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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278490

RESUMO

Reindeer husbandry is essential for the livelihood and culture of indigenous people in the Arctic. Parts of the herding areas are also used as pastures for farm animals, facilitating potential transmission of viruses between species. Following the Covid-19 pandemic, viruses circulating in the wild are receiving increased attention, since they might pose a potential threat to human health. Climate change will influence the prevalence of infectious diseases of both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to detect known and previously unknown viruses in Eurasian tundra reindeer. In total, 623 nasal and 477 rectal swab samples were collected from reindeer herds in Fennoscandia, Iceland, and Eastern Russia during 2016-2019. Next-generation sequencing analysis and BLAST-homology searches indicated the presence of viruses of domesticated and wild animals, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine papillomavirus, alcephaline herpesvirus 1 and 2, deer mastadenovirus B, bovine rotavirus, and roe deer picobirnavirus. Several viral species previously found in reindeer and some novel species were detected, although the clinical relevance of these viruses in reindeer is largely unknown. These results indicate that it should be possible to find emerging viruses of relevance for both human and animal health using reindeer as a sentinel species.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cervos , Rena , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Islândia , Pandemias , Federação Russa , SARS-CoV-2 , Tundra
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207171

RESUMO

Reindeer husbandry is essential for the livelihood and culture of indigenous people in the Arctic. Parts of the herding areas are also used as pastures for farm animals, facilitating potential transmission of viruses between species. Following the Covid-19 pandemic, viruses circulating in the wild are receiving increased attention, since they might pose a potential threat to human health. Climate change will influence the prevalence of infectious diseases of both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to detect known and previously unknown viruses in Eurasian tundra reindeer. In total, 623 nasal and 477 rectal swab samples were collected from reindeer herds in Fennoscandia, Iceland, and Eastern Russia during 2016-2019. Next-generation sequencing analysis and BLAST-homology searches indicated the presence of viruses of domesticated and wild animals, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine papillomavirus, alcephaline herpesvirus 1 and 2, deer mastadenovirus B, bovine rotavirus, and roe deer picobirnavirus. Several viral species previously found in reindeer and some novel species were detected, although the clinical relevance of these viruses in reindeer is largely unknown. These results indicate that it should be possible to find emerging viruses of relevance for both human and animal health using reindeer as a sentinel species.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cervos , Rena , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Islândia , Pandemias , Federação Russa , SARS-CoV-2 , Tundra
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133564

RESUMO

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
4.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(3): 593-606, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125334

RESUMO

Assessing the risk of tick-borne disease in areas with high visitor numbers is important from a public health perspective. Evidence suggests that tick presence, density, infection prevalence and the density of infected ticks can vary between habitats within urban green space, suggesting that the risk of Lyme borreliosis transmission can also vary. This study assessed nymph density, Borrelia prevalence and the density of infected nymphs across a range of habitat types in nine parks in London which receive millions of visitors each year. Ixodes ricinus were found in only two of the nine locations sampled, and here they were found in all types of habitat surveyed. Established I. ricinus populations were identified in the two largest parks, both of which had resident free-roaming deer populations. Highest densities of nymphs (15.68 per 100 m2) and infected nymphs (1.22 per 100 m2) were associated with woodland and under canopy habitats in Richmond Park, but ticks infected with Borrelia were found across all habitat types surveyed. Nymphs infected with Borrelia (7.9%) were only reported from Richmond Park, where Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii were identified as the dominant genospecies. Areas with short grass appeared to be less suitable for ticks and maintaining short grass in high footfall areas could be a good strategy for reducing the risk of Lyme borreliosis transmission to humans in such settings. In areas where this would create conflict with existing practices which aim to improve and/or meet historic landscape, biodiversity and public access goals, promoting public health awareness of tick-borne disease risks could also be utilised.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Cervos , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Londres/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Reino Unido
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 116-124, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129994

