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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 45-51, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391410

RESUMO

This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cervos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Suínos , Tóquio
2.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109299, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376608

RESUMO

Understanding the underlying mechanisms driving population demographics such as species-habitat relationships and the spatial scale in which these relationships occur is essential for developing optimal management strategies. Here we evaluated how landscape characteristics and winter severity measured at three spatial scales (1 km2, 9 km2, and hunting unit) influenced white-tailed deer occurrence and abundance across North Dakota by using 10 years of winter aerial survey data and generalized linear mixed effects models. In general, forest, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands were the main drivers of deer occurrence and abundance in most of the spatial scales analyzed. However, the effects of habitat features vary between the home-range scale (9 km2) and the finer spatial scale (1 km2; i.e., within home ranges). While escape cover was the main factor driving white-tailed deer occurrence and abundance at broad spatial scales, at a fine spatial scale deer also selected for food (mainly residual winter cropland). With CRP appearing in nearly all top models, here we had strong evidence that this type of program will be fundamental to sustaining populations of white-tailed deer that can meet recreational demands. In addition, land managers should focus on ways to protect other escape covers (e.g., forest and wetland) on a broad spatial scale while encouraging landowners to supply winter resources at finer spatial scales. We therefore suggest a spatial multi-scale approach that involves partnerships among landowners and government agencies for effectively managing white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Demografia , Ecossistema , North Dakota , Estações do Ano
3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285745

RESUMO

Background: Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can be completely regenerated every year. Its periodic regeneration is regulated by multiple factors, including transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). This widely distributed multi-functional growth factor can control the proliferation and differentiation of many types of cell, and it may play a crucial regulatory role in antler regeneration. This study explored the role of TGF-ß1 during the rapid growth of sika deer antler. Methods: Three CRISPR-Cas9 knockout vectors targeting the TGF-ß1 gene of sika deer were constructed and packaged with a lentiviral system. The expression level of TGF-ß1 protein in the knockout cell line was determined using western blot, the proliferation and migration of cartilage cells in vitro were respectively determined using EdU and the cell scratch test, and the expression levels of TGF-ß pathway-related genes were determined using a PCR array. Results: Of the three gRNAs designed, pBOBI-gRNA2 had the best knockout effect. Knockout of TGF-ß1 gene inhibits the proliferation of cartilage cells and enhances their migration in vitro. TGF-ß signaling pathway-related genes undergo significant changes, so we speculate that when the TGF-ß pathway is blocked, the BMP signaling pathway mediated by BMP4 may play a key role. Conclusions: TGF-ß1 is a newly identified regulatory factor of rapid growth in sika deer antler.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Cervos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Chifres de Veado , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cartilagem/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Cervos/genética , Cervos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia
4.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(4): 344-365, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272217

RESUMO

Carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios from herbivore teeth have previously been used as paleo-environmental proxies in temperate zones. However, their utility in tropical zones remains uncertain. In this study, sequential sub-samples from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) teeth (second and third molars) from the Maya archaeological site of La Joyanca, located in northwestern Petén, Guatemala, show that δ18O of enamel carbonate corresponds broadly to modern observed precipitation δ18O over the 10-month period of tooth formation, capturing rainfall seasonality. The analyses also detect significant diachronic differences in the δ18O between the periods 1100-1000 BP (850-950 A.D.) and 1000-900 BP (950-1050 A.D.) at La Joyanca. The δ13C in both periods are indicative of a C3-plant based diet, which suggests cultivation of maize did not differentially affect deer diet during this period.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cervos , Esmalte Dentário/química , Fósseis , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Carbonatos/análise , Ecossistema , Guatemala , Paleodontologia/métodos , Estações do Ano
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 296, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ruminants are important hosts for various tick species and tick-associated organisms, many of which are zoonotic. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of tick-borne protozoans and bacteria of public health and veterinary significance in goats and wild Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) from Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China. METHODS: The occurrence of piroplasms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. bovis, A. marginale, A. capra, A. ovis, Ehrlichia spp. and spotted fever group rickettsiae was molecularly investigated and analyzed in 134 goats and 9 free ranging C. pygargus living in close proximity. RESULTS: Piroplasm DNA was detected in 16 (11.9%) goats and 5 C. pygargus. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA sequences identified 3 Theileria species (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi). Four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) were identified in goats and C. pygargus. Anaplasma ovis and A. bovis were detected in 11 (8.2%) and 6 (4.5%) goats, respectively; A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra were found in 3, 7 and 3 C. pygargus, respectively. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of 5 different genetic variants of A. bovis in goats and C. pygargus, while the analysis of 16S rRNA and gltA sequence data showed that A. capra isolates identified from C. pygargus were closely related to the genotype identified from sheep and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, but differed with the genotype from humans. Anaplasma/Theileria mixed infection was observed in 2 (1.5%) goats and 5 C. pygargus, and co-existence involving potential zoonotic organisms (A. phagocytophilum and A. capra) was found in 2 C. pygargus. All samples were negative for A. marginale, Ehrlichia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. CONCLUSIONS: These findings report the tick-borne pathogens in goats and C. pygargus, and a greater diversity of these pathogens were observed in wild animals. Three Theileria (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi) and four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) with veterinary and medical significance were identified in small domestic and wild ruminants. The contact between wild and domestic animals may increase the potential risk of spread and transmission of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia
6.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 921-931, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159142

