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1.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal is probably the main long distance dispersal mode. Through endozoochory, large mammals act as mobile links between habitats within and among forest patches. Along with other factors, their feeding regimes do affect their contribution as dispersal vectors. We conducted a cross-species comparative experiment involving two herbivores, red deer and roe deer; and two opportunistic omnivores, wild boar and brown bear, all occurring in the forest and steppe-forest ecotone habitats of the south-eastern Caspian region. We compared their role as endozoochorous seed dispersal agents by monitoring seedling emergence in their dungs under greenhouse and natural conditions. RESULTS: In total, 3078 seedlings, corresponding to 136 plant taxa sprouted from 445 paired dung sub-samples, under greenhouse and natural conditions. Only 336 seedlings, corresponding to 36 plant taxa, emerged under natural conditions, among which five taxa did not appear under greenhouse conditions. Graminoids and forbs composed 91% of the seedlings in the greenhouse whereas shrubs were more abundant under natural conditions, representing 55% of the emerged seedlings. Under greenhouse conditions, first red deer and then wild boar dispersed more species than the other two mammals, while under natural conditions brown bear was the most effective vector. We observed remarkably higher species richness and seedling abundance per dung sub-sample under buffered greenhouse conditions than we did under natural conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The four sympatric mammals studied provided different seed dispersal services, both in terms of seedling abundance and species richness and may therefore be regarded as complementary. Our results highlight a positive bias when only considering germination under buffered greenhouse conditions. This must be taken into account when planning management options to benefit plant biodiversity based on the dispersal services concluded from greenhouse experiments.


Assuntos
Cervos , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Germinação , Herbivoria , Plântula , Sementes
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2367-2372, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757058

RESUMO

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) infect almost all mammals, and there are some reports on MRVs in China. In this study, a novel strain was identified, which was designated as HLJYC2017. The results of genetic analysis showed that MRV HLJYC2017 is a reassortant strain. According to biological information analysis, different serotypes of MRV contain specific amino acid insertions and deletions in the σ1 protein. Neutralizing antibody epitope analysis revealed partial cross-protection among MRV1, MRV2, and MRV3 isolates from China. L3 gene recombination in MRV was identified for the first time in this study. The results of this study provide valuable information on MRV reassortment and evolution.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros , Cervos , Fezes/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Mutação INDEL , Camundongos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/classificação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/imunologia , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Sorogrupo , Suínos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111095, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734891

RESUMO

Wildlife crossing structures can provide safe passage for wildlife across transportation corridors, and can help mitigate the effects of highways and exclusion fencing on wildlife. Due to their costs, wildlife crossing structures are usually installed sparsely and at strategic locations along transportation networks. Alternatively, non-wildlife underpasses (i.e. conventional underpasses for human and domestic animal use) are usually abundant along major infrastructure corridors and could potentially provide safe crossing opportunities for wildlife. To investigate this, we monitored the use of 40 non-wildlife underpasses by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and moose (Alces alces) in south-central Sweden. We found that roe deer and moose use non-wildlife underpasses, and prefer underpasses that are at least 11.5 m wide and 5 m tall. Furthermore, roe deer used structures that had little human co-use and were in locations where the forest cover differed on both sides of the highway. In most cases, roe deer and moose were detected within 50 m of the underpass more than they were detected crossing under them. This suggests that animals often approach underpasses without crossing under them, however modifications to underpass design may improve non-wildlife underpass use. We recommend non-wildlife underpasses at gravel and minor roads, particularly those with little human co-use and with variable forest cover on both sides of the highway, be built wider than 11.5 m and taller than 5 m.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Florestas , Humanos , Suécia
4.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111172, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768765

RESUMO

Wildlife mortality caused by vehicles is a serious conservation and economic problem as collisions with large mammals are global, pervasive and increasing. We analysed 14,989 reports of ungulate-vehicle collisions (UVC) that occurred in Lithuania from 2002 to 2017. We analysed UVC data for four major ungulate species (roe deer, red deer, moose and wild boar) and checked for potential seasonal or daily trends. The temporal distribution of collisions was species-dependent. UVC analysis showed strong monthly and hourly pattern. Most occurrences took place before or during sunrise (dawn) and after or during sunset (dusk) during the year. In spring, the highest UVC peaks occurred early in the morning and late in the evening, while in winter these peaks occurred in late mornings and early evenings. With most UVC occurring on Fridays, daily variations were weak. We conclude that temporal variations of UVC distributions are result of a complex interaction of phenological factors and animal behaviour. The information provided in this study reinforces the knowledge on the dynamics and patterns of UVC and represents an important element for the identification of mitigation measures. Our findings suggest that efforts to reduce UVC should also focus on driver attitudes considering the seasonal and daily variations in UVC.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Lituânia , Estações do Ano , Suínos
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 366-371, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840648

