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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869366

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamics of ungulate populations is critical given their ecological and economic importance. In particular, the ability to evaluate the evidence for potential drivers of variation in population trajectories is important for informed management. However, the use of age ratio data (e.g., juveniles:adult females) as an index of variation in population dynamics is hindered by a lack of statistical power and difficult interpretation. Here, we show that the use of a population model based on count, classification and harvest data can dramatically improve the understanding of ungulate population dynamics by: 1) providing estimates of vital rates (e.g., per capita recruitment and population growth) that are easier to interpret and more useful to managers than age ratios and 2) increasing the power to assess potential sources of variation in key vital rates. We used a time series of elk (Cervus canadensis) spring count and classification data (2004 to 2016) and fall harvest data from hunting districts in western Montana to construct a population model to estimate vital rates and assess evidence for an association between a series of environmental covariates and indices of predator abundance on per capita recruitment rates of elk calves. Our results suggest that per capita recruitment rates were negatively associated with cold and wet springs, and severe winters, and positively associated with summer precipitation. In contrast, an analysis of the raw age ratio data failed to detect these relationships. Our approach based on a population model provided estimates of the region-wide mean per capita recruitment rate (mean = 0.25, 90% CI = 0.21, 0.29), temporal variation in hunting-district-specific recruitment rates (minimum = 0.09; 90% CI = [0.07, 0.11], maximum = 0.43; 90% CI = [0.38, 0.48]), and annual population growth rates (minimum = 0.83; 90% CI = [0.78, 0.87], maximum = 1.20; 90% CI = [1.11, 1.29]). We recommend using routinely collected population count and classification data and a population modeling approach rather than interpreting estimated age ratios as a substantial improvement in understanding population dynamics.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Montana/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Resolução de Problemas , Estações do Ano
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 129, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric methane from the ruminant livestock is a significant source in global greenhouse gas emissions, which is mainly generated by the methanogens inhabiting the rumen and cecum. Sika deer (Cervus nippon) not only produces less methane than bovine, but they also harbor a distinct methanogen community. Whereas, knowledge of methanogens colonization in the rumen and cecum of sika deer is relatively still unknown, which could provide more insights to the manipulation of gut microbiota during early life. RESULTS: Here, we examined the development of bacteria and methanogens in the rumen and cecum of juvenile sika deer from birth to post-weaning (1 day, 42 days and 70 days, respectively) based on next generation sequencing. The results showed that the facultative anaerobic bacteria were decreased and the cellulolytic bacteria were increased. However, methanogens established soon after birth thrived through the whole developmental period, indicating a different succession process than bacteria in the GIT, and the limited role of age and dietary change on GIT methanogens. We also found Methanobrevibacter spp. (Mean relative abundance = 44.2%) and Methanocorpusculum spp. (Mean relative abundance = 57.5%) were dominated in the rumen and cecum, respectively. The methanogens also formed specific correlations with bacteria under different niches, suggesting a role of ecology niche on methanogen community. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our knowledge about the microbial succession in GIT of sika deer, that may facilitate the development of targeted strategies to improve GIT function of sika deer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Anaerobiose , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cervos/microbiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Theriogenology ; 134: 53-64, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132721

RESUMO

The red brocket deer (Mazama americana), a medium-sized Neotropical ungulate, is one of the most hunted mammals in the Amazon. This study analyzes the intrauterine development in the red brocket deer through the description of the external and internal morphology in one embryo and 38 fetuses collected from animals hunted for subsistence in the Amazon. The chronological order of occurrence of external characteristics in relation to the total dorsal length (TDL) was: differentiated genitalia, limbs and eyelid buds (TDL = 3.9 cm), fusioned eyelids, outer ear and hooves (TDL ≥ 9.5 cm), skin (TDL ≥ 20.4 cm), tactile pelage and nasal pigmentation (TDL ≥ 21.5 cm), covering pelage and skin spots (TDL ≥ 31.3 cm), and teeth eruption and opened eyelids (TDL ≥ 34.2 cm). The formula of fetal age was ∛W = 0.072 (t - 42), with a high linear relationship between TDL and gestational age. Multiple linear and non-linear regressions showed strong positive associations between biometric measures and absolute visceral weights with TDL. The relative weight of the tubular gastrointestinal organs, spleen and thymus increased during the fetal development; in contrast, the liver and kidneys' relative weight diminished during the fetal development. Advanced fetuses (≥44.0 cm TDL) had lower proportion of liver and larger tubular gastrointestinal organs within the visceral weight than adults. The chronology of appearance of the main events of the fetal development suggests that the red brocket deer adopt some precocial features, such as the early development of the sensorial function, including the early development of eyelids, outer ear and tactile pelage, the early development of the covering pelage which acts in thermoregulation and the early teeth eruption which allows the early foraging. Nevertheless, the precocial level of the red brocket deer is apparently lower than other species more frequently predated by large felids, such as peccaries and the paca.