RESUMO

As a result of their ubiquitous presence in the environment perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been demonstrated in numerous organisms worldwide, in particular in those of higher trophic levels. The fact that PFAAs have been detected in various human matrices, together with the resultant potential human health risks, knowledge of possible paths of entry and distribution in various ecosystems, is of great importance. In this context pooled samples of terrestrial ecosystems - roe deer liver (n = 141), earthworms (n = 44) as well as leaves from beech and poplar trees (n = 70) - from the year 1989-2015 were obtained from the German Environmental Specimen Bank and examined for the presence of 11 PFAAs for the first time. In addition to determining individual and total PFAA concentrations, temporal trends have been deduced in order to determine the effectiveness of regulatory measures. The highest total mean concentration of PFAAs (sum of the concentrations of the 11 analytes) were 9.9 µg/kg in the roe deer liver samples, followed by earthworm samples with a mean PFAA concentration of 3.5 µg/kg and leaves with a mean total concentration of 2.5 µg/kg. In regard to temporal trends there was a significant reduction of concentrations for perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorodecanoic acid in roe deer liver from 2003 to 2015, an indication of the effectiveness of regulatory measures. The same is true for the perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in earthworms and for perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations in the leaves. In contrast, an increase in perfluorobutanoic acid concentrations was observed from 2003 to 2015 in all three matrices. In summary it must be noted that in spite of the discernible effectiveness of minimization strategies, PFAAs are still detectable in terrestrial matrices and concentrations of other PFAAs as perfluorobutanoic acid appear to be increasing.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Animais , Cervos , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Alemanha , Fígado/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 295: 395-402, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174774

RESUMO

A simple and rapid method for animal species identification to prevent food adulteration based on mitochondrial DNA using two independent multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and microchip electrophoresis was developed. This method was designed to identify fourteen domestic animals (Group I: cattle, donkey, dog, fox, raccoon-dog, deer and horse; Group II: pig, sheep, goat, chicken, duck, cat and mouse) simultaneously using ten pairs of primers and three of which were degenerate primers. Sequences for species-specific primers were generated based on mitochondrial genes, including 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ND2 and CO I. This method was validated in terms of the specificity, sensitivity and practicability, and the developed multiplex PCR method was able to correctly identify animal species of raw meats and processed meat products. The detection limits of two multiplex PCRs were 0.02 ng DNA for animal species in Group I and 0.2 ng DNA for Group II, respectively.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cervos/genética , Patos/genética , Equidae/genética , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Genes Mitocondriais , Cabras/genética , Cavalos/genética , Camundongos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/instrumentação , RNA Ribossômico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ovinos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/genética
8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2065-2077, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187222

