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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18567, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895799

RESUMO

We investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics deaths from road traffic injury (RTI) in Beijing, and provided evidence useful for the prevention of fatal traffic trauma and for the treatment of traffic-related injuries.We retrospectively reviewed death cases provided by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center on road traffic injury deaths from 2008 to 2017. We analyzed population characteristics, time distribution, distribution of transportation modes, intervals to death, locations and injured body parts.From 2008 to 2017, there were 3327 deaths from RTI recorded by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center, with mainly males among these deaths. The average age at death was 46.19 ±â€Š17.43 years old (46.19, 0.43-100.24). In accidents with more detail recorded, pedestrians and people using nonmotorized transportation modes suffered the most fatalities (664/968, 68.60%). The most commonly injured body parts were the head (2569/3327, 77.22%), followed by the chest (180/3327, 5.41%), abdomen (130/3327, 3.91%), lower extremities (68/3327, 2.04%), pelvis (67/3327, 2.01%), spinal cord (31/3327, 0.93%), and upper extremities (26/3327, 0.78%). Burns accounted for 0.96% (32/3327), and unknown body parts were affected in 11.28% (365/3327). The average time interval from injury to death was 36.90 ±â€Š89.57 h (36.90, 0-720); 46.7% (1554/3327) died within 10 minutes after injury; 9.02% (300/3327) died between 10 min and 1 hour; 30.33% (1009/3327) died between 1 hour and 3 days; 13.95% (464/3327) died between 3 and 30 days.In Beijing, RTI is a significant cause of preventable death, particularly among pedestrians and users of non-motorized vehicles. Head trauma was the most lethal cause of RTI deaths. Our findings suggested that interventions to prevent collisions and reduce injuries, and improved trauma treatment process and trauma rescue system could address a certain proportion of avoidable RTI deaths.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The temporal patterns and unit-based distributions of trauma patients requiring surgical intervention are poorly described in the UK. We describe the distribution of trauma patients in the UK and assess whether changes in working patterns could provide greater exposure for operative trauma training. METHODS: We searched the Trauma Audit and Research Network database to identify all patients between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. Operative cases were defined as all patients who underwent laparotomy, thoracotomy or open vascular intervention. We assessed time of arrival, correlations between mechanism of injury and surgery, and the effect of changing shift patterns on exposure to trauma patients by reference to a standard 10-hour shift assuming a dedicated trauma rotation or fellowship. RESULTS: There were 159,719 patients from 194 hospitals submitted to the Network between 2014 and 2016. The busiest 20 centres accounted for 57,568 (36.0%) of cases in total. Of these 2147/57,568 patients (3.7%) required a general surgical operation; 43% of penetrating admissions (925 cases) and 2.2% of blunt admissions (1222 cases). The number of operations correlated more closely with the number of penetrating rather than blunt admissions (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.51). A diurnal pattern in trauma admissions enabled significant increases in trauma exposure with later start times. CONCLUSIONS: Centres with high volume and high penetrating rates are likely to require more general surgical input and should be identified as locations for operative trauma training. It is possible to improve the number of trauma patients seen in a shift by optimising shift start time.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatologia/educação , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
3.
J Surg Res ; 245: 492-499, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with isolated rib fractures are often admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) because of presumedly increased morbidity and mortality. However, evidence-based guidelines are limited. We sought to identify characteristics of these patients that predict the need for ICU care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed patients ≥50 y old at our center during 2013-2017 whose only indication for ICU admission, if any, was isolated rib fractures. The primary outcome was any critical care intervention (e.g., intubation) or adverse event (e.g., hypoxemia) (CCIE) based on accepted critical care guidelines. We used stepwise logistic regression to identify characteristics that predict CCIEs. RESULTS: Among 401 patients, 251 (63%) were admitted to an ICU. Eighty-three patients (33%) admitted to an ICU and 7 (5%) admitted to the ward experienced a CCIE. The most common CCIEs were hypotension (10%), frequent respiratory therapy (9%), and oxygen desaturation (8%). Predictors of CCIEs included incentive spirometry <1 L (OR 4.72, 95% CI 2.14-10.45); use of a walker (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.29-6.34); increased chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS 3 OR 5.83, 95% CI 2.34-14.50); age ≥72 y (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.48-4.86); and active smoking (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.06-4.20). CONCLUSIONS: Routine ICU admission is not necessary for most older adults with isolated rib fractures. The predictors we identified warrant prospective evaluation for development of a clinical decision rule to preclude unnecessary ICU admissions.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Medição de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
J Surg Res ; 245: 593-599, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After traumatic arrest, resuscitative thoracotomy is lifesaving in appropriately selected patients, yet data are limited regarding hospital course after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of resuscitative thoracotomy survivors admitted to the ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review (January 1, 2012-June 30, 2017) of all adult trauma patients who underwent resuscitative thoracotomy after traumatic arrest at two adult level 1 trauma centers. Data evaluated include demographics, injury characteristics, hospital course, and outcome. RESULTS: Over 66 mo, there were 52,624 trauma activations. Two hundred ninety-eight patients underwent resuscitative thoracotomy and 96 (32%) survived to ICU admission. At ICU admission, mean age was 35.8 ± 14.5 y, 79 (82%) were male, 36 (38%) sustained blunt trauma, and the mean injury severity score was 32.3 ± 13.7. Eight blunt and 20 penetrating patients (22% and 34% of ICU admissions, respectively) survived to discharge. 67% of deaths in the ICU occurred within the first 24 h, whereas 90% of those alive at day 21 survived to discharge. For the 28 survivors, mean ICU length of stay was 24.1 ± 17.9 d and mean hospital length of stay was 43.9 ± 32.1 d. Survivors averaged 1.9 ± 1.5 complications. Twenty-four patients (86% of hospital survivors) went home or to a rehabilitation center. CONCLUSIONS: After resuscitative thoracotomy and subsequent ICU admission, 29% of patients survived to hospital discharge. Complications and a long hospital stay should be expected, but the functional outcome for survivors is not as bleak as previously reported.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am Surg ; 85(11): 1281-1287, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775972