Assuntos
Cervos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Animais , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/patologia , Análise de Regressão , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 173, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented rapid growth rate (up to 2.75 cm/day), velvet antler is an invaluable model for the identification of potent growth factors and signaling networks for extremely fast growing tissues, mainly cartilage. Antler growth center (AGC) locates in its tip and consists of five tissue layers: reserve mesenchyme (RM), precartilage (PC), transition zone (TZ), cartilage (CA) and mineralized cartilage (MC). The aim of this study was to investigate the transcription dynamics in the AGC using RNA-seq technology. RESULTS: Five tissue layers in the AGC were collected from three 3-year-old male sika deer using our previously reported sampling method (morphologically distinguishable). After sequencing (15 samples; triplicates/tissue layer), we assembled a reference transcriptome de novo and used RNA-seq to measure gene expression profiles across these five layers. Nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected from our data and subsequently verified using qRT-PCR. The results showed a high consistency with the RNA-seq results (R2 = 0.80). Nine modules were constructed based on co-expression network analysis, and these modules contained 370 hub genes. These genes were found to be mainly involved in mesenchymal progenitor cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Combination of our own results with the previously published reports, we found that Wnt signaling likely plays a key role not only in stimulating the antler stem cells or their immediate progeny, but also in promoting chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during antler development. CONCLUSION: We have successfully assembled a reference transcriptome, generated gene expression profiling across the five tissue layers in the AGC, and identified nine co-expressed modules that contain 370 hub genes and genes predorminantly expressed in and highly relevant to each tissue layer. We believe our findings have laid the foundation for the identification of novel genes for rapid proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of antler cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cervos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Condrogênese/genética , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Osteogênese/genética
5.
J Biosci ; 44(1)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837362

RESUMO

Antler growth is a unique event compared to other growth and development processes in mammals. Antlers grow extremely fast during the rapid growth stage when growth rate peaks at 2 cm per day. Antler growth is driven by a specific endochondral ossification process in the growth center that is in the distal region of the antler tip. In this study, we used state-of-art RNA-seq technology to analyze the expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs during antler growth. Our results indicated that the expression levels of multiple genes involved in chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification, including Fn1, Sox9, Col2a1, Acan, Col9a1, Col11a1, Hapln1, Wwp2, Fgfr3, Comp, Sp7 and Ihh, were significantly increased at the rapid growth stage. Our results also indicated that there were multiple differentially expressed miRNAs interacting with differentially expressed genes with opposite expression patterns. Furthermore, some of the miRNAs, including miR-3072-5p, miR-1600, miR-34-5p, miR-6889-5p and miR-6729-5p, simultaneously interacted with and controlled multiple genes involved in the process of chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Therefore, we established a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network by identifying miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed in the antler growth centers by comparing the rapid growth stage and the initial growth stage.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Condrogênese/genética , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Osteogênese/genética
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(4): 1938-1945, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deer-meat consumption is increasing in several countries based on claims that it is a healthy red meat. This study assessed the effect of slaughter age (low - 26 months and younger; medium - from 27 months to younger than 42 months; and high - 42 months and older) on carcass characteristics and meat physicochemical properties of 150 Iberian wild red deer. RESULTS: Whole carcass yields of neck, backbone and flank increased (P < 0.001) with age, while yields of shoulder, tenderloin and leg decreased (P < 0.05) with age. The pH measured at 48 h post mortem at 9th rib level was not affected by age, while pH measured at 72 h post mortem at the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle decreased (P < 0.05) with age. Meat chemical composition was not affected by slaughter age, except for intramuscular fat (IMF), which increased (P < 0.05) with slaughter age. Finally, cooking loss and shear force were higher (P < 0.05) in meat from older deer. CONCLUSION: Most characteristics of meat from wild red deer depend on age at slaughter. The greater IMF of meat from older animals may render it more palatable. However, meat shear force also increased with age. Additional studies testing palatability seem to be necessary to evaluate the effects of slaughter age on the sensorial quality of meat from Iberian wild red deer. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne/análise , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culinária , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/química , Espanha , Paladar
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 76(1): 76-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443665