RESUMO

This study tested for association between Toxoplasma gondii and pregnancy and abortion to investigate sub-optimal reproduction in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Sera from a sub-sample (n = 2304) of pregnant and non-pregnant hinds in early gestation at first pregnancy scan (scan 1) and approximately at the end of second trimester at second pregnancy scan (scan 2) were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a validated ELISA. Foetuses and/or uteri from pregnant, non-pregnant, and aborting hinds at scan 1, scan 2, or weaning were tested for T. gondii DNA by nested PCR. At scan 1, 31.1% of 861 rising two-year-old (R2) and 28.3% of 357 mixed-aged (MA, ≥ 2 years) hinds were sero-positive. There was no association between scan 1 serology and non-pregnancy at animal (R2, p = 0.05 and MA, p = 0.43) or herd level (R2, p = 0.37). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 3/18 placenta and 4/18 foetal brains from aborting R2 hinds and 15/157 R2 and 3/21 MA uteri from non-pregnant hinds at scan 1. At scan 2, sero-prevalence was higher (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.04-2.48) in aborted (34.3% of 268) than in non-aborted (23.5% of 446) R2 hinds (p = 0.03) and 7.9% of abortions between scans were attributable to T. gondii exposure. Within-herd sero-prevalence at scan 2 was positively associated with daily abortion rate in R2 herds with aborted hinds (p < 0.001) but not in MA herds (p = 0.07). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 27/169 uteri, 2/20 cotyledons, and 1/5 foetal brains from aborted hinds at scan 2 and in uteri from 5/33 hinds not rearing a calf to weaning. Toxoplasma gondii RFLP genotyping of five loci revealed a unique type I/III genotype pattern, TgRDNZ1, in a foetal brain sample, not been previously reported in deer. These findings provide serological and molecular evidence that T. gondii infection is associated with abortion in red deer, possibly in all three trimesters.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Reprodução , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Desmame
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 670-677, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188027

RESUMO

Cutis laxa represents a heterogeneous group of rare, inherited, or acquired connective tissue disorders with the common feature of loose and redundant skin with decreased elasticity. The skin of affected deer showed abnormal collagen fiber morphology. To identify the differentially expressed genes of the unusual localized skin laxity in sika deer, we performed transcriptome analysis in the affected and control sika deer. The transcriptome analysis showed 700 genes with significant differential expression in the affected skin as compared with normal skin. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of genes involved in tumor necrosis factor signaling, the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, platelet activation, and Huntington's disease. A gene network was constructed, and the hub nodes such as PTGS2, THBS1, COL1A1, FOS, and NOS3 were found through PPI network analysis, which may contributed to the unusual localized skin laxity in sika deer. Abnormal expression patterns of genes during the development of the affected sika deer were successfully uncovered in the present study, which provides a reference for revealing the related mechanism underlying cutis laxa in sika deer and human beings.


Assuntos
Cútis Laxa/veterinária , Cervos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cútis Laxa/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/genética , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo
10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 384, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous investigations of phylogeny in Cervus recovered many clades without whole genomic support. METHODS: In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogeny of 5 species (21 subspecies/populations from C. unicolor, C. albirostris, C. nippon, C. elaphus and C. eldii) in the genus Cervus were analyzed using reduced-representation genome sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 197,543 SNPs were identified with an average sequencing depth of 16 x. A total of 21 SNP matrices for each subspecies/population and 1 matrix for individual analysis were constructed, respectively. Nucleotide diversity and heterozygosity analysis showed that all 21 subspecies/populations had different degrees of genetic diversity. C. eldii, C. unicolor and C. albirostris showed relatively high expected and observed heterozygosity, while observed heterozygosity in C. nippon was the lowest, indicating there was a certain degree of inbreeding rate in these subspecies/populations. Phylogenetic ML tree of all Cervus based on the 21 SNP matrices showed 5 robustly supported clades that clearly separate C. eldii, C. unicolor, C. albirostris, C. elaphus and C. nippon. Within C. elaphus clade, 4 subclades were well differentiated and statistically highly supported: C. elaphus (New Zealand), C. e. yarkandensis, C. c. canadensis and the other grouping the rest of C. canadensis from China. In the C. nippon clade, 2 well-distinct subclades corresponding to C. n. aplodontus and other C. nippon populations were separated. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the first evolutionary event of the genus Cervus occurred approximately 7.4 millions of years ago. The split between C. elaphus and C. nippon could be estimated at around 3.6 millions of years ago. Phylogenetic ML tree of all samples based on individual SNP matrices, together with geographic distribution, have shown that there were 3 major subclades of C. elaphus and C. canadensis in China, namely C. e. yarkandensis (distributed in Tarim Basin), C. c. macneilli/C. c. kansuensis/C. c. alashanicus (distributed in middle west of China), and C. c. songaricus/C. c. sibiricus (distributed in northwest of China). Among them, C. e. yarkandensis was molecularly the most primitive subclade, with a differentiation dating back to 0.8-2.2 Myr ago. D statistical analysis showed that there was high probability of interspecific gene exchange between C. albirostris and C. eldii, C. albirostris and C. unicolor, C. nippon and C. unicolor, and there might be 2 migration events among 5 species in the genus Cervus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided new insight to the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Cervus deer. In view of the current status of these populations, their conservation category will need to be reassessed.


