increased. These pieces of evidence could be explained by the fear of patients to be infected; but also revealed patients misuse of emergency services.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(7): 449-455, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread on an unprecedented scale from around the world, we described our experience in treating early COVID-19 cases in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in North India between 2 March-4 April 2020 was performed. The clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, treatment and outcome data of patients were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were treated and 56 (74.66%) were men. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 ranged from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Fever (85.36%) was the most common symptom followed by cough (56.09%) and dyspnoea (19.51%). Findings from hemogram analysis showed that 32%, 21.33% and 18.67% of patients had lymphopaenia, eosinopenia and thrombocytopaenia, respectively. Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrin degradation product and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated (P <0.05) in patients who required oxygen therapy than those who did not require it, suggesting the potential role such markers could play in predicting prognosis in patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.2 days and 72 (96%) patients made a complete recovery, but 3 (4%) patients demised after progressing to ARDS. CONCLUSION: The clinical and epidemiological spectrum of COVID-19 has jeopardised the health system in India. Without a proven therapy to combat this pandemic and with no sight of vaccines in the near future, a preventive strategy should be adopted to contain the spread of this infectious disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810234

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originating in the Chinese city of Wuhan has spread rapidly worldwide causing thousands of deaths. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is supported by SARS-CoV-2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Italy has been the first European country recording an elevated number of infected forcing the Italian Government to call for total lockdown. The lockdown had the aim to limit the spread of infection through social distancing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the pandemic has affected the patient's accesses to the Ophthalmological Emergency Department of a tertiary referral center in central-northern Italy, during the lockdown period. The charts of all patients that came to the Emergency Department during the lockdown period (March 10 -May 4, 2020) have been retrospectively collected and compared with those in the same period of 2019 and the period from 15 January- 9 March 2020. A significant reduction of visits during the lockdown has been observed, compared with those of pre-lockdown period (reduction of 65.4%) and with those of the same period of 2019 (reduction of 74.3%). Particularly, during the lockdown, minor and not urgency visits decreased whereas the undeferrable urgency ones increased. These pieces of evidence could be explained by the fear of patients to be infected; but also revealed patients misuse of emergency services.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059413

RESUMO

Knowledge of treatment regimens and outcomes for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is evolving. Recent studies have reported mortality rates ranging from 39-50% among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We report our experience ofmanagement and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a large tertiary-care center in Midwestern United States. Of 658 patients presenting to our tertiary care center, 217 needed hospitalization, majority (77%) of whom were severely sick requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). All received corticosteroids, and 78% of the patients received tocilizumab. More than two-thirds of the patients received anticoagulation and 80% of patients in the ICU had prone-positioning. The median duration of hospitalization was 12 days (interquartile range, 8 to16), median duration of intensive care unit stay was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9) and requirement of mechanical ventilation was 6 days (interquartile range, 5 to 8) in our cohort. Of the 217 patients, 27 died (12% mortality). The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate. The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(5): 839-843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-700104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global health emergency and affected the resources in both the public and private health sectors significantly. The present study aims to assess the impact of the pandemic on the services by the department in the first 3 months since the first COVID case in the region. METHODS: The study period was from 16 March to 15 June 2020. We queried the database for data on site of the tumor, diagnosis, stage, tumor board decisions and planning, surgical procedures, adjuvant treatment, and follow-up details. The change in tumor board decision and actual treatment taken by the patient were all recorded, taking into consideration the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 1567 patient contacts, 1306 were out-patient visits and 261 teleconsultations. Fifty-four patients underwent surgery from the 87 admitted to the hospital. Ten preoperative patients and two postoperative patients were tested for COVID and reported to be negative. CONCLUSIONS: The dilemma of providing cancer surgery services to the patients in this pandemic has been global. Strict measures and guidelines can help to overcome the COVID pandemic time, keeping in mind the locoregional logistics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Oncologia Cirúrgica/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 495-500, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the emergency management of the kidney transplantation for a large tertiary first-class hospital in response to the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of inpatients in the Department of Kidney Transplantation from January 24, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, we conducted telephone, Wechat follow-up, and online education for kidney transplant recipients and patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation one by one. We also strictly screened for COVID-19 in outpatients. To guarantee the security of medical staff and recipients and to reduce the transmission risk of COVID-19, we have made detailed approaches to prevent COVID-19, which mainly included 6 aspects of preventive approaches, such as kidney transplant clinic, kidney transplant ward, patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, kidney transplant operation, medical staff self-protection, and postoperative follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: There were altogether 47 inpatients which included 20 recipients who had just received kidney transplantation in the meantime, 2 577 kidney transplant recipients, 1 689 patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, and 794 outpatients in our hospital. No case of COVID-19 occurred in this period. CONCLUSIONS: Through strictly implementing proactive and preventive approaches, we avoid the occurrence of COVID-19 in carrying out kidney transplantation in the epidemic period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Transplantados , Listas de Espera
13.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 9(22): 467-471, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March-April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March-April of the preceding year, 2019. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods. CONCLUSIONS: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 652, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there are only two population studies on sepsis incidence in Asia. The burden of sepsis in Hong Kong is unknown. We developed a sepsis surveillance method to estimate sepsis incidence from a population electronic health record (EHR) in Hong Kong using objective clinical data. The study objective was to assess our method's performance in identifying sepsis using a retrospective cohort. We compared its accuracy to administrative sepsis surveillance methods such as Angus' and Martin's methods. METHOD: In this single centre retrospective study we applied our sepsis surveillance method on adult patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Two clinicians independently reviewed the clinical notes to determine which patients had sepsis. Performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve (AUC) of Angus', Martin's and our surveillance methods using clinical review as "gold standard." RESULTS: Between January 1 and February 28, 2018, our sepsis surveillance method identified 1352 adult patients hospitalised with suspected infection. We found that 38.9% (95%CI 36.3-41.5) of these patients had sepsis. Using a 490 patient validation cohort, two clinicians had good agreement with weighted kappa of 0.75 (95% CI 0.69-0.81) before coming to consensus on diagnosis of uncomplicated infection or sepsis for all patients. Our method had sensitivity 0.93 (95%CI 0.89-0.96), specificity 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.90) and an AUC 0.90 (95%CI 0.87-0.92) when validated against clinician review. In contrast, Angus' and Martin's methods had AUCs 0.56 (95%CI 0.53-0.58) and 0.56 (95%CI 0.52-0.59), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A sepsis surveillance method based on objective data from a population EHR in Hong Kong was more accurate than administrative methods. It may be used to estimate sepsis population incidence and outcomes in Hong Kong. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov on October 3, 2019 ( NCT04114214 ).