RESUMO

Ground venison packets from shotgun- and archery-harvested White-tailed Deer in Illinois in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for metal contamination. Radiographs indicated that 48% of 27 ground venison packets from 10 shotgun-harvested deer contained metal fragments, while none of the 15 packets from three archery-harvested deer contained fragments. ICP-MS analysis verified that all metal fragments from seven of the venison samples from shotgun-harvested deer were composed of lead, with average concentrations from 1.04 to 8.42 µg g-1, dry weight. A single serving of ground venison containing one of these metal fragments embedded in it would be predicted to have a lead concentration ranging from 6.4 to 51.8 µg g-1. Sixty percent of 20 commercial meat processing plants surveyed by phone in 2018 and 2019 indicated that they mixed venison from multiple deer when preparing ground venison products. However, our results do not show any cross-contamination in archery-harvested ground venison processed prior to the firearm hunting seasons.


Assuntos
Cervos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Illinois , Chumbo/análise
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237410, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817706

RESUMO

The minimum infectious dose required to induce CWD infection in cervids remains unknown, as does whether peripherally shed prions and/or multiple low dose exposures are important factors in CWD transmission. With the goal of better understand CWD infection in nature, we studied oral exposures of deer to very low doses of CWD prions and also examined whether the frequency of exposure or prion source may influence infection and pathogenesis. We orally inoculated white-tailed deer with either single or multiple divided doses of prions of brain or saliva origin and monitored infection by serial longitudinal tissue biopsies spanning over two years. We report that oral exposure to as little as 300 nanograms (ng) of CWD-positive brain or to saliva containing seeding activity equivalent to 300 ng of CWD-positive brain, were sufficient to transmit CWD disease. This was true whether the inoculum was administered as a single bolus or divided as three weekly 100 ng exposures. However, when the 300 ng total dose was apportioned as 10, 30 ng doses delivered over 12 weeks, no infection occurred. While low-dose exposures to prions of brain or saliva origin prolonged the time from inoculation to first detection of infection, once infection was established, we observed no differences in disease pathogenesis. These studies suggest that the CWD minimum infectious dose approximates 100 to 300 ng CWD-positive brain (or saliva equivalent), and that CWD infection appears to conform more with a threshold than a cumulative dose dynamic.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Príons/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/transmissão , Animais , Cervos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110977, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778276

RESUMO

Mammal herbivores, and specially deer, can cause severe damages to agriculture, producing economic losses. Repellents based on odor, visual and/or taste stimuli have been tested to minimize these damages, but their global effectiveness has not been quantified. A systematic literature review on the use of repellents to reduce damage by deer was carried out, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of different repellents and application methods was performed. A Beta regression was employed considering the percentage of vegetation unbrowsed at the end of the essay as the response variable. A total of 246 essays testing ten different repellents and 236 essays testing four different application methods were extracted from 58 articles. Odor-based repellents, such as those including "meat and blood" and "urine, hair and feces of predators", were found to be the most effective to reduce damage. Non-lethal methods, such as repellents, could be valuable tools to manage this human-wildlife conflict.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Fezes , Herbivoria , Humanos , Odorantes
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140271, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783856

RESUMO

Dietary exposure is a major cause of pesticide bioaccumulation in herbivores. However, various types of natural conditions affect the structure of the complicated herbivores' diets, making it difficult to assess their exposure to pesticides. In this study, to evaluate the role of pesticides in the terrestrial food web, a dynamic hybrid dietary model was developed for North American white-tailed deer (or whitetails), which integrates different plant types and the digestibility of deer's foods. Moreover, an equivalent season approach was introduced to generalize the pesticide intake rate geographically. The results indicate that the soil-to-whitetail (meat) bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in summer are significantly higher than those of other seasonal periods, owing to the high food availability and digestibility. Pesticides with low octanol/water partition coefficients have a high computed soil-to-plant BAF, but a low plant-to-whitetail (meat) BAF, because the transpiration process dominates the bioaccumulation process in plants. Lipid absorption plays a more important role in herbivores and lowers the biomagnification ratio (a smaller amount of pesticides flows to the next level of the food chain). According to the equivalent season approach, geographic locations with warmer climates facilitate pesticide bioaccumulation at a higher level of the terrestrial food web.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Estados Unidos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 499, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648162

