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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 747-754, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098315

RESUMO

Currently, the Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is endangered. Anatomical studies focused on understanding the anatomy of the deer most threatened by extinction in South America is a challenge for anatomists, veterinarians and biologists. Research carried out for its conservation has focused mainly on its ecology and pathology, leaving gaps in anatomical knowledge, which is basic and important for a comprehensive understanding of this species. Gross anatomy and radiography of the skeleton of the pelvic limb was performed in three adult Patagonian huemul. Bone specimens of three skeletally mature Patagonian huemul deer were used for gross osteological and radiographic studies. This study was conducted to reveal the morphometric and morphological features of the ossa membri pelvini of the Patagonian huemul. The main findings suggest the presence of powerful extensor muscles in the coxofemoral, femorotibial and tarsal joints, useful during walking, jogging and propulsion in deer. In general, the MNF of Patagonian huemul differ in position with respect to domestic ungulates. In addition, the presence of a notch or obturator canal was observed, with variability in morphology and development among the specimens.


Actualmente, el Huemul Patagónico (Hippocamelus bisulcus) está en peligro de extinción. Los estudios morfológicos centrados en comprender su anatomía han sido un desafío para morfólogos, veterinarios y biólogos. Investigaciones enfocadas en su conservación, se han centrado principalmente en su ecología, patología y en la descripción de sus principales agentes infecciosos, dejando vacíos en el conocimiento anatómico básico, y por ende, su comprensión morfofisiológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la anatomía, morfometría y radiología macroscópica normal y detallada del ossa membri pelvini en tres especímenes de Huemul Patagónico, incluida una interpretación funcional como referencia para uso clínico y conservacionista, investigación biomédica y fines de enseñanza. Los principales hallazgos sugieren la presencia de potentes músculos extensores en las articulaciones coxofemoral, femorotibial y tarsal, útiles durante la marcha, el trote y la propulsión en los ciervos. En general, los forámenes nutricios principales del Huemul patagónico difieren en posición con respecto a los ungulados domésticos. Además, se observó la presencia de una muesca o canal obturador, con variabilidad morfológica y de desarrollo entre los especímenes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Chile , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 91-95, Feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056403

RESUMO

El pudú (Pudu puda) se clasifica como un artiodáctilo de la familia Cervidae y es el ciervo más pequeño. Se estima que su población se ha reducido, esto debido a varias causas, como son la pérdida de los bosques, depredación, caza y atropellos. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la musculatura intrínseca del miembro torácico de un ejemplar de pudú, comparando los resultados observados con lo descrito para rumiantes domésticos en la bibliografía anatómica clásica. Se estudió la musculatura desde proximal hacia distal, dividiendo al miembro en cuatro regiones topográficas: región escapular, braquial, antebraquial y de la mano. Además, se realizó un estudio morfométrico indicando el largo, ancho y grosor de los músculos. Los resultados indican que el ejemplar de pudú posee características anatómicas similares a rumiantes domésticos, sin embargo, se deben considerar algunas diferencias, tales como: la porción escapular del m. deltoides se une de manera aponeurótica con el m. infraespinoso; las dos cabezas del m. flexor ulnar del carpo se encuentran altamente fusionadas; no se observó el tercer tendón del m. bíceps braquial; el m. tríceps braquial es bien desarrollado y presenta cuatro cabezas musculares bien diferenciadas; el m. ancóneo permanece de manera independiente de la cabeza lateral del m. tríceps; el m. flexor digital profundo presenta cuatro cabezas y el m. interóseo es macroscópicamente tendinoso. La información entregada en este estudio corresponde a un aporte anatómico que permite ampliar el conocimiento científico de esta especie que se encuentra poco estudiada, protegida y vulnerable.