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Carga Global da Doença/métodos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 105-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is becoming a leading cause of preventable blindness. The current study aimed to assess ROP and its risk factors in Tabuk City, Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in King Khalid Hospital, Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. The premature infants' records during the period of January 2016 to April 2018 were approached. One hundred and eight records were eligible; the infants' gestational age, weight, if received oxygen, surfactant use, blood transfusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus were reported. Chi-square test was used to compare premature infants and their counterparts regarding various risk factors. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 108 premature infants, 33.3% had ROP (Many were sightthreatening [stages required treatment] and more than twothirds involving both eyes); a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was evident between infants with prematurity, and low birth weight. No significant differences were found regarding other risk factors (P > 0.05). Only 8.3% received interventional therapy. CONCLUSION: ROP is common in King Khalid Hospital, which is the referral tertiary hospital in Tabuk city, KSA . The low birth weight is a significant risk factor to develop ROP. Many of ROP cases were sightthreatening (cases that required treatment) and most cases involving both eyes. Treatment availability at Tabuk city is recommended, instead of referral to another centers especially among those with low weight at birth.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 910-915, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 having spread across the globe, it has become standard to implement infection control strategies (colloquially known as lockdown) with the intention of reducing the magnitude and delaying the peak of the epidemiological curve. Personal infection mitigation strategies coupled with lockdown have caused a change in healthcare-seeking behaviour, with individuals not attending to their ill health as they previously did. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether admissions for urgent and emergency surgical pathologies have declined during the COVID-19 lockdown period, and the magnitude of the decline. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted, comparing pre-lockdown (3 February - 26 March 2020) and lockdown (27 March - 30 April 2020) admission incidences for surgical pathologies at a tertiary healthcare complex in North West Province, South Africa. Poisson regression models were created to determine admission incidence rate ratios (IRRs). RESULTS: Of 769 surgical admissions included in the analysis, 49.7% were male and 67.2% were unemployed. There was a 44% reduction in the incidence of non-trauma admissions during lockdown (IRR 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 - 0.68; p<0.001) and a 53% reduction in the incidence of trauma-related admissions (IRR 0.47; 95% CI 0.34 - 0.66; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even when the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was minimal, COVID-19 lockdown in North West was associated with a significant reduction in surgical admissions. In order to ensure an overall benefit to public health, a balance between maintaining the integrity of COVID-19 control mechanisms and access to healthcare services is essential.


