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1.
Can J Public Health ; 110(4): 512-515, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737723

RESUMO

Alcohol use leads to a substantial number of hospitalizations, and to increased health and social harms as well as economic costs in Ontario and across Canada. The effects of alcohol price changes on consumption and resulting harms have been firmly established; changes in the minimum price of alcohol have the greatest effect on consumption among people who for reasons of affordability consume low-priced alcoholic beverages, typically adolescents, people with lower socio-economic status, and people with harmful alcohol use. Decreases in inflation-adjusted minimum pricing in British Columbia from 2002 to 2006 have been associated with increases in deaths wholly attributable to alcohol. Furthermore, decreases in alcohol prices have been previously associated with increases in drink-driving, decreases in life expectancy, increases in road traffic injuries, violence, and alcohol poisonings, and long-term increases in deaths from infectious diseases, circulatory diseases, and digestive diseases. Based on the findings of previous studies, lowering the cost of alcohol will negatively impact the health of Ontarians and further strain a healthcare system with limited resources. Accordingly, Ontario should be strengthening alcohol policies to improve public health, including raising the minimum price of alcohol, rather than weakening alcohol policies.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Cerveja/economia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Política Pública
2.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208831, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557353

RESUMO

AIMS: To apply methods for measuring the affordability of beer in a large cross section of countries, and to investigate trends in affordability of beer over time. METHODS: We use the Relative Income Price (RIP), which uses per capita GDP, to measure the affordability of beer in up to 92 countries from 1990 to 2016 (69 countries were included in 1990, however the survey has since grown to include 92 countries). In addition to affordability, we also investigate trends in the price of beer. RESULTS: While beer is, on average, similarly priced in high-income (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is significantly more affordable in HICs. There is significant variation in both price and affordability in HICs and in LMICs. Beer has become cheaper in real terms in 49% (18/37) of HICs and 43% (20/46) of LMICs. Beer became more affordable in most HICs (RIP: 30/37 or 81%) and LMICs (RIP: 42/44 or 95%). CONCLUSIONS: The increased affordability over time of beer in most countries raises concerns about public health. Governments need to increase taxes on beer so that it becomes less affordable over time, in an effort to improve public health.


Assuntos
Cerveja/economia , Comércio/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/tendências , Humanos , Renda , Saúde Pública , Impostos
3.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204917, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289903

RESUMO

Breweries across the country are investing in energy efficient and low-carbon brewing practices. Drawing insights from the sustainable consumption and ecological economics literature, this analysis evaluates whether consumers are willing to pay more for sustainable beer and what predicts the value of the premium. Based on a survey of beer consumers from across the U.S. that contained one of two willingness-to-pay exercises, we evaluate what respondent attributes are associated with a higher willingness-to-pay for sustainably brewed beer. We find that the majority of beer consumers are willing to pay more for sustainable beer. Consumers who are prepared to pay a premium tend to already pay more per unit of beer, are more aware of their purchasing behavior and the manner in which their consumption patterns may affect the environment, and pursue lifestyles based on professional advancement, helping the environment, and helping other causes.


Assuntos
Cerveja/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 11(2): 126-137, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547065