RESUMO

This study seeks to estimate household's willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation in Dachigam National Park, which houses the last viable population of Asiatic Black Bear and the Hangul (which is the only surviving sub-species of red deer in the world). A survey based on choice experiment method was carried out at Dachigam National Park, an area that is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. A set of attributes, such as endangered species, national park area and research and education opportunities the park holds, have been selected to substantiate the analysis. In order to estimate willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary variable involving an increase in water rates was also incorporated. Willingness to pay for the selected attributes per household ranges from Rs. 109.48 to Rs. 138.48 for enhancing population of endangered species, Rs. 48.54 to Rs. 82.36 for improvement in park area and Rs. 67.21 to Rs. 101.35 for increasing research and education opportunities the park holds. Findings that the study present can be used as an indicator of economic importance of biological resources for their better management and conservation that can help in ensuring sustainable utilization of these natural resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cervos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Comportamento de Escolha , Monitoramento Ambiental , Parques Recreativos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140369, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610236

RESUMO

Resource distribution, predation risk and disturbance in space and time can affect how animals use their environment. To date few studies have assessed the spatiotemporal trade-off between resource acquisition and avoidance of risks and human disturbance in small protected areas embedded in an urban matrix. A better understanding of the forage-safety trade-off in urban protected areas (UPA) is key to the design of evidence-based approaches to deal with the ever-increasing human-wildlife impacts typical of UPA. Herein, we analyzed camera trap data to evaluate how two ungulate species trade fear for food in a 60 km2 human-dominated UPA without natural predators. We found that wild boar (Sus scrofa) were predominantly active at night, while roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed a typical bimodal crepuscular activity pattern. Occupancy analysis indicated that deciduous forest and the presence of high seats for hunting played an important role in determining the space use of wild boar. For roe deer, we found indications that the presence of forest influenced space use, although the null model was retained among the top ranked models. Our results confirm that wild boar and roe deer are able to thrive in heavily human dominated landscapes characterized by intensive recreational use and hunting, such as protected areas embedded in an urban matrix.


Assuntos
Cervos , Ecossistema , Animais , Medo , Florestas , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Sus scrofa , Suínos
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3113-3117, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699937

RESUMO

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a harmful ectoparasite that emerged in the reindeer herding area of Finland in 2006. To understand the current range and the intensity of infestations on its novel reindeer host, we studied deer ked pupae collected from reindeer and moose bedding sites and conducted a questionnaire survey among the managers of 18 reindeer herding cooperatives in the southern part of the reindeer herding area. Our study confirmed that the deer ked can survive and successfully reproduce on reindeer through winter and that flying deer keds had been observed in reindeer wintering areas during several autumns in twelve cooperatives. The pupae originating from reindeer were smaller and showed lower hatching rates than the pupae from moose. The present results indicate that the range of the deer ked infestations on reindeer in Finland expanded during the recent 5 years, now reaching 14 cooperatives and bordering an area south of approximately 66° N 25° E in the west and 65° N 29° E east.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Rena/parasitologia , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/genética , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Finlândia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Reprodução
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 233-245, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613299

RESUMO

Natural resource managers are concerned about the impacts of aerial ultra-low volume spray (ULV) of insecticides for mosquito control (i.e., mosquito adulticides) and seek science-driven management recommendations that reduce risk but allow vector control for nearby human populations. Managers at the National Key Deer Refuge (Florida Keys, FL) are concerned for ULV effects upon conservation efforts for imperiled butterflies (Florida leafwing [Anaea troglodyta floridalis] and Bartram's hairstreak [Strymon acis bartrami] butterflies). No-spray zones were designated for protection of those butterflies, but their effectiveness for mitigation is unclear. To address this uncertainty, cholinesterase activity (ChE) and mortality were monitored for caged butterflies gulf fritillary [Agraulis vanilla] and great southern white [Ascia monuste]) deployed on the Refuge during three aerial ULV applications of the insecticide naled. Residue samplers also were deployed to estimate butterfly exposure. Spray efficacy against mosquitoes was assessed by deploying caged mosquitoes at the same locations as the butterflies. Average naled residue levels on filter paper samplers in the target area (1882-2898 µg/m2) was significantly greater than in the no-spray zone (9-1562 µg/m2). Differences between the no-spray zone and target area for butterfly mortality and ChE were inconsistent. Average mortality was significantly lower, and average ChE was significantly higher in the no-spray zone for larvae of one species but not for larvae of the other species. Mosquito mortality did not differ significantly between the two areas. Data from the present study reflect the inconsistent effectiveness of no-spray zones on the Refuge using standard methods employed at the time by the vector control agency in the Florida Keys and possibly by other vector control agencies in similar coastal environments. Furthermore, these findings helped to guide the design and to improve the conservation value of future no-spray zone delineations while allowing for treatment in areas where mosquito control is necessary for vector-borne disease reduction.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Naled/toxicidade , Animais , Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cervos , Florida , Humanos , Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21222, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664175