Assuntos
Cervos/classificação , Cervos/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
11.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 358-366, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106883

RESUMO

Olfactory receptors (ORs) are encoded by OR genes. The OR genes in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), which rely on olfaction for reproductive and social communication, are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequence of the forest musk deer to obtain its olfactory subgenome and compared it to other species. A total of 1378 OR-related sequences were detected in the forest musk deer genome including 864 functional genes, 366 pseudogenes and 148 partial genes. These OR genes were classified into Class I and Class II and were further classified into 18 families and 244 subfamilies through sequence identity. Comparative analyses of the OR genes' protein sequences in species from different orders (forest musk deer, human, mouse and dog) showed that 12 clusters were specific to forest musk deer. However, when compared to other Artiodactyl species (i.e. cattle, yak and pig) only two clusters were specific to forest musk deer. The odor identification potential of the OR genes in the forest musk deer was focused mainly on floral, woody, lemon, sweet and fatty odors. We also found that OR genes specific to forest musk deer were involved in the identification of spearmint and caraway. Our work is the first genome-wide analysis of OR genes in forest musk deer. These findings will assist with better understanding the relationship between behavior and olfaction in the forest musk deer and the characteristics of the olfactory subgenome in Artiodactyl mammals.


Assuntos
Cervos/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes , Filogenia
12.
Zoo Biol ; 38(4): 355-359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056793

RESUMO

The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a species of Cervidae commonly kept in captivity, either in commercial farms or in zoos. The reproductive seasonality of this species is well known in the northern hemisphere, where photoperiod is a decisive factor in androgenic activity and, consequently, in the development of secondary sexual characteristics among male adults. The maintenance of this species in tropical regions has been successful, but there are no studies that demonstrate the maintenance of reproductive seasonality under these climatic conditions, which was the objective of the present study. To do so, the present investigation involved 27 fallow deer (D. dama) specimens, of which 14 were adults and 13 prepubescent (<8 months) individuals, all assessed during and outside (December-February) the reproductive season (June-August). The serum concentrations of testosterone, testicular volume, and neck circumference were analyzed among all animals during both seasons. The reproductive season was marked by expressive hormonal concentrations, increasing neck circumference and testicular volume, differing significantly between adults and prepubescent individuals outside the season. Positive correlations were observed among all analyzed variables: mean testicular volume and neck circumference (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001), testicular volume and testosterone concentrations (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) and between neck circumference and testosterone concentrations (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001). Given the results found, the conclusion is that even under tropical climate conditions the reproductive seasonality of the fallow deer is well defined and may be related to photoperiod.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Pescoço/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Maturidade Sexual , Clima Tropical
13.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(2): 128-135, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120647

RESUMO

Rapid expansion of sika deer, in both number and distribution, in the Japanese Archipelago has resulted in serious ecological disturbance. In the present study, the population structure and migration patterns of sika deer (Cervus nippon) among Toyama and adjacent Prefectures were investigated using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in both total and individual regional sika deer samples from Toyama Prefecture. Results of pairwise FST results, factorial correspondence analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis indicated that sika deer in Toyama are not genetically distinct from those in adjacent Prefectures. Bayesian STRUCTURE results suggested the existence of two distinct clusters. However, multiple lines of genetic structure and high admixture were detected across the populations located in the central region of Toyama Prefecture. Both contemporary and historical migration analyses showed that dispersal into Toyama Prefecture from neighboring prefectures was high, especially migration from the prefecture on the east into Toyama Prefecture, and bidirectional dispersion between Toyama Prefecture and the prefecture to the south. Knowledge of such genetic structures and population dynamics is required for appropriate management and conservation of sika deer populations in the Japanese Archipelago.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Cervos/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Japão , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 258, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is an Orbivirus of veterinary importance which is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to ruminants. Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones, the only confirmed vector of EHDV in the USA, is rare in the southeastern states where transmission persists, suggesting that other Culicoides species transmit EHDV in this region. The present study aimed to determine which Culicoides species transmitted EHDV in Florida and Alabama, two states in the southeastern USA. Viral RNA was detected in field-collected midges using molecular methods. These data are presented alongside data on Culicoides blood meal analysis, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) aspiration, and seasonality to demonstrate an interaction between potential vector species and EHDV hosts. RESULTS: Out of 661 pools tested, 20 pools were positive for EHDV viral RNA, including six pools from Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett) and 14 pools from Culicoides venustus Hoffman. The overall infection rate was 0.06% for C. stellifer and 2.18% for C. venustus. No positive pools were identified for a further 17 species. Serotypes identified in Culicoides included EHDV-2, EHDV-6, and coinfections of EHDV-2 and EHDV-6 and were identified in similar proportions to serotypes in deer at 3 of 4 deer farms. Viral detections conducted in Alabama also identified one positive pool of C. venustus. Blood meal analysis revealed that both Culicoides species fed on white-tailed deer (verified through aspiration), fallow deer, and elk, species for which EHDV viremia has been documented. Seasonality data indicated that both species were present throughout the period in which viral transmission occurred to EHDV hosts in 2016 in addition to the 2017 epizootic. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of EHDV positive pools of field-collected C. stellifer and C. venustus and an interaction between these species and EHDV hosts satisfy two of the four criteria for vector incrimination as set by the World Health Organization. Determining the vectors of EHDV is an important step towards developing sound strategies for the control of vector Culicoides and management of EHDV in the southeastern USA.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/isolamento & purificação , Insetos Vetores/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Alabama , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Feminino , Florida , Insetos Vetores/classificação , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/transmissão , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Sorogrupo
15.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2271-2276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098728