RESUMO

Animals living in anthropogenic habitats bear a multitude of costs, which are directly or indirectly associated with human activities. Among others, an elevated exposure to environmental pollution can have negative consequences for wildlife populations. We examined the differences in the concentrations of trace elements between the field and forest ecotype of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Naturally, roe deer inhabited various types of woodlands (forest ecotype), but within the last century, they adapted to life in a human-transformed agricultural areas (field ecotype), which could be associated with an increased exposure to pollution. In this study, we measured concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in skull bones and permanent teeth of more than 230 roe deer from 8 study plots in East-Central Europe. We found that field roe deer had higher concentrations of four trace metals (copper, iron, lead, strontium) and fluoride compared with forest roe deer. These differences were consistent with variations in the general level of environmental contamination within the study plots, as assessed with trace element content in wild plants. Our study indicates that bone and teeth of the European roe deer can be used as a valid indicator of environmental pollution. Also, we expect that elevated exposure of field roe deer to environmental pollution can have negative consequences for wild populations of this species, as well as for the consumers of venison.


Assuntos
Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecótipo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Osso e Ossos/química , Cervos/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dente/química
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(4): 1561-1567, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effect of age (L, less than 27 months old; M, from 27 to 42 months old; H, 43 months and older) on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, amino acid composition and mineral content of 150 Iberian wild red deer meat samples. RESULTS: Intramuscular fat content increased (P < 0.05) with age (0.05 vs 0.12 vs 0.34% for L, M and H groups respectively), while cholesterol content decreased (P < 0.05) as the slaughter age increased (52.78 vs 48.72 vs 45.34 mg per 100 g meat for L, M and H groups respectively). The slaughter age showed differences among groups for saturated fatty acids, with the highest content in older animals (30.41 vs 34.55 vs 38.21% for L, M and H groups respectively), whereas younger deer displayed the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (50.05 vs 45.24 vs 37.55% for L, M and H groups respectively). The n-6/n-3 ratio was more favorable (P < 0.05) for young and medium ages compared with that for older animals. In contrast, amino acid profile and mineral content were only slightly affected by age. CONCLUSION: As a general conclusion, wild red deer meat could be considered a good alternative to red meats for human consumption. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne Vermelha/análise , Fatores Etários , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Espanha
9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(2): 431-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539301

RESUMO

Velvet antler displays the fastest and most robust tissue proliferation in the animal world, it is a model for a complete organ development/regeneration, and alternative medicine, tonic made from velvet antler, was beneficial for human. The weight of velvet antler had high biomedical and economic value, but the related regulation mechanisms controlling velvet antler weight remain unclear. In this study, extremely heavy and light velvet antler groups were selected from a sika deer population of 100 individuals with extreme velvet antler weight. A combination of full-length transcriptome sequencing and microRNA sequencing to the proliferation zone in the tip of velvet antler was applied. A total of 55306 transcripts and 1082 microRNAs were identified. Some highly expressed genes (COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, FN1, and ATP6) and microRNAs (miR-21, let-7i, and miR-27b) were highly correlated with the physiological and growth characteristics of velvet antlers. Among the 334 differentially expressed genes, we found that most of the genes were located in the developmental process, especially animal organ development process. It is exciting to see that more blood vessels were found in the growing tip of heavy velvet antler through histological observation, and GO term of blood vessel development was also significant different between two groups. The combination analysis with mRNA and microRNA data in velvet antler showed a specific regulation network involved in the development of bone, mesenchyme, cartilage, and blood vessel, and helped us clearly find out the candidate 14 genes and 6 microRNAs, which could be used for selecting significant DNA markers of velvet antler weight.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Cervos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Regeneração/genética
10.
Genome ; 61(12): 829-841, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395487