RESUMO

Cervus and cucumis peptides (Lugua polypeptides, LG) are traditional Chinese medicine, which are active components of polypeptide extracted from Sika deer bone and melon seed, and they contain bone induced polypeptide biological factors. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell, (UC-MSC) have tissue repair multiple effects, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation function, which become a very promising start in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Hence, LG combined UC-MSC can significantly enhance the UC-MSC treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).To explore the clinical curative effect and therapeutic mechanism of LG combined UC-MSC for treating RA.119 patients were divided into control and treatment groups, and both groups were treated with methotrexate tablets, leflunomide, and UC-MSC. But, LG were added to the treatment group. In vitro, the effects of LG on UC-MSC cell secretion of anti-inflammatory factors were also performed.The Health Assessment Questionnaire; the 28 joint disease activity score; C reactive protein; the erythrocyte sedimentation rate; rheumatoid factor; and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody were significantly reduced in treatment group 1 year after treatment (P < .05). In vitro, compared with the control group, the number of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG6) increased significantly (P < .05).LG combined UC-MSCs can significantly improve the curative effect of RA patients, while LG may reduce inflammatory cytokines, regulate immunity, improve microcirculation, and are conducive to UC-MSCs migration and the repair of damaged tissue.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/química , Adulto , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cucumis , Cervos , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 747-754, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098315

RESUMO

Currently, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is endangered. Anatomical studies focused on understanding the anatomy of the deer most threatened by extinction in South America is a challenge for anatomists, veterinarians and biologists. Research carried out for its conservation has focused mainly on its ecology and pathology, leaving gaps in anatomical knowledge, which is basic and important for a comprehensive understanding of this species. Gross anatomy and radiography of the skeleton of the pelvic limb was performed in three adult Patagonian huemul. Bone specimens of three skeletally mature Patagonian huemul deer were used for gross osteological and radiographic studies. This study was conducted to reveal the morphometric and morphological features of the ossa membri pelvini of the Patagonian huemul. The main findings suggest the presence of powerful extensor muscles in the coxofemoral, femorotibial and tarsal joints, useful during walking, jogging and propulsion in deer. In general, the MNF of Patagonian huemul differ in position with respect to domestic ungulates. In addition, the presence of a notch or obturator canal was observed, with variability in morphology and development among the specimens.


Actualmente, el Huemul Patagónico (Hippocamelus bisulcus) está en peligro de extinción. Los estudios morfológicos centrados en comprender su anatomía han sido un desafío para morfólogos, veterinarios y biólogos. Investigaciones enfocadas en su conservación, se han centrado principalmente en su ecología, patología y en la descripción de sus principales agentes infecciosos, dejando vacíos en el conocimiento anatómico básico, y por ende, su comprensión morfofisiológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la anatomía, morfometría y radiología macroscópica normal y detallada del ossa membri pelvini en tres especímenes de Huemul Patagónico, incluida una interpretación funcional como referencia para uso clínico y conservacionista, investigación biomédica y fines de enseñanza. Los principales hallazgos sugieren la presencia de potentes músculos extensores en las articulaciones coxofemoral, femorotibial y tarsal, útiles durante la marcha, el trote y la propulsión en los ciervos. En general, los forámenes nutricios principales del Huemul patagónico difieren en posición con respecto a los ungulados domésticos. Además, se observó la presencia de una muesca o canal obturador, con variabilidad morfológica y de desarrollo entre los especímenes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Chile , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 651-658, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476360