RESUMO

The presence and abundance of vertebrates influences the circulation of zoonotic diseases. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are widely distributed in North America and deer densities are frequently high in unhunted areas, including most major metropolitan regions. This study investigated the seroprevalence for Toxoplasma gondii from live-captured and culled deer sampled in two suburban forest preserves around Chicago, Illinois, from 1995 to 1999. Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 55.9% (n = 443) and was significantly higher at the northern study site, Des Plaines. Seroprevalence for T. gondii varied by year and month. Multivariate logistic regression (LR) screened main effect variables (age, sex, site, year, and month) by backward stepwise elimination. The final LR model for T. gondii contained all main effect variables. This study provides baseline data for future T. gondii suburban deer studies and information to public health and wildlife officials regarding the prevalence a parasitic pathogen present in two public forest preserves in Chicago, Illinois.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cervos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Chicago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1927-1935, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055671

RESUMO

Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri is a cosmopolitan, usually non-pathogenic, trypanosome of cattle transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods, mainly tabanid flies. Several T. theileri strains isolated from domestic and wild ruminants via co-culturing with mammalian feeder cells or blood cells have been characterized morphologically and genetically. Here, we cultured a new trypanosome isolate from a Holstein cow in Hokkaido, Japan, and performed morphological and molecular characterization studies. The new isolate (Obihiro strain) was co-cultivated with Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells in GIT medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Trypomastigotes and epimastigotes, but not intracellular parasites, were identified in the culture. Analysis of the V7-V8 region of 18S rRNA sequences showed that the Obihiro strain is positioned within the subgenus Megatrypanum. A dendrogram based on whole internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence showed that the Obihiro strain clustered in the lineage TthII together with the Japanese isolates of T. theileri, Esashi 9, and Esashi 12, and isolates from Zambia and the USA. T. theileri of the KM strain and a T. theileri-like trypanosome isolated from deer (TSD1 strain) clustered in the lineage TthI, separate from the Obihiro strain. Based on a partial cathepsin L-like protein gene analysis, the Obihiro strain clustered with isolates of the TthIIF genotype, which includes T. theileri from Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Brazil. Our analyses of the T. theileri Obihiro strain provide relevant insights into its genetic diversity in Japanese cattle and corroborate the host specificity of cattle and deer trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Catepsina L/genética , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cervos/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 169-176, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955805

RESUMO

Purulent disease is the main factor that prevents the population increase of forest musk deer in artificial breeding, and especially the intracorporal suppurative lesions in late-stage with complex bacterial communities normally bring more difficulties for veterinary treatment. Although it is well-recognized that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the two main bacterial pathogens which can be frequently co-isolated from the lung pus of forest musk deer, few studies have explored the interspecific relationship and coexistent mechanism of the two species. In this study, we identified a P. aeruginosa strain MYL-2, which harbored a loss-of-function mutation in the central regulator (LasR) of quorum-sensing (QS) system, from the lung pus of a dying forest musk deer with co-infecting E. coli strain MYL-58. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa MYL-2 could coexist with E. coli MYL-58 compared to the dominant role of lasR-intact P. aeruginosa strain MYL-1 in the competitive experiments. The results of in vitro coevolution assay further revealed that the QS-mediated competitive advantage of P. aeruginosa MYL-1 would be decreased along with the enrichment of lasR mutants in the communities, and P. aeruginosa could finally coexist with E. coli by forming a relatively stable equilibrium. Therefore, these findings provide an evolutionary explanation for the coexistence of P. aeruginosa and E. coli in the suppurative lesions of forest musk deer, and may also contribute to further understanding the pathology of animal purulent disease and the development of novel veterinary therapy.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Pulmão/patologia , Microbiota , Mutação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Percepção de Quorum , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Supuração/microbiologia , Virulência
18.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 76-79, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940609