The pudú (Pudu puda) is classified as an artiodactyl and is the smallest deer of the Cervidae family. It is estimated that its population has been reduced for a number of reasons, such as loss of forests, predation and hunting. The objective of this study is to describe the intrinsic musculature of the thoracic limb of a Pudu specimen, comparing the results with those described for domestic ruminants in anatomical literature. Musculature was studied from proximal to distal, dividing the limb into four topographic regions: scapular, brachial, antebrachial and hand regions. In addition, a morphometric study was conducted indicating the length, width and thickness of the muscles. The results indicate that the Pudu species has anatomical characteristics similar to those of domestic ruminants. However, some differences should be considered, such as the scapular portion of M. deltoides joins aponeurotically with M. infraspinatus; the two heads of M. carpis ulnaris are highly fused; the third tendon of M. biceps brachii; the M. triceps brachii is well developed and has four distinct muscle heads; the M. Anconeus remains independent of the lateral head of M. triceps brachii; the M. digitorum profundus features four heads and the M. interosseous is macroscopically tendinous. The information provided in this study corresponds to an anatomical contribution that allows furthering scientific knowledge of this protected and vulnerable species, which is scarcely studied.


Assuntos
Animais , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Superior/anatomia & histologia
3.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 487(1): 115-118, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571079

RESUMO

The giant deer Arvernocerosverestchagini David, 1992, authochtonous species of the Early Pleistocene biota of North Black Sea coastal area, is discovered in Crimea. The giant deer was a member of fossil fauna of vertebrates from the Pleistocene deposits of Taurida karst cave. According to biochronological data, this fauna is dated to 1.8-1.5 Ma.


Assuntos
Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Cavernas
4.
J Morphol ; 280(7): 1071-1090, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095779

RESUMO

In Ruminantia, the lacrimal bone forms a considerable part of the facial skeleton, and the morphology of its facial facet is highly variable when compared to other mammals. In this study, we quantify the species-specific variability in size and shape of the lacrimal facial facet in species of Cervidae (deer) and relate it to systematics and various aspects of their ecology and behavior. We sampled 143 skull specimens from 10 genera; 12 Moschus and 3 Tragulus specimens were used as outgroups. We find that size and shape of the lacrimal facial facet allow differentiating most species analyzed here, except for Mazama gouazoubira and Capreolus capreolus. Size and shape of the lacrimal facial facet vary widely across Cervidae regardless of their systematic relationships, ecology or behavior. Thus, we could not detect a unique signature of adaptational criteria in lacrimal morphology. Our data indicate that the lacrimal facial facet scales allometrically with skull size, in particular, the lacrimojugal length scales positively and the lacrimomaxillar length scales negatively. However, correlation analyses did not reveal any differences in the integration of the lacrimal bone with any specific skull module in any of the species compared. Lastly, we could not ascertain any correlation between the size and position of the preorbital depression with the size and shape of the lacrimal facial facet. We conclude that the lacrimal facial facet is highly flexible and may rapidly adjust to its surrounding bones. Its allometric growth appears to be an example of exaptation: changes in size and shape in the context of the increase of the skull length provide lacrimal contacts, in particular, a lacrimojugal one, which may serve to reduce mechanical loads resulting from increasingly larger antlers in large cervids.


Assuntos
Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Animais , Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794631

RESUMO

Evaluation of harvest data remains one of the most important sources of information in the development of strategies to manage regional populations of white-tailed deer. While descriptive statistics and simple linear models are utilized extensively, the use of artificial neural networks for this type of data analyses is unexplored. Linear model was compared to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models with Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M), Bayesian Regularization (BR) and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) learning algorithms, to evaluate the relative accuracy in predicting antler beam diameter and length using age and dressed body weight in white-tailed deer. Data utilized for this study were obtained from male animals harvested by hunters between 1977-2009 at the Berry College Wildlife Management Area. Metrics for evaluating model performance indicated that linear and ANN models resulted in close match and good agreement between predicted and observed values and thus good performance for all models. However, metrics values of Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error for linear model and the ANN-BR model indicated smaller error and lower deviation relative to the mean values of antler beam diameter and length in comparison to other ANN models, demonstrating better agreement of the predicted and observed values of antler beam diameter and length. ANN-SCG model resulted in the highest error within the models. Overall, metrics for evaluating model performance from the ANN model with BR learning algorithm and linear model indicated better agreement of the predicted and observed values of antler beam diameter and length. Results of this study suggest the use of ANN generated results that are comparable to Linear Models of harvest data to aid in the development of strategies to manage white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cervos , Modelos Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Masculino
6.
J Anat ; 234(1): 66-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411344