RESUMO

ACS-verified trauma centers show higher survival and improved mortality rates in states with ACS-verified Level I pediatric trauma centers. However, few significant changes are appreciated in the first two years after verification. Minimal research exists examining verification of ACS Level II pediatric trauma centers. We analyzed ACS Level II pediatric trauma verification at our institution. In 2014, Sanford Medical Center Fargo became the only Level II pediatric trauma center in North Dakota, as well as the only center between Spokane and Minneapolis. A retrospective review of the institution's pre-existing trauma database one year pre- and postverification was performed. Patients aged <18 years were included in the study (P < 0.05). Patient number increased by 23 per cent, from 167 to 205 patients. A statistically significant increase occured in the three to six year old age group (P = 0.0002); motorized recreational vehicle (P = 0.028), violent (P = 0.009), and other (P = 0.0374) mechanism of injury categories; ambulance (P = 0.0124), fixed wing (P = 0.0028), and personal-owned vehicle (P = 0.0112) modes of transportation. Decreased public injuries (P = 0.0071) and advanced life support ambulance transportation (P = 0.0397). The study showed a nonstatistically significant increase in mean Injury Severity Score (from 6.3 to 7) and Native American trauma (from 14 to 20 per cent). Whereas prolonged ACS Level I pediatric trauma center verification was found to benefit patients, minimal data exist on ACS Level II verification. Our findings are consistent with current Level I ACS pediatric trauma center data. Future benefits will require continued analysis because our Level II pediatric trauma center continues to mature and affect our rural and large Native American community.