RESUMO

Deer antlers are amazing appendages with the fastest growth rate among mammalian organs. Antler growth is driven by the growth center through a modified endochondral ossification process. Thus, identification of signaling pathways functioning in antler growth center would help us to uncover the underlying molecular mechanism of rapid antler growth. Furthermore, exploring and dissecting the molecular mechanism that regulates antler growth is extremely important and helpful for identifying methods to enhance long bone growth and treat cartilage- and bone-related diseases. In this study, we build a comprehensive intercellular signaling network in antler growth centers from both the slow growth stage and rapid growth stage using a state-of-art RNA-Seq approach. This network includes differentially expressed genes that regulate the activation of multiple signaling pathways, including the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, and adherens junction. These signaling pathways coordinately control multiple biological processes, including chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, matrix homeostasis, mechanobiology, and aging processes, during antler growth in a comprehensive and efficient manner. Therefore, our study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating antler growth and provides valuable and powerful insight for medical research on therapeutic strategies targeting skeletal disorders and related cartilage and bone diseases.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(10): 1619-1625, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177803

RESUMO

Sexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. Many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. Here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator-prey system in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific weapon trait (antler retention time) in their primary cervid prey (elk). Male elk face a trade-off: individuals casting antlers early begin regrowth before other males, resulting in relatively larger antlers the following year, and thus greater reproductive success, as indicated by research with red deer. We show, however, that male elk that cast their antlers early are preferentially hunted and killed by wolves, despite early casters being in better nutritional condition than antlered individuals. Our results run counter to classic expectations of coursing predators preferring poorer-conditioned individuals, and in so doing, reveal an important secondary function for an exaggerated sexually selected weapon-predatory deterrence. We suggest this secondary function played a key evolutionary role in elk; uniquely among North American cervids, they retain their antlers long after they fulfil their primary role in reproduction.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Lobos/fisiologia , Animais , Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Wyoming
12.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195247, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621287

RESUMO

Offspring survival is generally more variable than adult survival and may limit population growth. Although white-tailed deer neonate survival has been intensively investigated, recent work has emphasized how specific cover types influence neonate survival at local scales (single study area). These localized investigations have often led to inconsistences within the literature. Developing specific hypotheses describing the relationships among environmental, habitat, and landscape factors influencing white-tailed deer neonate survival at regional scales may allow for detection of generalized patterns. Therefore, we developed 11 hypotheses representing the various effects of environmental (e.g., winter and spring weather), habitat (e.g., hiding and escape cover types), and landscape factors (e.g., landscape configuration regardless of specific cover type available) on white-tailed deer neonate survival up to one-month and from one- to three-months of age. At one-month, surviving fawns experienced a warmer lowest recorded June temperature and more June precipitation than those that perished. At three-months, patch connectance (percent of patches of the corresponding patch type that are connected within a predefined distance) positively influenced survival. Our results are consistent with white-tailed deer neonate ecology: increased spring temperature and precipitation are likely associated with a flush of nutritional resources available to the mother, promoting increased lactation efficiency and neonate growth early in life. In contrast, reduced spring temperature with increased precipitation place neonates at risk to hypothermia. Increased patch connectance likely reflects increased escape cover available within a neonate's home range after they are able to flee from predators. If suitable escape cover is available on the landscape, then managers could focus efforts towards manipulating landscape configuration (patch connectance) to promote increased neonate survival while monitoring spring weather to assess potential influences on current year survival.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevida/fisiologia , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Geografia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
DNA Cell Biol ; 37(1): 15-22, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185790

RESUMO

Deer antlers are amazing natural appendages that grow faster than any other known mammalian bone. Antler growth occurs at the tip and is initially cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue. However, little is known regarding the precise role of cooperation between cell lineages and functional genes in regulating antler growth, and molecular mechanisms responsible for rapid growth remain elusive. In this study, we use an RNA-Seq approach to elucidate the full spectrum of cell lineages, functional genes, and their cooperative interactions during antler growth. We identify Sox9 as a pivotal transcription factor during chondrogenesis and skeletal development expressed in the chondrocyte lineage from the multipotent mesenchymal precursor stage through most subsequent cell differentiation stages with a particularly strong activity in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, we analyze the miRNA expression patterns at initial growth stage and rapid growth stage and identify several miRNAs that involve in regulating antler chondrogenesis and rapid growth. Among these miRNAs, miR-140 plays pivotal role during antler growth by targeting Sox9 and vice versa.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
14.
Laterality ; 23(1): 1-19, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276876