RESUMO

Sheep and deer calcanei are finding increased use as models for studies of bone adaptation, including advancing understanding of how the strain (deformation) environment influences the ontogenetic emergence of biomechanically relevant structural and material variations in cortical and trabecular bone. These artiodactyl calcanei seem ideal for these analyses because they function like simply loaded short-cantilevered beams with net compression and tension strains on the dorsal and plantar cortices, respectively. However, this habitual strain distribution requires more rigorous validation because it has been shown by limited in vivo and ex vivo strain measurements obtained during controlled ambulation (typically walking and trotting). The conception that these calcanei are relatively simply and habitually loaded 'tension/compression bones' could be invalid if infrequent, though biologically relevant, loads substantially change the location of the neutral axis (NA) that separates 'compression' and 'tension' regions. The effect on calcaneus strains of the tension members (plantar ligament and flexor tendon) is also not well understood and measuring strains after transecting them could reveal that they significantly modulate the strain distribution. We tested the hypothesis that the NA location previously described during simulated on-axis loads of deer calcanei would exhibit limited variations even when load perturbations are unusual (e.g. off-axis loads) or extreme (e.g. after transection of the tension members). We also examined regional differences in the predominance of the three strain modes (tension, compression, and shear) in these various load conditions in dorsal, plantar, medial, and lateral cortices. In addition to considering principal strains (tension and compression) and maximum shear strains, we also considered material-axis (M-A) shear strains. M-A shear strains are those that are aligned along the long axis of the bone and are considered to have greater biomechanical relevance than maximum shear strains because failure theories of composite materials and bone are often based on stresses or strains in the principal material directions. We used the same load apparatus from our prior study of mule deer calcanei. Results showed that although the NA rotated up to 8° medially and 15° laterally during these off-axis loads, it did not shift dramatically until after transection of all tension members. When comparing results based on maximum shear strain data vs. M-A shear strain data, the dominant strain mode changed only in the plantar cortex - as expected (in accordance with our a priori view) it was tension when M-A shear strains were considered (shear : tension = 0.2) but changed to dominant shear when maximum shear strain data were considered (shear : tension = 1.3). This difference leads to different conclusions and speculations regarding which specific strain modes and magnitudes most strongly influence the emergence of the marked mineralization and histomorphological differences in the dorsal vs. plantar cortices. Consequently, our prior simplification of the deer calcaneus model as a simply loaded 'tension/compression bone' (i.e. plantar/dorsal) might be incorrect. In vivo and in finite element analyses are needed to determine whether describing it as a 'shear-tension/compression' bone is more accurate. Addressing this question will help to advance the artiodactyl calcaneus as an experimental model for bone adaptation studies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Calcâneo/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Calcâneo/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/fisiologia
7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 302(2): 339-345, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312526

RESUMO

This article presents the results of analysis of the arterial vascular region of the Eurasian elk, which is a representative of the Cervidae family. The study was conducted on 39 Eurasian elks. The head arteries of 25 animals were filled with LBS 3040 synthetic latex. The head arteries of the other 14 Eurasian elks were filled with an acetone solution of stained chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and macerated. The arterial circle of the Eurasian elk's brain is composed of bilateral rostral cerebral arteries and caudal communicating arteries. The basilar artery closes the arterial circle caudally. The rostral cerebral artery first ramifies into the rostral choroidal artery, then, the middle cerebral artery and the rostral communicating artery. The caudal cerebral artery and the rostral cerebellar artery branch off the caudal communicating artery. The arterial pattern of the Eurasian elk's brain base is similar to the arteries found in other deer. Like in other Ruminantia, the rostral epidural rete mirabile is a unique structure in the Eurasian elk's arterial system. Anat Rec, 302:339-345, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Artéria Basilar/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Artérias Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artéria Basilar/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Artérias Cerebrais/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
8.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(2): 160-164, 2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568051