Assuntos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
7.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(5): 334-341, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748108

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study aimed to map the use of imaging techniques and results reporting in polytrauma patients by the trauma centres in the Czech Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS The representatives of radiology departments and units of all 12 trauma centres in the Czech Republic completed a questionnaire regarding the imaging in polytrauma patients. RESULTS The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) as an initial imaging is used by all the centres, the WholeBody CT scan (WBCT) is the dominant imaging technique everywhere and all the centres have standards in place for its performance. The WBCT examination protocol varies across the centres, just like the evaluation procedures of the CT scan and reporting of the results over to the indicating physicians. In majority of centres, there is a high percentage of WBCT with normal findings. One of the centres which uses also X-rays as a part of imaging algorithm, reports a notably higher percentage of WBCT positive findings. DISCUSSION When considering the radiation dose, data and time necessary for WBCT, work required to assess the WBCT and a large number of negative findings, it is disputable whether in a number of cases the WBCT is a suitable method for polytrauma patient examination. Similar conclusions have been drawn also by other authors who recommend that the WBCT is always used for unconscious polytrauma patients, in whom a clinical examination is virtually impossible. In the other cases, based on the clinical parameters the other imaging techniques and the focused CT (and in the indicated cases also the wholebody CT) can be safely used. CONCLUSIONS he diagnostic procedure in a polytrauma patient is not uniform in trauma centres and even the procedure for urgent reporting of crucial WBCT findings to clinical physicians has not been standardised. In a number of cases the indication for WBCT seems to be unnecessary. A more careful consideration of indications for imaging examinations based on the clinical finding may reduce the radiation exposure of patients while maintaining the diagnostic accuracy. A structured report on WBCT in polytrauma is not used even though it is recommended by the European Society of Radiology. Key words:polytrauma, diagnostic imaging, Whole-Body Computed Tomography, structured report.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1142-1145, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657311

RESUMO

The ACS Committee on Trauma specifies prehospital criteria that trigger trauma team activation (TTA). The study aims to define the relationship between TTA and time of day, mechanism of injury, and need for operative intervention. All trauma patients presenting to LAC+USC (January 2008-July 2018) after triggering TTA were screened. Patients were excluded if time of ED arrival was undocumented. Demographics, injury data, and outcomes were analyzed. After exclusions (<1%), 54,826 patients were enrolled. The median age was 35 [IQR 23-53]. The median Injury Severity Score was 4 [1-10]. The most common mechanisms of injury were falls (n = 14,166; 31%), auto versus pedestrian collisions (n = 11,921; 26%), and motor vehicle collisions (n = 11,024; 24%). Penetrating trauma comprised 16 per cent (n = 8,686). The busiest hour for TTAs was 19:00 to 20:00, although penetrating trauma was most common between 23:00 and 01:00. Emergent surgical intervention in absolute numbers was most frequent between 20:00 and 01:00. As a proportion of the number of TTAs per hour, emergent operative intervention was most frequent between 23:00 and 06:00. In conclusion, the volume of TTAs and the triggering mechanism of injury vary significantly by time of day. The need for operative intervention is highest overnight. This information can be used to help increase hospital preparedness and allocate resources accordingly.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/etiologia , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 747-759, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Distal forearm fractures (DFF) account for 1.5% of emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. Clinicians frequently obtain imaging above/below the location of injury to rule out additional injuries. We sought to determine the incidence of associated proximal fractures (APF) in the setting of DFF and to evaluate the imaging practices in a nationally representative sample of EDs. METHODS: We queried the 2013 National Emergency Department Sample using International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, diagnostic codes for DFF and APF. Current Procedural Technology codes identified associated imaging studies. We calculated national estimates using a weighted analysis of patient and hospital-level characteristics associated with APF and imaging practices. An analysis of costs estimated the financial impact of additional imaging in patients with DFF using Medicare reimbursement to approximate costs according to the 2018 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. RESULTS: In 2013, an estimated 297,755 ED visits (weighted) were associated with a DFF, of which 1.6% (4836 cases) had an APF. The incidence of APF was lower among females (odds ratio [OR] (0.76); 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.91) but higher in metropolitan teaching hospitals compared to metropolitan non-teaching hospitals (OR [2.39]; 95% CI, 1.43-3.99) and Level 1 trauma centers (OR [3.9]; 95%, 1.91-7.96) compared to non-trauma centers. Approximately 40% (n = 117,948) of those with only DFF received non-wrist radiographs and 19% (n = 55,236) underwent non-wrist/non-forearm imaging. Factors independently associated with additional imaging included gender, payer, patient and hospital rurality, hospital region, teaching status, ownership, and trauma center level. Nearly $3.6 million (2018 U.S. dollars) was spent on the aforementioned additional imaging. CONCLUSION: Despite the frequency of proximal imaging in patients with DFF, the incidence of APF was low. Further study to identify risk factors for APF based on mechanism and physical examination factors may result in reduced imaging and decreased avoidable healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Antebraço/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas da Ulna/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Traumatismos do Antebraço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Fraturas do Rádio/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Ulna/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for children when there is concern for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is a significant source of ionizing radiation. Our objective was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of fast MRI (motion-tolerant MRI sequences performed without sedation) in young children. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we attempted fast MRI in children <6 years old who had head CT performed and were seen in the emergency department of a single, level 1 pediatric trauma center. Fast MRI sequences included 3T axial and sagittal T2 single-shot turbo spin echo, axial T1 turbo field echo, axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, axial gradient echo, and axial diffusion-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo planar imaging. Feasibility was assessed by completion rate and imaging time. Fast MRI accuracy was measured against CT findings of TBI, including skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage, or parenchymal injury. RESULTS: Among 299 participants, fast MRI was available and attempted in 225 (75%) and completed in 223 (99%). Median imaging time was 59 seconds (interquartile range 52-78) for CT and 365 seconds (interquartile range 340-392) for fast MRI. TBI was identified by CT in 111 (50%) participants, including 81 skull fractures, 27 subdural hematomas, 24 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 35 other injuries. Fast MRI identified TBI in 103 of these (sensitivity 92.8%; 95% confidence interval 86.3-96.8), missing 6 participants with isolated skull fractures and 2 with subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Fast MRI is feasible and accurate relative to CT in clinically stable children with concern for TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hematoma Subdural/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 685-689, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405408