RESUMO

Availability of graft materials to fill up osseous defects has always been a concern in orthopaedic surgeries. Deer antler material is a primary bone structure that is easy to collect and could serve as a xenograft. This study examines the behaviour of red deer antler trabecular cylinders in critical size distal femoral epiphyseal defects in 11 rabbits, and evaluates the effect of the decellularization protocols. Two preparation regimes (A and B) were used, with and without lipids and proteins. Radiographs were taken immediately after surgery and after euthanasia 12 weeks post-implantation. Histological evaluation was performed on non-decalcified 10-µm sections with a van Gieson picro-fuchsin staining protocol. A region of interest was defined for each histological section, evaluating the inflammatory reaction, the fibrosis process, and the osteogenesis. Each histological section was microradiographed to evaluate bone contact, presence of synostosis, remodelling and ossification processes. All antler cylinders were successfully implanted. Final radiographic analysis demonstrated osteointegration of most implants at various stages. Light to moderate inflammation around the grafts was noted with only one case showing full encapsulation. A variable degree of intimacy between implant and host bone was evidenced, with bone remodelling and osteogenesis of various intensity being present in all implanted sites. No differences were found between group A and B. Removal of lipids and proteins in the grafts surprisingly did not seem to matter. Decellularization and sterilization protocols may be advocated. Although it presents several limitations, this study shows some promising results regarding antler trabecular bone osteointegration.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Remodelação Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/transplante , Cervos , Osteogênese , Coelhos/cirurgia , Transplante Heterólogo/instrumentação , Animais , Masculino , Modelos Animais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073575

RESUMO

This paper evaluates the impact of the forest environment on aggressive manifestations in adolescents. A remedial educative programme was performed with 68 teenagers from institutions with substitute social care with diagnoses F 30.0 (affective disorders) and F 91.0 (family-related behavioural disorders), aged 12-16 years. Adolescents observed patterns of prosocial behaviour in forest animals (wolves, wild boars, deer, bees, ants, squirrels and birds), based on the fact that processes and interactions in nature are analogous to proceedings and bonds in human society. The methodology is based on qualitative and quantitative research. Projective tests (Rorschach Test, Hand Test, Thematic Apperception Test) were used as a diagnostic tool for aggressive manifestations before and after forest therapies based on Shinrin-yoku, wilderness therapy, observational learning and forest pedagogy. Probands underwent 16 therapies lasting for two hours each. The experimental intervention has a statistically significant effect on the decreased final values relating to psychopathology, irritability, restlessness, emotional instability, egocentrism, relativity, and negativism. Forest animals demonstrated to these adolescents ways of communication, cooperation, adaptability, and care for others, i.e., characteristics without which no community can work.


Assuntos
Cervos , Caminhada , Animais , Ansiedade , Abelhas , Florestas , Assunção de Riscos
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 715-720, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130416

RESUMO

Fifty-three free-ranging moose (Alces americanus) cows were darted from a helicopter with 3-4 ml of a premix combination of butorphanol (27.3 mg/ml), azaperone (9.1 mg/ml), and medetomidine (10.9 mg/ml; BAM), equivalent to estimated dosages of: butorphanol 0.26 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) mg/kg, azaperone 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg, and medetomidine 0.11 ± 0.03 mg/kg. After a mean chase time (from sighting to darting) of 6.1 ± 5.5 min, the mean induction time (from darting to recumbency) was 8.3 ± 2.6 min. This combination provided a safe and reliable sedation for minor procedures that lasted 30-60 min. Heart rate (50.4 ± 7.0 beats/min), respiratory rate (21.3 ± 11.1 breaths/minute), ETCO2 via nasal canula (43.2 ± 7.0 mmHg), and rectal temperature (38.5°C ± 0.7°C) mostly remained at expected values for wild cervid and bovid species anesthetized with this drug combination. SpO2 (90.0% ± 3.7%) was suggestive of moderate hypoxemia despite intranasal oxygen supplementation (1 L per 100 kg/min). The recovery time to standing was 6.7 ± 3.8 min after reversal with IM naltrexone (3 mg/mg butorphanol) and atipamezole (5 mg/mg medetomidine). Despite a larger volume to inject, this protocol offers an alternative to highly potent opioids, and should be considered for practical or staff safety reasons. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of 4 ml of BAM is considered a safe and effective protocol for immobilization of cow moose under comparable settings.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Cervos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 838-842, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130433