RESUMO

This study examined and compared the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) on Jeju Island (Jeju roe deer [JRD]) with those in the roe deer of the Korean peninsula (mainland roe deer [MRD]). Seven of the nine expected types was observed in the arterial silicone casts of 29 deer (10 males, 19 females). The JRD was identical to the MRD in that absence of the typical pattern; however, the main three pattern types differed between the two. This difference resulted from differences in the branching patterns of the right subclavian artery and costocervical trunk. In conclusion, the JRD has different type of AA from the MRD.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tronco Braquiocefálico/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , República da Coreia , Artéria Subclávia/anatomia & histologia
9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 292, 2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deer antlers are bony structures that re-grow at very high rates, making them an attractive model for studying rapid bone regeneration. METHODS: To identify the genes that are involved in this fast pace of bone growth, an in vitro RNA-seq model that paralleled the sharp differences in bone growth between deer antlers and humans was established. Subsequently, RNA-seq (> 60 million reads per library) was used to compare transcriptomic profiles. Uniquely expressed deer antler proliferation as well as mineralization genes were identified via a combination of differential gene expression and subtraction analysis. Thereafter, the physiological relevance as well as contributions of these identified genes were determined by immunofluorescence, gene overexpression, and gene knockdown studies. RESULTS: Cell characterization studies showed that in vitro-cultured deer antler-derived reserve mesenchyme (RM) cells exhibited high osteogenic capabilities and cell surface markers similar to in vivo counterparts. Under identical culture conditions, deer antler RM cells proliferated faster (8.6-11.7-fold increase in cell numbers) and exhibited increased osteogenic differentiation (17.4-fold increase in calcium mineralization) compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), paralleling in vivo conditions. Comparative RNA-seq identified 40 and 91 previously unknown and uniquely expressed fallow deer (FD) proliferation and mineralization genes, respectively, including uhrf1 and s100a10. Immunofluorescence studies showed that uhrf1 and s100a10 were expressed in regenerating deer antlers while gene overexpression and gene knockdown studies demonstrated the proliferation contributions of uhrf1 and mineralization capabilities of s100a10. CONCLUSION: Using a simple, in vitro comparative RNA-seq approach, novel genes pertinent to fast bony antler regeneration were identified and their proliferative/osteogenic function was verified via gene overexpression, knockdown, and immunostaining. This combinatorial approach may be applicable to discover unique gene contributions between any two organisms for a given phenomenon-of-interest.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/citologia , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas S100/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Osteogênese/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas S100/metabolismo
10.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 54(8): 545-548, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083840

RESUMO

Research of epithelial cells in musk gland is lacking. There are no good characterized epithelial cell lines that can provide complementary in vitro models for in vivo research. We successfully cultivated epithelial cells of musk gland for the first time. The protocol described here produces epithelial cell lines from the mature secreting musk gland. Based on morphological observation, epithelial cells of musk gland were isolated and cultured in vitro. After the third passage, the musk gland-derived cells were filled with many lipid droplets and proliferated well. We used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to explore the chemical composition of lipid droplets in the musk gland-derived cells. The main components of secreted lipid droplet were alkanes, esters, amines, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, and aldehydes. Muscone, which is the main active compound of musk, was not found. This is a new attempt in the field of animal musk to obtain naturally secreted animal musk in vitro by cloning specialized cells. In conclusion, this study provides a reference at the cellular level to further analyze the biology and physiology of the musk gland epithelium and secretion mechanism of musk deer.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/citologia , Separação Celular/métodos , Forma Celular , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Células Cultivadas , Florestas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Estações do Ano
11.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200957, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063761