RESUMO

Tibetan red deer (Cervus wallichii) is an endemic species to China, which was once considered extinct in the wild. As there are several other wild ungulates and domestic animals with similar feeding habits within its habitat range, it's thus essential to study interspecific competition and co-existence between Tibetan red deer and other cohabiting ungulates in the highly unique environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Using microscopic analysis on fresh fecal samples collected in Sangri Tibetan Red Deer Nature Reserve from August to September in 2013 and 2014, the trophic niche width and overlap index were calculated on the basis of diet composition of C. wallichii, Cervus albirostris, Procapra picticaudata, Bos mutus and Capra hircas in green grass period. We analyzed and compared the overlap and differentiation of feeding habits between Tibetan red deer and other wild ungulates and domestic animals. The results showed that C. wallichii fed on similar edible plants with other species, but differed in proportion of different dietary components, with the main edible plants of C. wallichii being mostly the secondary edible plants to other species. Leontopodium pusillum was the common main edible plant for C. wallichii (percentage in animal recipes was 11.2%) and B. mutus (10.2%), Salix xizangensis was the common main edible plant of C. wallichii (9.6%) and C. albirostris (11.4%). At plant family level, Leguminosae was the common main edible plant family for C. wallichii (21.4%) and P. picticaudata (42.5%). Cyperaceae was the common main edible plant family for C. albirostris (49.2%), B. mutus (33.4%) and C. hircas (50.3%). Compositae was main edible plant family for C. wallichii (29.6%), as well as the secondary edible plant family for C. albirostris (7.6%), P. picticaudata (11.6%), B. mutus (17.3%) and C. hircas (14.1%). As the secondary edible plant family for C. wallichii (7.1%), Gramineae took up a lower proportion than that of the other ungulates (C. albirostris (13.6%), P. picticaudata (12.3%), B. mutus (11.5%) and C. hircas (16.0%)). Food overlap indices between C. wallichii and the other ungulates were all higher than 0.5, and the highest with B. mutus (0.65). The food diversity index (1.32), evenness index (0.37) and niche width index (15.79) of C. wallichii were all at high values. Compared with the results from 2007 to 2008, dietary composition of Tibetan red deer changed greatly as the proportion of Leguminosae increased while that of Cyperaceae decreased, resulting in improvement of food quality. In addition, there was greater competition of food resources between C. wallichii and domestic animals, which would further affect the distribution range and living space of C. wallichii.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Cervos , Animais , Bovinos , China , Hábitos , Poaceae , Tibet
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36121-36131, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557025

RESUMO

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the most abundant ungulate species in Europe. Many studies have investigated its distribution, behavior, and ecology, but few have focused on its role as bioindicators for pollutants, particularly regarding antlers, which has been shown to indicate also deer physiology. The presence of geothermal power plants can induce accumulation of potentially polluting elements (such as Tl, S, and Pb). Thus, we collected roe deer samples from areas of Tuscany (Italy) where power plants are present. They were divided according to whether their home range included areas close or far from geothermal power plants. We analyzed the body measurements and the profile of the minerals in the liver and antlers tissues using the ICP-OES technique. Results showed that livers from roe deer close to power plant accumulated higher quantity of Bi, Co, Ni, Tl, and S compared to controls. Males culled close to geothermal power plants had significantly lower values for weight and chest circumference, and also, the antlers showed higher values for Li and Sr in the first sampling position. Thus, despite the small sample size in this preliminary study, antlers and livers of roe deer seem to be a bioindicator of industrial impact on the environment.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Masculino , Minerais , Centrais Elétricas , Dados Preliminares
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2309-2315, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488622

RESUMO

The first study reporting the morphological characterization of Sarcocystis sybillensis was performed in 1983; however, without any molecular analysis. Sarcocystis nipponi has been recently described as a species synonymic to S. sybillensis. We reconfirmed the presence of S. sybillensis in Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured in its native territory; and performed its molecular and phylogenetic characterization. The morphological characteristics of the sarcocysts were consistent with those of S. nipponi and S. sybillensis described in the first report. However, the nucleotide sequence of 18S rRNA gene of S. sybillensis showed only 91.9% identity to that of S. nipponi, suggesting low homology among the concerned Sarcocystis spp. Accordingly, S. sybillensis was found to occupy a clade distinct from that of S. nipponi in a phylogenetic tree of Sarcocystis. Therefore, the present study provides essential information on 18S rRNA-based molecular characterization of S. sybillensis and disproves the existing notion of morphology-based species synonymity of S. sibillensis and S. nipponi. These results also suggest that S. sybillensis belongs to type 2 Sarcocystis.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/classificação , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sarcocystis/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480402