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a food-borne infection that is widespread around the world, causing congenital disorders and opportunistic infections. Ingestion of undercooked meat is one of the risk factors for infection with the causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii. Japanese people occasionally eat rare meat as a traditional cuisine style called "Sashimi". A rapid increase in venison consumption in Japan has occurred mainly due to enhanced population control of wild Japanese deer (Cervus nippon) in recent decades. In particular, Yezo-sika deer (C. n. yesoensis) in Hokkaido (the northernmost and largest prefecture in Japan) is frequently supplied to markets as branded game/bushmeat. To study the possible burden of Toxoplasma gondii among wild Yezo-sika deer, plasma samples of Yezo-sika deer hunted during two seasons, 2010-2012, in Eastern Hokkaido were investigated. A total 80 samples were examined using the Sabin-Feldman dye test, which is highly specific and sensitive for identifying the development and persistence of antibodies after primary Toxoplasma infection, demonstrating that 38 cases (47.5%) were seropositive (cut-off titer <1:16). Antibody prevalence of T. gondii in female deer was higher than in males. Adult deer aged 3 years or over showed higher seroprevalence compared with younger animals. The overall seroprevalence fluctuated significantly according to the season when the deer were hunted. These results indicated widespread infection of T. gondii among Japanese wild Yezo-sika deer, suggesting that both appropriate handling and treatment of bushmeat are required to prevent food-borne toxoplasmosis in Japan.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cervos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Toxoplasma
19.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 307-310, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957265

RESUMO

Gender assignment errors are common in some animal species and lead to inaccuracies in downstream analyses. Procedures for detecting gender misassignment are available for array-based SNP data but are still being developed for genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. In this study, we describe a method for using GBS data to predict gender using X and Y chromosomal SNPs. From a set of 1286 X chromosomal and 23 Y chromosomal deer (Cervus sp.) SNPs discovered from GBS sequence reads, a prediction model was built using a training dataset of 422 Red deer and validated using a test dataset of 868 Red deer and Wapiti deer. Prediction was based on the proportion of heterozygous genotypes on the X chromosome and the proportion of non-missing genotypes on the Y chromosome observed in each individual. The concordance between recorded gender and predicted gender was 98.6% in the training dataset and 99.3% in the test dataset. The model identified five individuals across both datasets with incorrect recorded gender and was unable to predict gender for another five individuals. Overall, our method predicted gender with a high degree of accuracy and could be used for quality control in gender assignment datasets or for assigning gender when unrecorded, provided a suitable reference genome is available.


Assuntos
Cervos/genética , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cromossomo X , Cromossomo Y
20.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(4): 363-366, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012565

RESUMO

Background: Aging is a multifactorial process that involves all components of the skin. Both intrinsic and extrinsic forces play a role in this aging process. A new patented protein mix derived from red deer umbilical cord lining stem cell conditioned media (Calecim® Multi Action Cream, CellResearch Corporation, Singapore) has been developed to improve the signs of aging. The extract is the conditioned media from umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cell culture in basal media and consists of a mixture, in specific proportions, of cytokines, growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, amino acids, peptides, and other proteins. It has been developed to increase epidermal cell turnover and stimulate fibroblast function, reducing the appearance of pigmentation, fine lines, and redness, and to restore skin elasticity. Objective: The objective of this IRB-approved, prospective, randomized, double-blind, split-face, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of red deer mesenchymal stem cell extract (RCE) versus vehicle for facial rejuvenation. Methods: The trial involved 40 healthy subjects with moderate to severe facial wrinkling secondary to photodamage. One half of the face was randomized to receive topical RCE cream and vehicle cream to the other half of the face. Treatment was continued for 3 months, and evaluations were performed in a double-blind fashion. Results: Both sides of the face achieved significant improvement. Blinded investigator assessments did not detect any statistically significant differences between the two halves of the face in terms of efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Subject evaluations demonstrated superiority of the active treatment side. Conclusion: Red deer umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cell extract was effective in rejuvenating the aging face as demonstrated by investigator and subject measures. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(4):363-366.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Dermatoses Faciais/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Envelhecimento da Pele , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cervos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rejuvenescimento , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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