RESUMO

Trauma recidivists are a high-risk patient population. The effects of recidivism on Geriatric trauma mortality have not been investigated. Our hypothesis is that trauma recidivism is associated with high postdischarge mortality after the initial index admission in both the geriatric and adult trauma populations. The trauma registry of our Level I trauma center was queried for patients evaluated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were stratified adult (18-64) and geriatric (≥65) groups and matched with mortality data from the National Death Index. Unique patients were identified and recidivists flagged. Statistical analysis was performed based on characteristics from the index admission using nonparametric tests, and Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to examine postdischarge mortality after index admission for recidivists. A total of 8716 records met inclusion criteria; 800 recidivist records were identified representing 369 unique patients. Recidivists presented between 2 and 7 times. Recidivists were more likely to be male, required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, had a longer median length of stay, were less likely to discharge home, and had a higher postdischarge mortality. Stratifying into adult and geriatric groups demonstrated significant differences in injury severity, injury patterns, length of stay, race, gender, mechanism, and postdischarge mortality. Recidivists demonstrated a higher postdischarge mortality in both groups with the geriatric group approaching 46 per cent. Trauma recidivists represent an at-risk group with significantly higher postdischarge mortality. Group characteristics differ significantly between the adult and geriatric recidivist populations. Further research is needed to identify modifiable risk factors in these populations to minimize risks of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 721-724, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405415

RESUMO

Despite the incorporation of anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) drugs in our trauma triage criteria, it is unclear whether trauma team activation (TTA) impacts outcomes in geriatric patients on ACAP drugs sustaining falls. We hypothesized that TTA in this cohort was associated with improved outcomes. The hospital electronic database was queried to identify normotensive, awake patients aged ≥65 years on ACAP agent from 2014 to 2018 presenting to the emergency department after falls. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between TTA and mortality was examined using logistic regression analysis and 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. In this study, 4540 patients on ACAP drugs were analyzed, with TTA occurring in 500 (11%). TTA occurred in younger but more severely injured patients with lower Glasgow Coma Score. Logistic regression revealed that TTA was not associated with mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals], 2.04 [0.89-4.25]). The 1:1 propensity score analysis revealed similar mortality for the matched groups (non-TTA, 1.6% vs TTA, 2.2%, P = 0.64). In the elderly patients on ACAP agents, the current triage criteria resulted in the appropriate use of TTA for more severely injured patients. The lack of outcome benefit suggests that ACAP drug use as a criterion for TTA should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos
13.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 764-767, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405425