RESUMO

Dental implants are important tools for restoring the loss of teeth. The rapid growth and periodic regeneration of antlers make Sika deer a good and less invasive alternative model for studying bone remodelling in mammals. We developed a special loading device for antlers and analysed the bone reaction around unloaded implants and under immediate loading conditions until osseointegration occurred. In micro-computed tomography images, the density of antler tissue around the implants increased as the loading time increased. This finding was histologically confirmed by the good osseointegration observed in unloaded and loaded specimens. Antler tissue displays a similar healing process to human bone. The use of an antler model is a promising alternative for implant studies that does not require animal sacrifice.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Implantes Dentários , Cicatrização , Animais , Chifres de Veado/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Animal , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Suporte de Carga , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
Anat Sci Int ; 93(4): 540-547, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948976

RESUMO

The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a medium-sized deer that weighs 20-40 kg. Historically, it was a widely distributed species that occupied a wide range of open habitats, including pastures, pampas, and Brazilian savanna. However, it is currently considered to be a species at risk of extinction. Anatomical descriptions of the arterial supply are very useful when working with exotic mammals. Knowledge of the locations, the distribution pattern, and the anatomical relationships of the arteries is required when performing any intervention. The objective of this research was to describe the normal arterial distribution pattern in the head and neck of this species. The divisions of the common carotid arteries, to which branches of the vertebral arteries are attached, irrigate the head and cranial parts of the neck. The arterial distribution pattern in the head and neck of the pampas deer was found to be similar to that described for other cervids and bovines but showed important differences from that for the ovine. The pampas deer had a bicarotid trunk, in contrast to other cervids. With regard to domestic animals, the lack of a fully developed internal carotid artery and the marked presence of a linguofacial trunk mean that it resembles the arterial distribution described for bovines.


Assuntos
Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/irrigação sanguínea , Pescoço/irrigação sanguínea , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 21(4): 359-369, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658297

RESUMO

This study combines finite element method and animal studies, aiming to investigate tissue remodelling processes around dental implants inserted into sika deer antler and to develop an alternative animal consuming model for studying bone remodelling around implants. Implants were inserted in the antlers and loaded immediately via a self-developed loading device. After 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, implants and surrounding tissue were taken out. Specimens were scanned by µCT scanner and finite element models were generated. Immediate loading and osseointegration conditions were simulated at the implant-tissue interface. A vertical force of 10 N was applied on the implant. During the healing time, density and Young's modulus of antler tissue around the implant increased significantly. For each time point, the values of displacement, stresses and strains in the osseointegration model were lower than those of the immediate loading model. As the healing time increased, the displacement of implants was reduced. The 3-week immediate loading model (9878 ± 1965 µstrain) illustrated the highest strains in the antler tissue. Antler tissue showed similar biomechanical properties as human bone in investigating the bone remodelling around implants, therefore the use of sika deer antler model is a promising alternative in implant biomechanical studies.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Implantes Dentários , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Masculino , Osseointegração , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga
14.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 39, 2018 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic and environmental mechanisms governing variation in morphology or phenology in wild populations is currently an important challenge. While there is a general consensus that selection is stronger under stressful conditions, it remains unclear whether the evolutionary potential of traits should increase or decrease with increasingly stressful conditions. Here, we investigate how contrasting environmental conditions during growth may affect the maternal and genetic components of body mass in roe deer, the most abundant and widespread wild ungulate in Western Europe. Body mass is a key life history trait that strongly influences both survival and reproductive performance in large herbivores. We used pedigrees and animal models to determine the variance components of juvenile and adult winter body mass in two populations experiencing contrasting early-life conditions. RESULTS: Our analyses showed that roe deer at Chizé, where habitat was poor and unpredictable, exhibited very low genetic variance in juvenile body mass. Instead, variance in mass was mainly driven by among-cohort differences in early-life conditions and maternal environment. In contrast, roe deer at Bogesund, where resource availability during the critical period of fawn rearing was higher, displayed a substantial level of genetic variance in body mass. We discuss the potential role of past demography and viability selection on fawn body mass on the erosion of genetic variance in the poor habitat. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of accounting for both spatial (i.e. between-population variation) and temporal (i.e. cohort variation) heterogeneity in environmental conditions, especially in early life, to understand the potential for adaptive responses of wild populations to selection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Demografia , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
15.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 47(2): 133-139, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205895