RESUMO

Climate models agree in predicting scenarios of global warming. In endothermic species heat stress takes place when they are upper their thermal neutral zone. Any physiological or behavioural mechanism to mitigate heat stress is at the cost of diverting energy from other physiological functions, with negative repercussions for individual fitness. Tolerance to heat stress differs between species, age classes and sexes, those with the highest metabolic rates being the most sensitive to stressing thermal environments. This is especially important during the first months of life, when most growth takes place. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is supposedly well adapted to a wide range of thermal environments, based on its worldwide distribution range, but little is known about the direct effect that heat stress may have on calf growth. We assessed the effect that heat stress, measured by heat stress indices and physical environment variables (air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation), have on calf and mother body weights from calf´s birth to weaning. We used 9265 longitudinal weekly body weight records of calf and mother across 19 years in captive Iberian red deer. We hypothesised that (i) heat stress in hot environments has a negative effect on calf growth, especially in males, as they are more energetically demanding to produce than females; and that (ii) the body weight of the mother through lactation should be negatively affected by heat stress. Our results supported hypothesis (i) but not so clearly hypothesis (ii). By weaning (day 143) calves growing under low heat stress environment grew up to 1.2 kg heavier than those growing in high heat stress environment, and males were more affected by heat stress than females. The results have implications in animal welfare, geographical clines in body size and adaptation to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Tamanho Corporal , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Mudança Climática , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Desmame
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(7): 600-614, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584178

RESUMO

In sheep, scrapie is a fatal neurologic disease that is caused by a misfolded protein called a prion (designated PrPSc). The normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is encoded by an endogenous gene, PRNP, that is present in high concentrations within the CNS. Although a broad range of functions has been described for PrPC, its entire range of functions has yet to be fully elucidated. Accumulation of PrPSc results in neurodegeneration. The PRNP gene has several naturally occurring polymorphisms, and there is a strong correlation between scrapie susceptibility and PRNP genotype. The cornerstone of scrapie eradication programs is the selection of scrapie-resistant genotypes to eliminate classical scrapie. Transmission of classical scrapie in sheep occurs during the prenatal and periparturient periods when lambs are highly susceptible. Initially, the scrapie agent is disseminated throughout the lymphoid system and into the CNS. Shedding of the scrapie agent occurs before the onset of clinical signs. In contrast to classical scrapie, atypical scrapie is believed to be a spontaneous disease that occurs in isolated instances in older animals within a flock. The agent that causes atypical scrapie is not considered to be naturally transmissible. Transmission of the scrapie agent to species other than sheep, including deer, has been experimentally demonstrated as has the transmission of nonscrapie prion agents to sheep. The purpose of this review is to outline the current methods for diagnosing scrapie in sheep and the techniques used for studying the pathogenesis and host range of the scrapie agent. Also discussed is the US scrapie eradication program including recent updates.


Assuntos
Cervos , Scrapie , Animais , Genótipo , Ovinos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0225872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555639

RESUMO

Deer overabundance is a contributing factor in the degradation of plant communities and ecosystems worldwide. The management and conservation of the deer-affected ecosystems requires us to urgently grasp deer population trends and to identify the factors that affect them. In this study, we developed a Bayesian state-space model to estimate the population dynamics of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a cool-temperate forest in Japan, where wolves (Canis lupus hodophilax) are extinct. The model was based on field data collected from block count surveys, road count surveys by vehicles, mortality surveys during the winter, and nuisance control for 12 years (2007-2018). We clarified the seasonal and annual fluctuation of the deer population. We found a peak of deer abundance (2010) over 12 years. In 2011 the estimated deer abundance decreased drastically and has remained at a low level then. The deer abundance gradually increased from April to December during 2013-2018. The seasonal fluctuation we detected could reflect the seasonal migration pattern of deer and the population recruitment through fawn births in early summer. In our model, snowfall accumulation, which can be a lethal factor for deer, may have slightly affected their mortality during the winter. Although we could not detect a direct effect of snow on population dynamics, snowfall decrease due to global warming may decelerate the winter migration of deer; subsequently, deer staying on-site may intensively forage evergreen perennial plants during the winter season. The nuisance control affected population dynamics. Even in wildlife protection areas and national parks where hunting is regulated, nuisance control could be effective in buffering the effect of deer browsing on forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cervos , Modelos Estatísticos , Estações do Ano , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Dinâmica Populacional
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