RESUMO

This work reports data on the occurrence of nine mycotoxins and two food processing contaminants - acrylamide and furan - in a total of 100 beers produced in Latvia. Mycotoxins were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, acrylamide by HPLC coupled with quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and furan by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most frequently occurring mycotoxins were HT-2 and deoxynivalenol (DON), which were detected in 52% and 51% of the analysed samples. The highest content was observed for DON, reaching the maximum of 248 µg kg-1. Furan was ubiquitous, and 74% of the samples contained acrylamide. In terms of the estimated exposure, the biggest potential risk was identified for HT-2 representing more than 11% of tolerable weekly intake. The margin of exposure approach indicated the exposure to furan through beer as significant, this parameter being close to the critical limit.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Cerveja/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Furanos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Cerveja/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/economia , Calibragem , Carcinógenos Ambientais/química , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Furanos/química , Furanos/toxicidade , Humanos , Letônia , Limite de Detecção , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Toxina T-2/análogos & derivados , Toxina T-2/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/análise , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Volatilização
6.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(1): 43-48, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the United States, excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost $249 billion, or $2.05 per drink, in 2010. Specific excise taxes, the predominant form of alcohol taxation in the United States, are based on the volume of alcohol sold rather than a percentage of price and can thus degrade over time because of inflation. The objective of this study was to describe changes in inflation-adjusted state alcohol excise taxes on a beverage-specific basis. METHOD: State-level data on specific excise taxes were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and the Tax Foundation. Excise tax rates were converted into the tax per standard U.S. drink (14 g of ethanol) for beer, wine, and distilled spirits, and converted into 2015 dollars using annual Consumer Price Index data. RESULTS: Across U.S. states, the average state alcohol excise tax per drink in 2015 was $0.03 for beer, $0.05 for distilled spirits, and $0.03 for wine. From 1991 to 2015, the average inflation-adjusted (in 2015 dollars) state alcohol excise tax rate declined 30% for beer, 32% for distilled spirits, and 27% for wine. Percentage declines in state excise taxes since their inception were more than twice as large as those from 1991 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: In 2015, average state specific excise taxes were $0.05 or less per standard drink across all beverage types and have experienced substantial inflation-adjusted declines.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Impostos/economia , Cerveja/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Vinho/economia
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(1): 58-67, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses. METHOD: Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol. Studies were included up to December 2015. Quality criteria were used to select articles that studied the effect of changes in these policies on alcohol consumption with a focus on natural experiments. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to produce the estimated effect of an additional day of sale on total and beverage-specific consumption. RESULTS: Separate systematic reviews identified seven studies regarding days and hours of sale and four studies regarding density. The majority of articles included in these systematic reviews, for days/hours of sale (7/7) and outlet density (3/4), concluded that restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol reduces per capita alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses studying the effect of adding one additional day of sale found that this was associated with per capita consumption increases of 3.4% (95% CI [2.7, 4.1]) for total alcohol, 5.3% (95% CI [3.2, 7.4]) for beer, 2.6% (95% CI [1.8, 3.5]) for wine, and 2.6% (95% CI [2.1, 3.2]) for spirits. The small number of included studies regarding hours of sale and density precluded meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that decreasing the physical availability of take-away alcohol will decrease per capita consumption. As decreasing per capita consumption has been shown to reduce alcohol-related harm, restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol would be expected to result in improvements to public health.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/economia , Cerveja/economia , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Vinho/economia
8.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(1): 74-78, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol is largely available for Dutch minors through on-premise secondary supply, which occurs when an adult furnishes an alcoholic drink to a minor in an on-premise outlet. Vendors allowing this secondary supply on their premises are in violation of the Dutch Licensing and Catering Act (legal age limit is 18 years old for the sale and possession of alcohol). Using existing mystery shopping protocols as a standard, our study objective was the development and field testing of a novel procedure, measuring vendors' compliance with secondary supply. METHOD: Using a newly developed mystery shopping procedure, transfers of alcohol between young adult buyers and minors were staged in 109 Dutch on-premise outlets (cafes and bars) to measure vendors' compliance with secondary supply. RESULTS: In accordance with the Dutch Licensing and Catering Act, 29% of the vendors disallowed the secondary supply of alcohol to minors (32 of 109 attempts). During 40 attempts (of 109 attempts; 37%), the vendor asked for the identification document (ID) of the minor. Compliance after the ID was requested was 80% (32 of 40 attempts). During 8 attempts (20%), the minors were served even after the ID of the minor was requested. CONCLUSIONS: Mystery shopping is a suitable methodology for measuring compliance with secondary supply. Results show that alcohol is largely available for Dutch minors through secondary supply. Governments that intend to formulate and evaluate enforcement policies aimed at curbing high alcohol availability for minors are advised to use this novel procedure for monitoring compliance and to use these results for agenda setting and benchmarking.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Cerveja/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 52(3): 390-395, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430934

RESUMO

Aims: Using a household survey conducted in 2014, this study estimates price elasticity of demand (PED) for beer, country liquor and spirits in India. Methods: Ordinary least-square models were used to estimate the responsiveness in alcohol demand due to price change. A large number of control variables were included to adjust for potential confounding in the model. Inter-district variation in alcohol consumption is adjusted for by including district fixed effects. Results: Alcohol prices are negatively associated with demand for alcoholic beverages. The PED ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.46 for country liquor. Low level of education was positively associated with spirits consumption. The magnitude of elasticity varied by rural-urban, education and gender. Conclusion: Results indicate that a policy mix of price controls and awareness campaigns would be most effective in tackling the adverse effects of harmful drinking in India. Summary: The demand for beer, country liquor and spirits is negatively associated with its own price. The elasticity estimates ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.44 for country liquor. The elasticity estimates varied by rural-urban, gender and by education levels of the drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cerveja/economia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Food Res Int ; 91: 183-198, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290323

RESUMO

To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing designed to produce the best possible, cost-competitive, widely accepted product in a relatively short period.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Comportamento do Consumidor , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Cerveja/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Embalagem de Produtos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Appetite ; 108: 416-424, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789374

RESUMO

The demand for western alcoholic beverages in China has increased tremendously in recent years. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the behaviour of Chinese consumers towards European beer, which is a common western alcoholic beverage. This study explores associations between beer attribute importance scores, socio-demographic factors, general beer consumption frequency and country associations of European beer, and the consumption of imported European beer in China. The data (n = 541) were collected in two Chinese cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Results of ordered logistic regression analyses show that the consumption of imported European beer is positively associated with importance attached to the product attributes Origin, Brand, Colour and Texture, and it is negatively associated with importance attached to Price and Alcoholic content. Furthermore, male gender, living in Shanghai city, a good financial situation, frequent beer consumption and a high-level employment position have a significantly positive influence on European beer consumption in China. In addition, about two thirds of the study participants associate imported European beer with 'Germany'.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cerveja/economia , Preferências Alimentares , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , China , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio , Demografia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 42(4): 404-11, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. METHODS: Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. RESULTS: In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p < 0.001), beer sales were 3.2% lower (p < 0.001), and wine sales were 2.5% lower (p < 0.01) relative to what would have been expected from sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Cerveja/economia , Cerveja/estatística & dados numéricos , Cerveja/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Maryland , Vinho/economia , Vinho/estatística & dados numéricos , Vinho/provisão & distribução
13.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 51(6): 741-746, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26903070

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate recorded and unrecorded alcohol and the relation to alcohol-related harm in a region with high taxation, economic deprivation and cultural use of alcohol. METHODS: Two participants per household were systematically sampled from 12 different villages chosen using stratified random sampling in the North of Sabah, Malaysia. Participants were asked about each type and amount of drink consumed; price paid, whether tax was paid, number of days sick in the last year and whether they had experienced various health problems. A brief screen for mental disorders (PHQ) and an alcohol disorder screening test (AUDIT) were completed. Village heads were also interviewed about alcohol-related problems at village level. RESULTS: 470 people were interviewed. The most commonly drunk beverages were beer and Montoku (a local distilled beverage), which had average prices of RM3.85 and RM0.48 per standard drink respectively. Montoku was more likely to be drunk by problem drinkers. Only 3.1% of alcohol drunk was believed by respondents to be taxed. Men with an AUDIT score of more than 15 were more likely to have had a sick day in the last year and have a female household member with symptoms of mental disorder on PHQ. CONCLUSIONS: Change in the taxation structure needs to be considered to reduce alcohol-related harm. Most alcohol consumed in rural Sabah is smuggled or informal. The low price of local spirits is likely to be contributing to alcohol-related harm. Differential effects on minority populations need to be considered when designing alcohol policy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cerveja/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Cerveja/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Impostos
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356620