RESUMO

Patient physiology and crash characteristics are essential components of field triage for motor vehicle crashes. We aimed to identify prehospital information that predicted high injury severity or critical patient condition on hospital arrival. The association of demographics, shock index (SI), Glasgow Coma Scale, and 10 crash characteristics of trauma activations for motor vehicle crashes with injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 16 and a composite of hypotension, need for blood transfusions, or immediate operation was determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 133 of 498 patients (27%) had ISS ≥ 16; SI ≥ 0.9, Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, speed ≥ 55 mph, seatbelt use, airbag deployment, ambulatory patient, severe vehicle damage, ejection, and extrication were associated with ISS ≥ 16. Only abnormal SI and high speed remained independent predictors for ISS ≥ 16 with Odds Ratio (OR) = 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-101, P = 0.04) and OR = 10.37 (95% CI, 1.48-72.93, P = 0.02), respectively. SI ≥ 0.9 predicted the composite outcome with OR = 5.92 (95% CI, 2.32-15.08, P < 0.01). Many commonly reported crash characteristics did not predict clinically important outcomes. Improvements in road and vehicle safety may be resulting in lower injury severity despite major crash mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Cintos de Segurança , Choque/diagnóstico , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 772-777, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405427

RESUMO

Trauma in pregnancy is a leading cause of poor fetal and obstetric outcomes. Trauma team activation (TTA) criteria include injury with ≥ 20 weeks gestational age (GA). A retrospective analysis was performed on pregnant patients evaluated at a Level 1 trauma center. Patients were characterized by TTA: full, partial, or non-TTA, and TTA criteria independent of pregnancy. Index trauma and delayed delivery hospitalization outcomes were examined. Bivariate analysis, t test, and logistic regression were used when appropriate. From 2010 to 2015, 216 full, 50 partial, and 50 non-TTAs presented. Independent of pregnancy, 79 per cent of patients did not meet the TTA criteria. Fourteen (4%) had a pregnancy-related complication during index hospitalization (eight fetal and two maternal deaths). Nine of ten deaths occurred in patients meeting TTA independent of pregnancy. Delivery complications were greater in the index (52%, 13/25) versus subsequent (5%, 17/155) hospitalizations and were predicted by the respiratory rate (P = 0.016) and injury severity score (P < 0.001). Poor delayed delivery outcomes were associated with earlier GA (P < 0.002) and longer index hospitalization (P < 0.024). Odds of complication are higher in patients meeting the physiologic and anatomic criteria criteria for TTA versus GA criteria alone, signifying overtriage. Trauma activation protocols should be adapted based on the physiologic and anatomic criteria criteria in pregnant patients.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(3): 672-677, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the higher level of care significantly affected the outcomes of elderly patients who fell from ground level at home and had a normal physiological examination at the scene. METHODS: Patients 65 years and older, with normal physiological measures at the scene (Glasgow Coma Scale score = 15, systolic blood pressure > 90 and <160 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) ≥ 60 and ≤100) from the 2012 to 2014 National Trauma Data Bank data sets were included in the study. Patients' characteristics, existing comorbidities, and outcomes were compared between Level I or Level II designated trauma centers (higher level care [group 1]) and Levels III, IV, and unranked/nontrauma centers (lower level care [group 2]). Following initial analyses, propensity score matching was performed, and the rate of in-hospital mortality, median time (days) to death or discharge, and discharge disposition were compared. RESULTS: Of the 40,800 patients who met inclusion criteria, 18,813 patients were matched from each group on age, sex, race, systolic blood pressure, HR, respiratory rate, Injury Severity Score, and comorbidity statuses. There was no evidence of a significant difference regarding in-hospital mortality (2.5% vs. 2.3%), time to death (median [interquartile range]: 6 [3-11] vs. 6 [3-11]), or time to hospital discharge (median [interquartile range]: 5 [5-5] vs. 5 [5-5]). However, the rate of required postdischarge care (78.9% vs. 81.7%) varied significantly between the groups. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of care failed to show any significant survival benefits or shorten the time to hospital discharge; however, a significantly higher proportion of patients from lesser-care facilities required follow-up services after discharge. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care management, level IV. STUDY TYPE: Observational case-control.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinais Vitais , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes Domésticos/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(16): 1226-1230, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A national survey performed in 2007 found that only 23% of American College of Surgeons (ACS) trauma centers involved pharmacists in trauma resuscitation. This study describes interval change in use, perceptions, and responsibilities from 2007 to 2017. METHODS: Of the 419 trauma centers identified from the ACS website, contact information was available for 335. In March 2017, a survey assessing hospital demographics, pharmacist coverage and services, and perception of pharmacist value and use was emailed to the identified trauma representatives. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis, as appropriate. RESULTS: The response rate was 33% (110/335). Pharmacist involvement with trauma resuscitation increased significantly from 23% in 2007 to 70% (p < 0.001) and in 71% of trauma centers was provided by pharmacists practicing within the emergency department. Pharmacist involvement was greatest in the Midwest (p < 0.01), but with similar distribution with regards to ACS designation, institution type, and patient volume. Common bedside responsibilities include calculating dosages (96%), preparing medications (89%), and providing medication information (79%), while trauma program/administrative responsibilities (45%) include trauma team education, pharmacy operations, medication safety, quality improvement data collection, research, review of quality assurance cases, ACS accreditation preparation, and others. The primary reason for not considering pharmacist involvement was unfamiliarity with these roles/benefits. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists are an increasingly important component of the trauma team, as evidenced by growth over the last decade. In addition to clinical benefit at the bedside, pharmacists can support the regular activities of a trauma program in many meaningful ways.