RESUMO

The reliability of packed cell volumes (PCV), total solids (TS), blood glucose (BG), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and glutaraldehyde test in determining passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins was investigated in nine species of cervids: axis deer (Axis axis), hog deer (Axis porcinus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), pudu (Pudu puda), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), barasinga deer (Rucervus duvaucelli), and Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii). Individually the parameters evaluated were significant though imperfect predictors of passive transfer status in cervids. Interpreted collectively as a panel along with neonate condition, these tests were clinically helpful in diagnosing failure of passive transfer (FPT). Collectively interpreting test results as a panel along with clinical assessment of the animal is recommended. Some species-specific variations in TS, GGT, and glutaraldehyde test results were identified.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia , Colostro/química , Feminino , Glutaral/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147215, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088076

RESUMO

The present work is the first extensive study of large-scale pesticides research in wild animals. The investigation covered three game species: wild boar (n = 42), roe deer (n = 79) and deer (n = 15) collected from north-eastern Poland. To characterize the 480 pesticides in muscle samples, LC-GC-MS/MS techniques were used. A total of 28 compounds were detected: 5 neonicotinoids, 6 organochlorine and 5 other insecticides, 9 fungicides and 4 herbicides, in the range of 0.1-85.3 ng g-1. Over four hundred detections were done. The highest mean concentrations were as follows: anthraquinone (85.3 ng g-1) > DDT-p,p' (4.6 ng g-1) > imidacloprid (4.3 ng g-1) > permethrin (3.6 ng g-1) > thiacloprid (2.8 ng g-1). DDT and metabolites were the most frequently detected, followed by acetamiprid, tebuconazole, clothianidin and imidacloprid. Overall, 92% samples with residues were recorded, including 100% of wild boar, 88% of roe deer and 86% of deer. More than one pesticide (up to 9) was found in over 73% of the tested samples. The estimated chronic and acute risk to consumers of venison were very low (below 1% ADI and ARfD). This interdisciplinary study may be helpful for estimating ecological risk to wild animals and risk to consumers of wild animal products, and also as a source of biomonitoring data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Praguicidas , Animais , Agricultura Florestal , Praguicidas/análise , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(2): 473-484, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089463

RESUMO

In total, 57 ticks were collected from six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and three mule deer (O. hemionus) in northern Mexico during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 hunting seasons. Morphological features of adult male and female ticks were observed and photographed using a stereo-microscope and scanning electron micrography. The ticks were identified as Dermacentor albipictus based on taxonomic keys. Molecular analysis using DNA amplification of the 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) genes was employed to resolve the phylogenetic relationships from 18 strains of Dermacentor species. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was performed in order to obtain a phylogenetic tree based on the concatenated sequence in the D. albipictus clade. The geometric morphometric analysis compared the body shape of ticks collected from specimens of two deer species by analyzing nine dorsal and ventral landmarks from both males and females. The results suggest that body shape variation in dorsal structures might be related to the host.


Assuntos
Cervos , Dermacentor , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Masculino , México , Filogenia
11.
Rev Prat ; 71(1): 102-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160957

RESUMO

Eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in France Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild artiodactyls (mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camelids and deer). Before the 1980s, Europe, and in particular France, regularly experienced FMD epizootics with a very high number of outbreaks. A compulsory vaccination policy has been implemented at European level. Thus, every year, the French population of domestic cattle (about 20 million animals) was vaccinated. In 1991, due to the lack of detection of the circulating virus, vaccination was stopped. Since that date, France has become a country free from foot-and-mouth disease. The fight against this disease is a good example of the efficacy of vaccination to eradicate Foot-and-mouth disease virus.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , França/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos , Vacinação
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 711-720, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047228