RESUMO

This research is a study about the arterial vascularization of pelvic cavity and pelvic limb in pampas deer. For this study, 25 dead animals were used. The vascularization of the organs was investigated using a latex injection technique. Two animals were injected in the common carotid artery with contrast to cardiac angiography, and then, radiographs were taken. The aorta showed the two external iliac arteries, and after a short course, the aorta ended in two internal iliac arteries. The median sacral artery was originated from the dorsal surface cranially to the emergence of the internal iliac arteries. The last one gave off parietal (iliolumbar, cranial and caudal gluteal arteries) and visceral (umbilical and internal pudendal arteries) branches. The external iliac artery gave as first branch the deep circumflex iliac artery which was divided into a cranial and a caudal branch. After a short distance from the external iliac artery, the femoral and deep femoral arteries were originated. The deep femoral artery gave origin to the pudendoepigastric trunk and to the medial femoral circumflex artery. Based on the arterial distribution of the pelvic cavity and pelvic limb in the pampas deer, it is concluded that the internal iliac artery has a pattern of intermediate development. In reference to the distribution of the external iliac artery and its branches, the pattern of development is the cranial tibial type.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/veterinária , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Ilíaca/anatomia & histologia , Masculino
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(1): 128-132, 2018 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199212

RESUMO

This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Artéria Torácica Interna/anatomia & histologia , República da Coreia , Artéria Subclávia/anatomia & histologia
17.
Laterality ; 23(1): 1-19, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276876

RESUMO

Individuals often display a preference for one side of their body during aggressive encounters. This may be a lateralized preference for using one structure of a bilateral trait during display or physical attack, or for keeping the opponent in one visual field. Alternatively, it may be the case that behavioural lateralization and the degree of symmetry expressed by bilateral structures are correlated forms of developmental instability. We examined whether there was an association between lateralization during a lateral display and different measurements of antler size and symmetry (beam length, beam circumference, brow tine length and coronet circumference). Three models addressed different structural measures: the right antler, the larger antler and antler symmetry. Results showed that beam length was negatively associated with behavioural lateralization irrespective of structural measure. A second analysis using a composite score of the four antler measurements, one for each structural measure, showed that only antler symmetry was negatively associated with lateralization during lateral display. Therefore, our second prediction was supported. We discuss these findings in relation to predator detection capability and stress reduction in prey species such as the fallow deer.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Chifres de Veado/citologia , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia
18.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 77(2): 266-271, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical characteristics of the haemal nodes located in the abdominal and thoracic cavities in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 2 adult male and 2 adult female roe deers in addition to 2 roe deer foetuses at the late foetal stages were used. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique was applied to anti-CD3, anti-CD79acy, anti--macrophage, anti-S100 primary antibodies. RESULTS: Positive results were gained for all the antibodies used. Many CD3 positive T-lymphocytes were seen in the lymphoid tissue areas of the foetal haemal nodes, in the germinal centre of the lymph follicles of the adult haemal nodes and in their lymphatic cords. CD79acy positive cells were less in number while S-100 protein was positive in both lymph follicles and in sinuses of the adult haemal nodes. In foetal haemal nodes, cells positive for S-100 protein were more prevalent in the sinuses. For the MAC387 primary antibody, there were positive macrophages seen in the capsule and trabeculae of the haemal nodes, located denser in males. Macrophage cells in the lymphoid structures and granulocytes in the sinuses of the haemal nodes of both adults and foetuses were positive for MAC387. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first one to define the detailed structural features immunohistochemically in the haemal nodes of the roe deer. Even it's concluded that the results were similar with the other ruminants, it's also pointed out that there are certain differences among the foetal, adult male and female haemal nodes of the roe deer. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 266-271).