Assuntos
Apendicite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Emergências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 309-317, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the successful emergency plan implemented by Padova University Hospital (AOUP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The emergency plan included early implementation of procedures aimed at meeting the increasing demand for testing and care while ensuring safe and timely care of all patients and guaranteeing the safety of healthcare workers. RESULTS: From 21 February to 1 May 2020, there were 3,862 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Province of Padua. A total of 485 patients were hospitalized in AOUP, of which 91 were admitted to the ICU; 12 .6% of admitted patients died. The average bed occupancy rate in the ICU was 61.1% (IQR 43.6%:77.4%). Inpatient surgery and inpatient admissions were kept for 76% and 74%, respectively, compared to March 2019. A total of 123,077 swabs were performed, 19.3% of which (23,725 swabs) to screen AOUP workers. The screening of all staff showed that 137 of 7,649 (1.8%) hospital workers were positive. No healthcare worker died. DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emergências , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
ESMO Open ; 5(5)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare professionals (HCP) are at the frontline of clinical management and at increased risk for infection. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of oncological HCP and their patients has significant implications for oncological care. METHODS: HCP and patients with cancer at the Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna were included between 21 March and 4 June and tested for total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 employing the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. Reactive samples were confirmed or disproved by the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test. Additionally, a structured questionnaire regarding basic demographic parameters, travel history and COVID-19-associated symptoms had to be completed by HCP. RESULTS: 146 subjects (62 HCP and 84 patients with cancer) were enrolled. In the oncological HCP cohort, 20 (32.3%) subjects were medical oncologists, 28 (45.2%) nurses at our ward and 14 (22.6%) fulfil other functions such as study coordinators. In the patient cohort, most individuals are on active anticancer treatment (96.4%). 26% of the HCP and 6% of the patients had symptoms potentially associated with COVID-19 since the end of February 2020. However, only in 2 (3.2%) HCP and in 3 (3.6%) patients, anti-SARS-Cov-2 total antibodies were detected. The second assay for anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG antibodies confirmed the positive result in all HCP and in 2 (2.4%) patients, suggesting an initial assay's unspecific reaction in one case. In individuals with a confirmed test result, an active COVID-19 infection was documented by a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR test. CONCLUSION: Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found solely in persons after a documented SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, thus supporting the test methods' high sensitivity and specificity. The low prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in our cohorts indicates a lack of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. It highlights the need for continued strict safety measures to prevent uncontrolled viral spread among oncological HCPs and patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia , Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Oncologistas , Enfermagem Oncológica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792952

RESUMO

Wuhan, China was the epicenter of the 2019 coronavirus outbreak. As a designated hospital for COVID-19, Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital has received over 700 COVID-19 patients. With the COVID-19 becoming a pandemic all over the world, we aim to share our epidemiological and clinical findings with the global community. We studied 340 confirmed COVID-19 patients with clear clinical outcomes from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, including 310 discharged cases and 30 death cases. We analyzed their demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data and implemented our findings into an interactive, free access web application to evaluate COVID-19 patient's severity level. Our results show that baseline T cell subsets results differed significantly between the discharged cases and the death cases in Mann Whitney U test: Total T cells (p < 0.001), Helper T cells (p <0.001), Suppressor T cells (p <0.001), and TH/TSC (Helper/Suppressor ratio, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression model with death or discharge as the outcome resulted in the following significant predictors: age (OR 1.05, 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.10), underlying disease status (OR 3.42, 95% CI, 1.30 to 9.95), Helper T cells on the log scale (OR 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.40), and TH/TSC on the log scale (OR 4.80, 95% CI, 2.12 to 11.86). The AUC for the logistic regression model is 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95), suggesting the model has a very good predictive power. Our findings suggest that while age and underlying diseases are known risk factors for poor prognosis, patients with a less damaged immune system at the time of hospitalization had higher chance of recovery. Close monitoring of the T cell subsets might provide valuable information of the patient's condition change during the treatment process. Our web visualization application can be used as a supplementary tool for the evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792300

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged many healthcare systems around the world. While most of the current understanding of the clinical features of COVID-19 is derived from Chinese studies, there is a relative paucity of reports from the remaining global health community. In this study, we analyze the clinical and radiologic factors that correlate with mortality odds in COVID-19 positive patients from a tertiary care center in Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cohort study of 90 patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive COVID-19 infection was conducted, analyzing demographics, co-morbidities, presenting symptoms, vital signs, laboratory values, chest radiograph findings, and chest CT features based on mortality. Chest radiograph was assessed using the Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) scoring system. Chest CTs were assessed according to the opacification pattern, distribution, and standardized severity score. Initial and follow-up Chest CTs were compared if available. Multiple logistic regression was used to generate a prediction model for mortality. The 90 patients included 59 men and 31 women (59.4 ± 16.6 years), including 21 deceased and 69 surviving patients. Among clinical features, advanced age (p = 0.02), low oxygenation saturation (p<0.001), leukocytosis (p = 0.02), low lymphocyte fraction (p = 0.03), and low platelet count (p = 0.048) were associated with increased mortality. High RALE score on initial chest radiograph (p = 0.002), presence of pleural effusions on initial CT chest (p = 0.005), development of pleural effusions on follow-up CT chest (p = 0.04), and worsening lung severity score on follow-up CT Chest (p = 0.03) were associated with mortality. A two-factor logistic model using patient age and oxygen saturation was created, which demonstrates 89% accuracy and area under the ROC curve of 0.86 (p<0.0001). Specific demographic, clinical, and imaging features are associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 infections. Attention to these features can help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA