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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272538, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951664

RESUMO

Movement of organisms plays a fundamental role in the evolution and diversity of life. Animals typically move at an irregular pace over time and space, alternating among movement states. Understanding movement decisions and developing mechanistic models of animal distribution dynamics can thus be contingent to adequate discrimination of behavioral phases. Existing methods to disentangle movement states typically require a follow-up analysis to identify state-dependent drivers of animal movement, which overlooks statistical uncertainty that comes with the state delineation process. Here, we developed population-level, multi-state step selection functions (HMM-SSF) that can identify simultaneously the different behavioral bouts and the specific underlying behavior-habitat relationship. Using simulated data and relocation data from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), plains bison (Bison bison bison) and plains zebra (Equus quagga), we illustrated the HMM-SSF robustness, versatility, and predictive ability for animals involved in distinct behavioral processes: foraging, migrating and avoiding a nearby predator. Individuals displayed different habitat selection pattern during the encamped and the travelling phase. Some landscape attributes switched from being selected to avoided, depending on the movement phase. We further showed that HMM-SSF can detect multi-modes of movement triggered by predators, with prey switching to the travelling phase when predators are in close vicinity. HMM-SSFs thus can be used to gain a mechanistic understanding of how animals use their environment in relation to the complex interplay between their needs to move, their knowledge of the environment and navigation capacity, their motion capacity and the external factors related to landscape heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Bison , Cervos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Movimento
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3541577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909491

RESUMO

Antler is the secondary sexual characteristic of deer, which develops on the forehead at puberty. It is the only organ that can be regenerated entirely in mammals. Therefore, it is often used as a research model in the field of organ regeneration and wound repair. Many growth factors and proteins play an active role throughout the developmental process of antler regeneration. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, more and more noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been discovered, and the relationship between ncRNA and antler regeneration has gradually become clear. This paper focuses on the research progress of several ncRNAs (including miRNA and lncRNA) in deer antler tissues, which are helpful to reveal the molecular mechanism of deer antler regeneration at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Cervos , MicroRNAs , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , Regeneração/genética , Maturidade Sexual
4.
Can Vet J ; 63(7): 735-739, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784765

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether Babesia odocoilei could be detected from farmed and wild cervid diagnostic submissions prior to its first reported occurrence in Saskatchewan. Procedure: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. odocoilei was used to survey 85 fresh-frozen samples and 112 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from Saskatchewan cervids submitted for necropsy between 2000 and 2014. Results: The PCR was positive for B. odocoilei in 1/84 white-tailed deer, 1/41 moose, 0/37 mule deer, and 1/35 elk. The positive elk was from a farmed herd, but the remaining 2 positive samples were from wild cervids. The positive moose sample was the earliest confirmed infection, dating back to 2008. Therefore, 1.5% of the study population tested positive over the 14-year period. Conclusion: There were low numbers of cervids infected with B. odocoilei in the study population. Clinical relevance: Babesiosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for disease in susceptible cervids when clinical signs are compatible; however, a lack of suggestive clinical signs or necropsy findings does not preclude infection. Thus, monitoring prevalence of the disease within Saskatchewan (and Canada) will likely require targeted surveillance.


Objectif: Déterminer si Babesia odocoilei pouvait être détectée dans les soumissions de diagnostic de cervidés d'élevage et sauvages avant sa première occurrence signalée en Saskatchewan. Procédure: La réaction d'amplification en chaîne par la polymérase (PCR) pour B. odocoilei a été utilisée pour étudier 85 échantillons fraîchement congelés et 112 échantillons fixés au formol et inclus en paraffine de cervidés de la Saskatchewan soumis à l'autopsie entre 2000 et 2014. Résultats: La PCR était positive pour B. odocoilei chez 1/84 cerf de Virginie, 1/41 orignal, 0/37 cerf mulet et 1/35 wapiti. Le wapiti positif provenait d'un troupeau d'élevage, mais les deux autres échantillons positifs provenaient de cervidés sauvages. L'échantillon d'orignal positif était la première infection confirmée, remontant à 2008. Par conséquent, 1,5 % de la population étudiée a été testée positive au cours de la période de 14 ans. Conclusion: Il y avait un faible nombre de cervidés infectés par B. odocoilei dans la population étudiée. Pertinence clinique: La babésiose devrait être incluse comme diagnostic différentiel de maladie chez les cervidés sensibles lorsque les signes cliniques sont compatibles; cependant, l'absence de signes cliniques évocateurs ou de résultats d'autopsie n'exclut pas l'infection. Ainsi, la surveillance de la prévalence de la maladie en Saskatchewan (et au Canada) nécessitera probablement une surveillance ciblée.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Cervos , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Saskatchewan/epidemiologia
5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(7): 547-563, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794685

RESUMO

Breast cancer is globally the most common invasive cancer in women and remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and endocrine therapy are currently the main treatments for this cancer type. However, some breast cancer patients are prone to drug resistance related to chemotherapy or immunotherapy, resulting in limited treatment efficacy. Consequently, traditional Chinese medicinal materials (TCMMs) as natural products have become an attractive source of novel drugs. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on the active components of animal-derived TCMMs, including Ophiocordycepssinensis-derived cordycepin, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of O.sinensis, norcantharidin (NCTD), Chansu, bee venom, deer antlers, Ostreagigas, and scorpion venom, with reference to marked anti-breast cancer effects due to regulating cell cycle arrest, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In future studies, the underlying mechanisms for the antitumor effects of these components need to be further investigated by utilizing multi-omics technologies. Furthermore, large-scale clinical trials are necessary to validate the efficacy of bioactive constituents alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs for breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Cervos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11692, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804035

RESUMO

Predator search efficiency can be enhanced by anthropogenic landscape change, leading to increased predator-prey encounters and subsequent prey population declines. Logging increases early successional vegetation, providing ungulate forage. This increased forage, however, is accompanied by linear feature networks that increase predator hunting efficiency by facilitating predator movement and increasing prey vulnerability. We used integrated step selection analyses to weigh support for multiple hypotheses representing the combined impact of logging features (cutblocks and linear features) on wolf (Canis lupus) movement and habitat selection in interior British Columbia. Further, we examine the relationship between logging and wolf kill-sites of moose (Alces alces) identified using spatiotemporal wolf location cluster analysis. Wolves selected for linear features, which increased their movement rates. New (0-8 years since harvest) cutblocks were selected by wolves. Moose kill-sites had a higher probability of occurring in areas with higher proportions of new and regenerating (9-24 years since harvest) cutblocks. The combined selection and movement responses by wolves to logging features, coupled with increased moose mortality sites associated with cutblocks, indicate that landscape change increases risk for moose. Cumulative effects of landscape change contribute to moose population declines, stressing the importance of cohesive management and restoration of anthropogenic features.


Assuntos
Cervos , Lobos , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Movimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Lobos/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895704

RESUMO

Counting is not always a simple exercise. Specimens can be misidentified or not detected when they are present, giving rise to unidentified sources of error. Deer pellet group counts are a common method to monitor abundance, density, and population trend. Yet, detection errors and observer bias could introduce error into sometimes very large (spatially, temporally) datasets. For example, in Scandinavia, moose (Alces alces) pellet group counts are conducted by volunteer hunters and students, but it is unknown how much uncertainty observer error introduces into these datasets. Our objectives were to 1) estimate the detection probability of moose pellet groups; 2) identify the primary variables leading to detection errors including prior observer experience; and 3) compare density estimates using single and double observer counts. We selected a subset of single observer plots from a long-term monitoring project to be conducted as dependent double observer surveys, where primary and secondary observers worked simultaneously in the field. We did this to quantify detection errors for moose pellet groups, which were previously unknown in Scandinavia, and to identify covariates which introduced variation into our estimates. Our study area was in the boreal forests of southern Norway where we had a nested grid of 100-m2 plots that we surveyed each spring. Our observers were primarily inexperienced. We found that when pellet groups were detected by the primary observer, the secondary observer saw additional pellet groups 42% of the time. We found search time was the primary covariate influencing detection. We also found density estimates from double observer counts were 1.4 times higher than single observer counts, for the same plots. This density underestimation from single observer surveys could have consequences to managers, who sometimes use pellet counts to set harvest quotas. We recommend specific steps to improve future moose pellet counts.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Probabilidade , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Curr Biol ; 32(14): 3095-3109.e5, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839766

RESUMO

Southern East Asia is the dispersal center regarding the prehistoric settlement and migrations of modern humans in Asia-Pacific regions. However, the settlement pattern and population structure of paleolithic humans in this region remain elusive, and ancient DNA can provide direct information. Here, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene hominin (MZR), dated ∼14.0 thousand years ago from Red Deer Cave located in Southwest China, which was previously reported possessing mosaic features of modern and archaic hominins. MZR is the first Late Pleistocene genome from southern East Asia. Our results indicate that MZR is a modern human who represents an early diversified lineage in East Asia. The mtDNA of MZR belongs to an extinct basal lineage of the M9 haplogroup, reflecting a rich matrilineal diversity in southern East Asia during the Late Pleistocene. Combined with the published data, we detected clear genetic stratification in ancient southern populations of East/Southeast Asia and some degree of south-versus-north divergency during the Late Pleistocene, and MZR was identified as a southern East Asian who exhibits genetic continuity to present day populations. Markedly, MZR is linked deeply to the East Asian ancestry that contributed to First Americans.


Assuntos
Cervos , Hominidae , Animais , China , Fósseis , Genoma Humano , Humanos
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893754

RESUMO

Acer pseudoplatanus is a worldwide-distributed tree which contains toxins, among them hypoglycin A (HGA). This toxin is known to be responsible for poisoning in various species, including humans, equids, Père David's deer and two-humped camels. We hypothesized that any herbivore pasturing with A. pseudoplatanus in their vicinity may be at risk for HGA poisoning. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the HGA exposure from A. pseudoplatanus in species not yet described as being at risk. Animals in zoological parks were the major focus, as they are at high probability to be exposed to A. pseudoplatanus in enclosures. We also searched for a toxic metabolite of HGA (i.e., methylenecyclopropylacetyl-carnitine; MCPA-carnitine) in blood and an alteration of the acylcarnitines profile in HGA-positive animals to document the potential risk of declaring clinical signs. We describe for the first instance cases of HGA poisoning in Bovidae. Two gnus (Connochaetes taurinus taurinus) exposed to A. pseudoplatanus in their enclosure presented severe clinical signs, serum HGA and MCPA-carnitine and a marked modification of the acylcarnitines profile. In this study, even though all herbivores were exposed to A. pseudoplatanus, proximal fermenters species seemed less susceptible to HGA poisoning. Therefore, a ruminal transformation of HGA is hypothesized. Additionally, we suggest a gradual alteration of the fatty acid metabolism in case of HGA poisoning and thus the existence of subclinical cases.


Assuntos
Ácido 2-Metil-4-clorofenoxiacético , Acer , Cervos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças Musculares , Animais , Carnitina , Herbivoria , Cavalos , Humanos
10.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897939

RESUMO

Deer antler is a globally widely used precious natural medicine and the material of deer horn gelatin. However, identification of deer antler species based on traditional approaches are problematic because of their similarity in appearance and physical-chemical properties. In this study, we performed a comprehensive antler peptidome analysis using a label-free approach: nano LC-Orbitrap MS was applied to discover peptide biomarkers in deer adult beta-globin (HBBA), and HPLC-Triple Quadrupole MS was used to verify their specificity. Nineteen peptide biomarkers were found, on which foundation a strategy for antlers and a strategy for antler mixtures such as flakes or powder are provided to identify seven species of deer antler including Eurasian elk (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus viginianus), white-lipped deer (Przewalskium albirostris), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) simultaneously. It is worth noting that our search found that the HBBA gene of sika deer, red deer, and North American wapiti (Cervus canadensis) in China may have undergone severe genetic drifts.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Cervos , Animais , Chifres de Veado/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cervos/genética , Peptídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 322-329, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877155

RESUMO

Orthostrongylus macrotis (Dikmans, 1931) is a protostrongylid lungworm in wild ungulates from western North America, including mule and Columbia black-tailed deer, pronghorn, and rarely moose and elk. The lack of morphological data for certain developmental stages of O. macrotis and the unresolved taxonomic status of the genus indicate a more detailed morphological characterization of the species is necessary. We provide a detailed description of first-stage larvae (L1) of O. macrotis including morphological, morphometric, and molecular data. Species identity was confirmed based on molecular sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer subunit 2 (ITS-2) and large subunit (28S) rDNA. A fragment of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) was also sequenced, followed by the determination of genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses. Integrated data describing L1 of O. macrotis contributes to a broader understanding of the parasite fauna of wild ungulates from North America and may be of relevance for a future revision of the genus. Further, we outline information for differentiation among species of North American protostrongylids, with typical spike-tailed L1s, circulating among free-ranging and semi-domestic ungulates.


Assuntos
Cervos , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cervos/parasitologia , Larva/genética , América do Norte , Filogenia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(14): e0061722, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867580

RESUMO

In Europe, genetically distinct ecotypes of the tick-vectored bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum circulate among mammals in three discrete enzootic cycles. To date, potential ecological factors that contributed to the emergence of these divergent ecotypes have been poorly studied. Here, we show that the ecotype that predominantly infects roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is evolutionarily derived. Its divergence from a host generalist ancestor occurred after the last glacial maximum as mammal populations, including roe deer, recolonized the European mainland from southern refugia. We also provide evidence that this host specialist ecotype's effective population size (Ne) has tracked changes in the population of its roe deer host. Specifically, both host and bacterium have undergone substantial increases in Ne over the past 1,500 years. In contrast, we show that while it appears to have undergone a major population expansion starting ~3,500 years ago, in the past 500 years, the contemporary host generalist ecotype has experienced a substantial reduction in genetic diversity levels, possibly as a result of reduced opportunities for transmission between competent hosts. IMPORTANCE The findings of this study reveal specific events important for the evolution of host specialization in a naturally occurring, obligately intracellular bacterial pathogen. Specifically, they show that host range shifts and the emergence of host specialization may occur during periods of population growth in a generalist ancestor. Our results also demonstrate the close correlation between demographic patterns in host and pathogen for a specialist system. These findings have important relevance for understanding the evolution of host range diversity. They may inform future work on host range dynamics, and they provide insights for understanding the emergence of pathogens that have human and veterinary health implications.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Cervos , Ixodes , Carrapatos , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Cervos/microbiologia , Demografia , Ecótipo , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia
13.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891371

RESUMO

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting several species of captive and free-ranging cervids. In the past few decades, CWD has been spreading uncontrollably, mostly in North America, resulting in a high increase of CWD incidence but also a substantially higher number of geographical regions affected. The massive increase in CWD poses risks at several levels, including contamination of the environment, transmission to animals cohabiting with cervids, and more importantly, a putative transmission to humans. In this review, I will describe the mechanisms and routes responsible for the efficient transmission of CWD, the strain diversity of natural CWD, its spillover and zoonotic potential and strategies to minimize the CWD threat.


Assuntos
Cervos , Doenças Priônicas , Príons , Doença de Emaciação Crônica , Animais , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Doenças Priônicas/epidemiologia , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/epidemiologia
14.
Parasite ; 29: 34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833784

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common anaerobic protist with controversial pathogenicity that can infect various animals and humans. However, there are no reports of Blastocystis sp. infections in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii). The present study was designed to examine the occurrence, subtype distribution and genetic characterization of Blastocystis sp. in forest musk deer in southwestern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. A total of 504 fresh stool samples were collected from captive forest musk deer in four distinct areas of southwestern China. Overall, 14.7% of the forest musk deer (74/504) were found to be infected with Blastocystis sp. The highest occurrence of Blastocystis sp. was observed in Dujiangyan (27.5%), followed by Maerkang (23.3%). The occurrence of Blastocystis sp. was 7.9% and 4.1% in Shimian and Hanyuan, respectively. Significant differences in the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. among different areas were observed (p < 0.05), while we did not observe significant differences among animals of different age and sex (p > 0.05). Two known zoonotic subtypes (ST1 and ST5) and three animal-predominant subtypes (ST10, ST13, and ST14) were identified, of which ST10 was the most common (36/74, 48.6%). Our findings highlight that forest musk deer may be potential reservoirs of zoonotic human Blastocystis sp. infections.


Title: Présence, diversité génétique et potentiel zoonotique de Blastocystis sp. chez le cerf porte-musc (Moschus berezovskii) dans le sud-ouest de la Chine. Abstract: Blastocystis sp. est un protiste anaérobie commun, de pathogénicité controversée, et qui peut infecter divers animaux et les humains. Cependant, aucun cas d'infection par Blastocystis sp. n'a été rapporté chez le cerf porte-musc (Moschus berezovskii). La présente étude a été conçue pour examiner la présence, la distribution des sous-types et la caractérisation génétique de Blastocystis sp. chez le cerf porte-musc du sud-ouest de la Chine et pour évaluer son potentiel de transmission zoonotique. Au total, 504 échantillons de selles fraîches ont été prélevés sur des cerfs porte-musc captifs dans quatre régions distinctes du sud-ouest de la Chine. Dans l'ensemble, 14,7 % (74/504) des cerfs porte-musc se sont avérés infectés par Blastocystis sp. La plus forte occurrence de Blastocystis sp. a été observée à Dujiangyan (27,5 %), suivi de Maerkang (23,3 %). La présence de Blastocystis sp. était respectivement de 7,9 % et 4,1 % à Shimian et Hanyuan. Des différences significatives dans la présence de Blastocystis sp. entre les différentes zones ont été observées (p < 0,05), alors que nous n'avons pas observé de différences significatives entre les animaux d'âge et de sexe différents (p > 0,05). Deux sous-types zoonotiques connus (ST1 et ST5) et trois sous-types à prédominance animale (ST10, ST13 et ST14) ont été identifiés, dont ST10 était le sous-type le plus courant (36/74, 48,6 %). Nos découvertes mettent en évidence que le cerf porte-musc forestier peut être un réservoir potentiel d'infections à Blastocystis sp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Cervos , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Florestas , Variação Genética , Humanos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Colinérgicos/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0262973, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849592

RESUMO

Ixodes ricinus, the most common species of tick in Europe, is known to transmit major pathogens to animals and humans such as Babesia spp. or Borrelia spp. Its abundance and distribution have been steadily increasing in Europe during recent decades, due to global environmental changes. Indeed, as ticks spend most of their life in the environment, their activity and life cycle are highly dependent on environmental conditions and therefore, on climate or habitat changes. Simultaneously, wild ungulates have expanded their range and increased dramatically in abundance worldwide, in particular roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), allowing tick populations to grow and spread. Currently, tick infestation on newborn wild ungulates is poorly documented. However, newborn ungulates are considered more sensitive to tick bites and pathogen transmission because of their immature immune systems. Thus, improving knowledge about the factors influencing tick infestation on newborns is essential to better understand their health risks. This study was conducted at Trois-Fontaines Forest, Champagne-Ardenne, France (1992-2018). Based on a long-term monitoring of roe deer fawns, we used a novel Bayesian model of the infestation of fawns to identify which biotic or abiotic factors were likely to modify the level of infestation by ticks of 965 fawns over time. We show that tick burden increased faster during the first days of life of the fawns and became constant when fawns were five days old and more, which could be explained by the depletion of questing ticks or the turnover of ticks feeding on fawns. Moreover, despite the known positive influence of humidity on tick activity, the tick burdens were weakly related to this parameter. Our results demonstrate that tick infestation was highly variable among years, particularly between 2000-2009. We hypothesize that this results from a modification of habitat caused by Hurricane Lothar.


Assuntos
Babesia , Cervos , Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12246, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851406

RESUMO

Diagnostic tools for the detection of protein-misfolding diseases (i.e., proteopathies) are limited. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) facilitate sensitive diagnostic techniques via visual color change for the identification of a variety of targets. In parallel, recently developed quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) assays leverage protein-amplification and fluorescent signaling for the accurate detection of misfolded proteins. Here, we combine AuNP and QuIC technologies for the visual detection of amplified misfolded prion proteins from tissues of wild white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of cervids. Our newly developed assay, MN-QuIC, enables both naked-eye and light-absorbance measurements for detection of misfolded prions. MN-QuIC leverages basic laboratory equipment that is cost-effective and portable, thus facilitating real-time prion diagnostics across a variety of settings. In addition to laboratory-based tests, we deployed to a rural field-station in southeastern Minnesota and tested for CWD on site. We successfully demonstrated that MN-QuIC is functional in a non-traditional laboratory setting by performing a blinded analysis in the field and correctly identifying all CWD positive and CWD not-detected deer at the field site in 24 h, thus documenting the portability of the assay. White-tailed deer tissues used to validate MN-QuIC included medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes, parotid lymph nodes, and palatine tonsils. Importantly, all of the white-tailed deer (n = 63) were independently tested using ELISA, IHC, and/or RT-QuIC technologies and results secured with MN-QuIC were 95.7% and 100% consistent with these tests for positive and non-detected animals, respectively. We hypothesize that electrostatic forces help govern the AuNP/prion interactions and conclude that MN-QuIC has great potential for sensitive, field-deployable diagnostics for CWD, with future potential diagnostic applications for a variety of proteopathies.


Assuntos
Cervos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Príons , Doença de Emaciação Crônica , Animais , Ouro , Príons/análise , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/metabolismo
17.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891558

RESUMO

The transmission characteristics of prion diseases are influenced by host prion protein sequence and, therefore, the host species. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of cervids, has widespread geographical distribution throughout North America and occurs in both wild and farmed populations. CWD prions contaminate the environment through scattered excrement and decomposing carcasses. Fresh carcasses with CWD prions are accessible by free-ranging mesopredators such as raccoons and may provide a route of exposure. Previous studies demonstrated the susceptibility of raccoons to CWD from white-tailed deer. In this study, we demonstrate that white-tailed deer replicate raccoon-passaged CWD prions which results in clinical disease similar to intraspecies CWD transmission. Six white-tailed deer were oronasally inoculated with brain homogenate from a raccoon with CWD. All six deer developed clinical disease, had widespread lymphoid distribution of misfolded CWD prions (PrPSc), and had neuropathologic lesions with PrPSc accumulation in the brain. The presence of PrPSc was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and western blot. The western blot migration pattern of raccoon-passaged CWD was different from white-tailed deer CWD. Transmission of raccoon CWD back to white-tailed deer resulted in an interposed molecular phenotype that was measurably different from white-tailed deer CWD.


Assuntos
Cervos , Doenças Priônicas , Príons , Doença de Emaciação Crônica , Animais , Príons/metabolismo , Guaxinins
18.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(3): 173-184, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831960

RESUMO

Within the last decade, a large number of viruses genetically related to human hepatitis viruses have been identified in different animal species, including monkeys. Numerous viruses related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV, Picornaviridae: Hepatovirus: Hepatovirus A) were detected in various mammalian species in 2015-2018, predominantly in bats and rodents, but also in shrews, seals and marsupials. Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV, Hepeviridae: Orthohepevirus: Orthohepevirus A) genotypes have been found in wild boars, deer, camels, and rabbits, as well as in non human primates. In addition, viruses that are genetically close to HEV have been described in bats, ferrets, rodents, birds, and fish. Nevertheless, monkeys remain important laboratory animals in HAV and HEV research. The study of spontaneous and experimental infection in these animals is an invaluable source of information about the biology and pathogenesis of these viruses and continues to be an indispensable tool for vaccine and drug testing. The purpose of this literature review was to summarize and analyze published data on the circulation of HAV and HEV among wild and captive primates, as well as the results of experimental studies of HAV and HEV infections in monkeys.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Animais , Furões , Haplorrinos , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Primatas , Coelhos
19.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(3): 227-236, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bat cell cultures are a popular model both for the isolation of vector-borne disease viruses and for assessing the possible role of these mammalian species in forming the natural reservoirs of arbovirus infection vectors. The goal of the research was to obtain and characterize strains of diploid lung cells of the bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and evaluate their permissivity to bluetongue, African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD) viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell cultures of the dwarf bat's lung were obtained by standard enzymatic disaggregation of donor tissue and selection of cells for adhesive properties. The permissivity of cell cultures was determined to bluetongue, AHL, and EHD orbiviruses. RESULTS: Diploid cell strains (epithelium-like and fibroblast-like types) retaining cytomorphological characteristics and karyotype stability were obtained from tissue of the bat's lung. Their permissivity to viruses of the genus Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, pathogens of transmissible animal diseases, has been established. DISCUSSION: The permissivity of the obtained strains of bat's lung cells to bluetongue, AHL, and EHD viruses is consistent with the isolation of orbiviruses in bats of the species Pteropus poliocephalus, Pteropus hypomelanus, Rousettus aegyptiacus leachii, Syconycteris crassa, Myotis macrodactylus, and Eidolon helvum. CONCLUSION: Strains of diploid lung cells of the dwarf bat are permissive to orbiviruses of bluetongue, AHS, and EHD, which allows us to recommend them for the isolation of these viruses, and the species Pipistrellus pipistrellus to be considered as a potential natural reservoir and carrier of pathogens of these vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus , Vírus Bluetongue , Bluetongue , Quirópteros , Cervos , Orbivirus , Infecções por Reoviridae , Reoviridae , Animais , Diploide , Pulmão , Orbivirus/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Ovinos
20.
Am Nat ; 200(2): E36-E51, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905403

RESUMO

AbstractExtinctions are predicted to rise by an order of magnitude over the next century. Although contemporary documented extinctions are uncommon, local extirpations likely provide hints about global extinction risks. Comparing responses to global change of locally extinct versus extant species pairs in a phylogenetic framework could highlight why certain species are more vulnerable to extinction than others and which anthropogenic changes are most relevant to their decline. As anthropogenic changes likely interact to affect population declines, demographic studies partitioning the effects of multifactorial stressors are needed but remain rare. I examine demographic responses to nitrogen addition and deer herbivory, two major drivers of species losses in grasslands, in experimental reintroductions of 14 locally extinct and extant confamilial native plants from Michigan prairies. Nitrogen consistently reduces survival, especially in locally extinct species, and growth of locally extinct species benefits less from nitrogen than growth of extant species. Nitrogen reduces population growth rates, largely via reductions in survival. Deer herbivory, meanwhile, had inconsistent effects on vital rates among species and did not affect population growth. Nitrogen and herbivory rarely interacted to affect vital rates. These results link community-level patterns of species loss under nitrogen addition to the population-level processes underlying those losses.


Assuntos
Cervos , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Crescimento Demográfico
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