RESUMO

The origin of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids is unclear. One hypothesis suggests that CWD originated from scrapie in sheep. We compared the disease phenotype of sheep-adapted CWD to classical scrapie in sheep. We inoculated sheep intracranially with brain homogenate from first-passage mule deer CWD in sheep (sCWDmd). The attack rate in second-passage sheep was 100% (12 of 12). Sheep had prominent lymphoid accumulations of PrPSc reminiscent of classical scrapie. The pattern and distribution of PrPSc in the brains of sheep with CWDmd was similar to scrapie strain 13-7 but different from scrapie strain x124. The western blot glycoprofiles of sCWDmd were indistinguishable from scrapie strain 13-7; however, independent of sheep genotype, glycoprofiles of sCWDmd were different than x124. When sheep genotypes were evaluated individually, there was considerable overlap in the glycoprofiles that precluded significant discrimination between sheep CWD and scrapie strains. Our data suggest that the phenotype of CWD in sheep is indistinguishable from some strains of scrapie in sheep. Given our results, current detection techniques would be unlikely to distinguish CWD in sheep from scrapie in sheep if cross-species transmission occurred naturally. It is unknown if sheep are naturally vulnerable to CWD; however, the susceptibility of sheep after intracranial inoculation and lymphoid accumulation indicates that the species barrier is not absolute.


Assuntos
Cervos , Scrapie/transmissão , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/transmissão , Animais , Western Blotting/veterinária , Encéfalo , Genótipo , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Scrapie/genética , Ovinos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112774, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015612

RESUMO

To devise effective measures for reducing hazardous wildlife-vehicle collisions, it is necessary to know when during the year accidents occur most frequently, and what factors cause the seasonal patterns. Daylight Saving Time (DST) 1-h clock-shifts around the spring and fall equinoxes at temperate zone latitudes are associated with increased vehicle accidents, attributed to driver error caused by disrupted sleep patterns and changes in visibility during peak driving times. Collision with deer is a significant cause of motor vehicle accidents in North America; in New York State alone, 65,000 vehicle accidents annually are caused by collision with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We asked whether white-tailed deer-vehicle collisions (DVC) increased in frequency after DST clock shifts in New York State, by analyzing 35,167 New York State DVC reports from 2005 to 2007. For the spring, when the clock is shifted an hour forward relative to sunrise (i.e. later sunrise and sunset), there was either no change or possibly a small decrease in workweek evening DVC after the clock shift. For fall, when the clock is shifted an hour back relative to sunrise (i.e. earlier sunrise and sunset), the DVC rate was far higher than spring. The DVC rate was higher after the clock shift than before, caused in part by an ongoing seasonal trend for increasing DVC associated with deer behavior around the time of rut, peaking about two weeks after the clock shift. However, there was also a reduction in workweek morning DVC after clock-shift, but an even greater increase in DVC in the evening. DVC rates are highest around dusk and during the fall, and the fall DST clock-shift caused more workweek commuter traffic to coincide with the annual hourly period of peak risk of DVC. We conclude that in New York State, DST clock-shift results in an increase in the number of DVC, and therefore injuries and property damage associated with such accidents. The justification for DST clock-shifts is controversial; when evaluating the benefits and costs, one should include the consequences for risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions, especially in regions where ungulate-vehicle accidents are frequent, and clock-shifts coincide with the rut or other periods of peak accident risk.


Assuntos
Cervos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Animais , New York , América do Norte , Estações do Ano
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 235-236: 106654, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044289