Assuntos
Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Ressuscitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Surg Res ; 243: 488-495, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies of the impact of the Affordable Care Act on reimbursement for inpatient trauma care do not include disproportionate share hospital (DSH) funding. Because trauma centers and other safety-net hospitals are sensitive to any changes in financial support, it is essential to include DSH funding in evaluating overall reimbursement. This study analyzes the long-term financial trends, including DSH, of a level I trauma center in Ohio, a state that expanded Medicaid. METHODS: Charges, reimbursement, sources of insurance coverage, Injury Severity Scores, and DSH funding for the trauma patient population of an Ohio American College of Surgeons level 1 trauma center were studied from 2012 to 2017. Data were collected from Transition Systems, Inc. RESULTS: During 2012-2017, self-pay patient cases decreased from 15.0% to 4.1% and commercial insurance patients decreased from 34.2% to 27.6%. The percentage of Medicaid patients increased from 15.5% to 27.1%; however, Medicaid reimbursement average per case declined from $17,779 in 2012 to $10,115 in 2017 (a decline of 43.1%). Self-pay charges decreased from $22.0 million to $6.7 million. Total DSH funding, compensation given to hospitals that disproportionately treat underserved populations, decreased 17.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Self-pay charges and self-pay patients decreased dramatically; Medicaid patients and charges increased substantially in the years after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act at our trauma center. However, there was a decrease in commercial insurance, which had the highest reimbursement for our hospital, and a significant decline in DSH, a critical supplemental source of funding for safety-net hospitals.