RESUMO

Authors studied the influence of availability of beer on mortality from alcoholic poisonings, diseases of a liver and incidence of alcoholic psychoses in Russia during 1995-2011. Time series analysis was performed using the method of ARIMA. There were no significant associations between the availability of beer and levels of mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Etanol/envenenamento , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Psicoses Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Cerveja/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
15.
Epidemiology ; 26(3): 337-43, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25665162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimum price of alcohol is one of the proposed set of alcohol policies in many high-income countries. However, the extent to which alcohol-related harm is associated with minimum prices across socioeconomic groups is not known. METHODS: Using Finnish national registers in 1988-2007, we investigated, by means of time-series analysis, the association between minimum prices for alcohol overall, as well as for various types of alcoholic beverages, and alcohol-related mortality, among men and women ages 30-79 years across three educational groups. We defined quarterly aggregations of alcohol-related deaths, based on a sample including 80% of all deaths, in accordance with information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. RESULTS: About 62,500 persons died from alcohol-related causes during the 20-year follow-up. The alcohol-related mortality rate was more than threefold higher among those with a basic education than among those with a tertiary education. Among men with a basic education, an increase of 1% in the minimum price of alcohol was associated with a decrease of 0.03% (95% confidence interval = 0.01, 0.04%) in deaths per 100,000 person-years. Changes in the minimum prices of distilled spirits, intermediate products, and strong beer were also associated with changes in the opposite direction among men with a basic education and among women with a secondary education, whereas among the most highly educated there were no associations between the minimum prices of any beverages and mortality. Moreover, we found no evidence of an association between lower minimum prices for wine and higher rates of alcohol-related mortality in any of the population sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal associations between higher minimum prices and lower alcohol-related mortality among men with a basic education and women with a secondary education for all beverage types except wine.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/mortalidade , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cerveja/economia , Cerveja/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Vinho/economia , Vinho/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 34(2): 170-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25092064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To investigate the impact of point-of-sale promotions on product choice, brand choice and purchase quantity of young adults purchasing alcohol for off-premise consumption in Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional interviewer-completed survey conducted at 24 bottle shops (liquor stores), 12 each in the capital cities of Sydney, New South Wales and Perth, Western Australia. Participants were 509 adults (18 and over) exiting bottle shops having purchased alcohol. RESULTS: When prompted, 26.5% indicated that there was a special offer, price discount, or special promotion connected with a product that they had purchased. Those who participated in point-of-sale promotions purchased a greater quantity of alcohol than those who did not participate: ready to drink, an average of 11.5 standard drinks (SD) compared with an average of 8.9 SD (t = 1.320, P = 0.190); beer, an average of 26.8 SD compared with an average of 16.4 SD; wine, an average of 16.1 SD compared with an average of 13.8 SD (t = 0.924, P = 0.357). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Participation in point-of-sale promotions may be associated with increased purchase quantities, not solely shifting between brands. There is a need for further research to explore changes in purchase and consumption patterns as a result of the availability of price-based promotions. The results of this study, combined with previous research, suggest that regulators-and marketers-should consider the immediate and cumulative effect of point-of-sale promotions on drinking patterns, particularly those of younger drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Marketing/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerveja/economia , Comércio/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/métodos , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vinho/economia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(4): 764-70, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25092470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to understand the migration of bisphenols from can coatings into foods in the Chinese market. RESULTS: The migration of bisphenols was studied in commercial cans from the Chinese market filled with four types of food simulant (FS), which were heated at 121 °C for 30 min and stored at 40 °C for 30 days. Only bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) were found in the can coatings, and SimC (10% (v/v) ethanol/water) was the most suitable FS for their release. The levels of these bisphenols in 24 kinds of canned beer from Chinese markets were also investigated. The average concentrations of BPA and BADGE were 2.85 ± 0.79 and 0.38 ± 0.19 µg · L⁻¹ respectively, which were both lower than the EU limits, and their respective daily intakes were estimated at 0.015 and 0.0020 µg · kg⁻¹ body weight · day⁻¹. Besides, increasing storage temperature and time accelerated the release of bisphenols into FSs. CONCLUSION: The present results provide some guidance to reduce the migration of bisphenols during the transport and storage of canned foods.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Modelos Químicos , Fenóis/análise , Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Cerveja/economia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Carcinógenos/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos de Epóxi/análise , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/economia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25060737

RESUMO

2-Methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole (2-MI and 4-MI), 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl) imidazole (THI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are neo-formed compounds generated during the manufacture of caramel colours and are transferred to the processed food. These contaminants are known to have a toxicological profile that may pose health risks. Hence, to characterise THI, 2- and 4-MI and 5-HMF levels in liquid foods, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and sample preparation was divided into two analytical strategies depending on the concentration range expected in the type of foods targeted. For the determination of the imidazole substitutes (THI, 2- and 4-MI), a sample enrichment and clean-up step by strong cation solid-phase extraction was developed. This method is capable of quantifying over a range of 5 ng ml⁻¹ (LOQ) to 500 ng ml⁻¹ with recoveries of 75.4-112.4% and RSDs of 1.5-15%. For determination of 5-HMF, a standard addition method was applied covering the linear range of 0.25-30 µg ml⁻¹ with RSDs from 2.8% (for intraday precision) to 9.2% (for intermediate precision). The validated analytical methods were applied to 28 liquid food samples purchased from local markets. THI was found only in the beer samples at levels up to 141.2 ng ml⁻¹. For 2-MI, non-quantifiable traces were observed for all samples, while 4-MI was observed in all samples with large concentration variations (from < LOQ to 563.9 ng ml⁻¹). 5-HMF was found at expected concentrations, except for a sherry vinegar sample (113 µg ml⁻¹), which required a high level of dilution before following the standard addition protocol.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Condimentos/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Imidazóis/análise , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/economia , Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras , Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/economia , Bebidas/economia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Condimentos/economia , Corantes de Alimentos/química , França , Furaldeído/análise , Furaldeído/química , Imidazóis/química , Limite de Detecção , Estrutura Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Health Econ ; 34: 96-103, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24508846

RESUMO

The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2-2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p<0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (-1.27 and -0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (-0.08 and -0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Cerveja/economia , Cerveja/provisão & distribução , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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