RESUMO

This paper estimates the 137Cs ecological half-life of white-tailed deer inhabiting the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) based on sex and age using data collected over a 51-year time-period. With a physical half-life of 30.2 yr, the biological half-life for the deer herd is considerably shorter because of the isotope's biochemical mimicry of K+ inside the body. Leveraging this long-term dataset and robust sample size, we compared the long-term half-century estimates to shorter decadal increments. The simple exponential decay model for the entire 51-year sampling period predicted an ecological half-life of 23.15 years. When breaking the sample data into decadal increments 137Cs body burden had complex temporal dynamics with predicted half-lives ranging from 9.25 to 32.33 years. Exponential decay for the entire 51-year sampling period for models evaluated by sex, age, sex*age to determine how these variables influence the predictability in the mean depuration rate, the ecological half-lives were between 21 and 23 years for all permutations, except for fawns that had a half-life no different than the physical half-life of the isotope itself. Differential habitat use and competition most likely explains why both yearling and adult females consistently had higher body burdens than males over the 51-year time period, showing how dynamic this radioisotope is in biological systems. This study is one of the most robust long-term datasets in the world (n = 42,412) that is specifically focused on monitoring the uptake and depuration of 137Cs in a wild species.


Assuntos
Cervos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Meia-Vida , Rios , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147124, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965822

RESUMO

The knowledge regarding the spatial ecology of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in different environments is crucial if effective management actions are to be designed. However, this knowledge continues to be scarce in the complex contexts of mixed land use and management circumstances. This study describes the spatial ecology of red deer monitored using GPS collars in Mediterranean ecosystems of South-Central Spain, considering the effect of individual and seasonal (food shortage period, rut, hunting season and food abundance period) factors on different land use and management scenarios, namely protected areas, mixed farms and fenced hunting estates. Our results showed less activity (ACT), a shorter daily range (DR) and a smaller home range (HR) during the food shortage period: ACT: 0.38 ± (SD) 0.12; DR: 3010.9 ± 727.3 m; and weekly HR: 122.2 ± 59.6 ha. With regard to land use, individuals were less ACT and had a smaller DR on fenced hunting estates (ACT: 0.24 ± 0.12; DR: 1946.3 ± 706.7 m) than in protected areas (ACT: 0.59 ± 0.12; DR: 4071.4 ± 1068.2 m) or on mixed farms (ACT: 0.57 ± 0.29; DR: 5431.1 ± 1939.5 m) in all the periods studied. Red deer selected land cover with forage and shelter when foraging and resting, respectively. When drive hunt events occurred (mixed farms and fenced hunting estates), the deer were more prone to select safer habitats (scrublands) and avoid open areas (crops or grasslands) than were their counterparts in protected areas. The patterns observed can be explained by sexual and seasonal differences as regards requirements, the response to disturbances and, interestingly, population management. Our results provide useful information with which to design scientifically-based species adaptive management in response to relevant and timely situations in Europe, such as the potential transmission of shared infections, vehicle collisions, and damage to crops and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas , Espanha
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946876

RESUMO

The hair follicle dermal papilla is critical for hair generation and de novo regeneration. When cultured in vitro, dermal papilla cells from different species demonstrate two distinguishable growth patterns under the conventional culture condition: a self-aggregative three dimensional spheroidal (3D) cell pattern and a two dimensional (2D) monolayer cell pattern, correlating with different hair inducing properties. Whether the loss of self-aggregative behavior relates to species-specific differences or the improper culture condition remains unclear. Can the fixed 2D patterned dermal papilla cells recover the self-aggregative behavior and 3D pattern also remains undetected. Here, we successfully constructed the two growth patterns using sika deer (Cervus nippon) dermal papilla cells and proved it was the culture condition that determined the dermal papilla growth pattern. The two growth patterns could transit mutually as the culture condition was exchanged. The fixed 2D patterned sika deer dermal papilla cells could recover the self-aggregative behavior and transit back to 3D pattern, accompanied by the restoration of hair inducing capability when the culture condition was changed. In addition, the global gene expressions during the transition from 2D pattern to 3D pattern were compared to detect the potential regulating genes and pathways involved in the recovery of 3D pattern and hair inducing capability.


Assuntos
Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Antígeno AC133/biossíntese , Antígeno AC133/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/biossíntese , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Agregação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Divisão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cervos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Cabelo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Mesoderma/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Versicanas/biossíntese , Versicanas/genética
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 79, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animals living in social groups can benefit from conducting the same behaviour as other group members. If this synchronisation is achieved by copying the behaviour of other individuals, we would expect synchrony to be more likely when pairs of individuals are close together. RESULTS: By comparing the behaviour of a focal individual with its nearest, second nearest and third nearest neighbour and a control individual, we show that pairings of fallow deer Dama dama are more likely to be active or inactive at the same moment in time if they are closer together. We also demonstrate that synchronisation in the group happens more often than would be expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between the synchronisation of behaviour and the spatial proximity of individuals. Spatial proximity is likely to be an important influence on how likely individuals are to be synchronised, although care needs to be taken to separate social and environmental influences on individual behaviour.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(1): 1-10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980006

RESUMO

Over the past years, the nematode species from the Onchocercidae family, Setaria tundra, has expanded its range by thousands of kilometres from subpolar to subtropical climate zone. Its presence has been confirmed in seven new countries. The appearance of this parasite in many other European countries, especially central and southern ones, is highly probable. In recent years, its mass appearance has led to the numerous fall of reindeer in Fennoscandia, thus causing significant economic damage. There is also a growing risk of its gradation in Central Europe, which threatens overpopulated wild deer species and possibly farm animals, however there is no information if other than mosquitoes blood-sucking arthropods act as its vector. This paper covers the range of occurrence of S. tundra in Europe, all of the reported intermediate and definitive hosts, phylogeny, biology, morphology, health effects, and treatment methods.


Assuntos
Cervos , Setaria (Nematoide) , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Mosquitos Vetores , Tundra
19.
Yi Chuan ; 43(4): 308-322, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972206

RESUMO

Deer family is one of the most abundant mammalian families in the world. Deer species are distributed in wide geographic ranges including the North Pole, tropical regions and high-altitude mountains. Of these deer species, China accounts for more than 40% of them and is the main site for deer evolution. Besides the common phenotypical attributes for ruminants, deer family is evolved to possess the unique head gears with periodic regeneration, i.e. antlers. It is currently well accepted that deer is a very valuable model for the studies of ecology, behavior, evolution and biology, especially for the study of mammalian organ regeneration. Reference deer genome is the basis for systematically illustrating deer evolution, deciphering unique biological attributes of deer species, and is significant in protection and utilization of deer genetic resources. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the field of deer genome research, including data of deer genetic variation, molecular basis of adaptive evolution, and key genes and functional genomics involved in deer antler origin and evolution. The overall aim of the paper is to provide the reference neccessary for in depth investigation of deer species.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Cervos , Animais , China , Cervos/genética , Humanos , Organogênese , Regeneração
20.
Theriogenology ; 171: 104-112, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052778

RESUMO

Photoperiod is the main cue that controls seasonal reproduction in deer from temperate regions, like secretion of testosterone by the testis, neck enlargement, and testis development. However, little is known about its effect on the reproduction of tropical deer species. This research aimed to assess the potential seasonality of the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) by melatonin treatment. Reproductive parameters such as testicular volume, neck circumference, and semen quality were evaluated from day 0 to 90, and fecal androgen metabolites (FAM) from day -28 to 91. Melatonin treatment was administered from day 0 to 60. In total, seven individuals were used in the study. Four animals were allocated to the treated group (TG) and three to the control group (CG). The neck circumference and some seminal parameters did not show a significant difference between CG and TG and along the experimental period. High FAM levels were observed for the TG on days 7, 14, 21, 35, 84, and 91 (p < 0.05). The mean testicular volume was reduced from day 0 to 30 (p < 0.05) and from day 0 to 90 (p < 0.05), with no increase in the mean testicular volume from day 30 to 60 (p > 0.05). Sperm motility was the highest on day 60 compared with day 0 (p < 0.05). Although not statistically different, membrane integrity and major defects tended to be higher and lower, respectively, in the TG compared with the CG. For these parameters, the incremental change (%) per individual showed that males from the TG tended to have a higher percentage during the melatonin treatment, hence melatonin might affect these seminal characteristics. These findings suggest that exogenous melatonin might enhance FAM levels and sperm motility.


Assuntos
Cervos , Análise do Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Testículo
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