Assuntos
Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 1013-1016, maio-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912063

RESUMO

The aim was to study pregnant cervus in captivity, to obtain body morphometric data, serum progesterone concentrations, and pH of the vagina. Females of cervus (Cervus unicolor), (n=8) between 2 and 3 years old were used in November during breeding season. After sedation, in one collection, the following was measured: body weight 54.50 ± 18.70kg, body length 1.21 ± 0.16m, height at withers 0.75 ± 0.08m, thoracic perimeter 0.84 ± 0.12m, and body mass index 97.32 ± 10.50kg / m2. After sedation, blood samples were collected to measure progesterone concentration by radioimmunoassay and the use of an indicator tape to obtain the pH of the vagina was performed eight times at four day intervals in the eight females, in a total of 64 samples for each exam. Data were analyzed, and significance was at 5%. There were no differences (P> 0.05) between measurements for serum progesterone concentrations and pH of the vagina. The correlations between body weight, progesterone, pH, and body mass index were not significant (P> 0.05). There was no significant oscillation of progesterone concentration and pH of the vagina in the pregnancy period studied.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Progesterona/análise , Endocrinologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1370-1376, Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-893144

RESUMO

RESUMEN: El pudú (Pudu puda) pertenece a la familia Cervidae y se estima que su población actual total es menor a 10.000 ejemplares, razón por la cual se encuentra en la categoría de "Casi Amenazado" y dentro de la lista roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). La causa de la reducción de su población, es la pérdida y la fragmentación de los bosques del sur de Chile, caza, depredación, atropellos, entre otros. En las últimas situaciones mencionadas, es frecuente observar lesiones en la zona corporal caudal y miembros pélvicos del animal. Debido a lo anterior, se considera importante generar estudios morfológicos en el pudú que puedan ser un aporte en el conocimiento de ésta especie en particular. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo anatómico del miembro pélvico de un ejemplar de pudú hembra. Se describió la musculatura y sus principales relaciones con vasos sanguíneos y nervios desde proximal hacia distal, dividiendo al miembro pélvico en cuatro regiones topográficas: cintura pélvica, femoral, crural y del pie. Además, se realizó de forma complementaria un estudio morfométrico de cada región topográfica y cada músculo que la compone. Los resultados fueron comparados con rumiantes domésticos, en relación a lo descrito en la bibliografía anatómica clásica, observando que el ejemplar analizado posee características anatómicas similares a lo descrito para pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, existen diferencias importantes de tomar en consideración, tales como: el m. de la fascia lata presenta dos porciones sobrepuestas; el m. sóleo presenta un mayor desarrollo; el paquete vasculo nervioso femoral se observa atravesando la porción craneal del m. sartorio y el m. gracilis forma parte del tendón calcáneo común. La información entregada en este estudio corresponde a un aporte anatómico que permite ampliar el conocimiento científico de ésta especie poco estudiada, protegida y vulnerable.


SUMMARY: The Pudu (Pudu puda) belongs to the family Cervidae and it is estimated that its total current population is less than 10,000 specimen, which is why it is part of the "Near Threatened" category and on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The cause of the reduction of its population is the loss and the fragmentation of the forests of the south of Chile, hunting, predation, crashes, among others. In the latter situations, it is common to observe injuries in the caudal area and pelvic limbs of the animal. Due to the above, it is considered important to generate morphological studies in the Pudú that can be a contribution in the knowledge of this particular species. The present study corresponds to an anatomical descriptive study of the pelvic limb of a female Pudú. Musculature and its main relationships with blood vessels and nerves were described from proximal to distal, dividing the pelvic limb into four topographic regions: pelvic waist, femoral, crural and foot. In addition, a morphometric study of each topographic region and each muscle was performed as complementary analysis. The results were compared to domestic ruminants, in relation to those described in the classic anatomical bibliography, observing that the analyzed specimen has anatomical characteristics similar to that described for small ruminants, however, several important differences were observed and should be taken into consideration: the M. tensor fascia latae presents two overlapping portions; the M. soleus is more developed; the vasculature of the femoral nerve is observed through the cranial portion of the M. sartorius and M. gracilis is part of the common calcaneus tendon. The information provided in this study corresponds to an anatomical contribution that allows furthering scientific knowledge of this protected and vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Pelve/inervação
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