Assuntos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cobertura do Seguro/tendências , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Reembolso Diferenciado/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/economia , Humanos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Surg Res ; 243: 515-523, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric pelvic fractures are rare. The contribution of pelvic fracture pattern, risk factors for associated injuries, and mortality are poorly defined in this population. METHODS: Patients aged 0-17 with pelvic fractures at a level I trauma center over a 20-y period were reviewed. Fracture patterns were classified according to the Young-Burgess classification when applicable. Fractures were analyzed for location, pubic symphysis or sacroiliac widening, and contrast extravasation. RESULTS: There were 163 pelvic fractures in 8758 admissions (incidence 2%). The most common associated injures were extremity fractures (60%, n = 98), abdominal solid organ (55%, n = 89), and chest (48%, n = 78), with the majority (61%, n = 99) sustaining injuries to multiple organs. Unstable fractures were associated with injures to the thorax (70% versus 40%), heart (15% versus 2%), and spleen (40% versus 18%), all P < 0.05. Nonpelvic operative interventions were required in 45% (n = 73) and were more common in unstable fractures (36% versus 19%), contrast extravasation (63% versus 26%), sacroiliac widening (36% versus 20%), and sacral fractures (39% versus 13%), all P < 0.05. Mortality was 13% and higher in males versus females (18% versus 5%), contrast extravasation (50% versus 3%), or sacroiliac/pubic symphysis widening (13% versus 2%) (all P < 0.05). Male gender (OR 6.03), brain injury (OR 6.18), spine injury (OR 5.06), and cardiac injury (OR 35.0) were independently associated with mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric pelvic fractures are rare but critical injuries associated with significant morbidity and need for interventions. Increasing fracture severity corresponds to injuries to other body systems and increased mortality.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Emerg Med J ; 36(9): 529-534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma team activation criteria have a variable performance in the paediatric population. We aimed to identify predictors for high-level resource utilisation during trauma resuscitation in the ED. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the ED of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Patient data were collected from trauma surveillance registry and analysis was performed to identify significant predictors. We then assessed the sensitivity and specificity of proposed models with respect to observed patient outcomes. RESULTS: Among 11 282 cases, the mean age was 6.1±4.9 (SD) years old. Fall was the most common mechanism of injury in 7364 (65.3%) patients. Eighty-eight (0.8%) patients required at least one high-level resource. Significant predictors for high-resource utilisation were overall GCS of <14 (relative risk (RR) 38.841, 95% CI 21.328 to 70.739, p<0.001), high-risk mechanisms of fall from height and motor vehicle collision (RR 7.863, 95% CI 4.687 to 13.192, p<0.001), as well as age-specific tachycardia (RR 1.796, 95% CI 1.145 to 2.817, p=0.0108). A model consisting of GCS and high-risk mechanism would under-triage 21 (0.2%) patients and over-triage 681 (6.0%) patients. When age-specific tachycardia was added, 8 (0.1%) less patients would be under-triaged but an additional 3251 (28.9%) patients would be over-triaged. CONCLUSION: As utilisation of high-level resources in paediatric trauma was rare, it was difficult to find an appropriate balance between under-triage and over-triage. Between the two, minimising the proportion of under-triage is more important as patient safety is paramount in paediatric trauma care.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/organização & administração , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/normas , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Pediátricos/normas , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Singapura , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/organização & administração , Triagem/normas , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
20.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 363-369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Triaging plays an important role in providing suitable care to a large number of casualties in a disaster setting. A Pediatric Physiological and Anatomical Triage Score (PPATS) was developed as a new secondary triage method. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of the PPATS in identifying injured pediatric patients who are admitted at a high frequency and require immediate treatment in a disaster setting. The PPATS method was also compared with the current triage methods, such as the Triage Revised Trauma Score (TRTS). METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients aged ≤15 years, registered in the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) from 2012 through 2016, was conducted and PPATS was performed. The PPATS method graded patients from zero to 22, and was calculated based on vital signs, anatomical abnormalities, and the need for life-saving interventions. It categorized patients based on their priority, and the intensive care unit (ICU)-indicated patients were assigned a PPATS ≥six. The accuracy of PPATS and TRTS in predicting the outcome of ICU-indicated patients was compared. RESULTS: Of 2,005 pediatric patients, 1,002 (50%) were admitted to the ICU. The median age of the patients was nine years (interquartile range [IQR]: 6-13 years). The sensitivity and specificity of PPATS were 78.6% and 43.7%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was larger for PPATS (0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.63) than for TRTS (0.57; 95% CI, 0.56-0.59; P <.01). Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between PPATS and the Injury Severity Score (ISS; r2 = 0.353; P <.001), predicted survival rate (r2 = 0.396; P <.001), and duration of hospital stay (r2 = 0.252; P <.001). CONCLUSION: The accuracy of PPATS for injured pediatric patients was superior to that of current secondary triage methods. The PPATS method is useful not only for identifying high-priority patients, but also for determining the priority ranking for medical treatments and evacuation.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
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