RESUMO

Individuals often display a preference for one side of their body during aggressive encounters. This may be a lateralized preference for using one structure of a bilateral trait during display or physical attack, or for keeping the opponent in one visual field. Alternatively, it may be the case that behavioural lateralization and the degree of symmetry expressed by bilateral structures are correlated forms of developmental instability. We examined whether there was an association between lateralization during a lateral display and different measurements of antler size and symmetry (beam length, beam circumference, brow tine length and coronet circumference). Three models addressed different structural measures: the right antler, the larger antler and antler symmetry. Results showed that beam length was negatively associated with behavioural lateralization irrespective of structural measure. A second analysis using a composite score of the four antler measurements, one for each structural measure, showed that only antler symmetry was negatively associated with lateralization during lateral display. Therefore, our second prediction was supported. We discuss these findings in relation to predator detection capability and stress reduction in prey species such as the fallow deer.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Chifres de Veado/citologia , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15234, 2017 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123212

RESUMO

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in the western United States provide many benefits to local economies but can also cause considerable damage to agriculture, particularly damage to lucrative crops. Limited information exists to understand resource selection of mule deer in response to annual variation in crop rotation and climatic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that mule deer select certain crops, and in particular sunflower, based on annual climatic variability. Our objective was to use movements, estimates of home range, and resource selection analysis to identify resources selected by mule deer. We used annually-derived crop-specific datasets along with Global Positioning System collars to monitor 14 mule deer in an agricultural area near public lands in southwestern Colorado, USA. We estimated home ranges for two winter seasons that ranged between 7.68 and 9.88 km2, and for two summer seasons that ranged between 5.51 and 6.24 km2. Mule deer selected areas closer to forest and alfalfa for most periods during 2012, but selected areas closer to sunflower in a majority of periods during 2013. Considerable annual variation in climate patterns and precipitation levels appeared to influence selection by mule deer because of variability in crop rotation and success of germination of specific crops.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Clima , Colorado , Locomoção
16.
J Vis Exp ; (126)2017 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809837

RESUMO

Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded. This protocol describes how we designed a controlled study, where other factors that influence phenotype, such as age and nutrition, are controlled. We brought wild-caught pregnant females and six-month-old fawns from three distinct physiographic regions in Mississippi, USA to the Mississippi State University Rusty Dawkins Memorial Deer Unit. Deer from the same region were bred to produce a second generation of offspring, allowing us to assess generational responses and maternal effects. All deer ate the same high-quality (20% crude protein deer pellet) diet ad libitum. We uniquely marked each neonate and recorded body mass, hind foot, and total body length. Each subsequent fall, we sedated individuals via remote injection and sampled the same morphometrics plus antlers of adults. We found that all morphometrics increased in size from first to second generation, with full compensation of antler size (regional variation no longer present) and partial compensation of body mass (some evidence of regional variation) evident in the second generation. Second generation males that originated from our poorest quality soil region displayed about a 40% increase in antler size and about a 25% increase in body mass when compared to their wild harvested counterparts. Our results suggest phenotypic variation of wild male white-tailed deer in Mississippi are more related to differences in nutritional quality than population-level genetics.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Dieta , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Mississippi , Fenótipo , Solo , Telemetria/instrumentação , Telemetria/métodos
17.
Anim Sci J ; 88(3): 463-467, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481564

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) supplementation on nutrient digestibility and antler growth in male sika deer. Twenty 3-year-old male sika deer were divided into four groups (Control, T40, T80 and T120). The control diet contained 22.2 mg Mn/kg. The treatment diets were supplemented with 40, 80 and 120 mg of Mn/kg (provided as Mn methionine). The results showed that the digestibility of dry matter and crude protein in the T80 group was greater than other groups. Higher digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was observed in the T80 group than in the control group. Plasma Mn concentrations in the T80 and T120 groups were higher (P < 0.01) than control and T40 group (P < 0.01). The concentration of Mn in feces was increased with increasing Mn amount. Average daily gain of fresh antler and dry antler of T80 was greater than other groups, especially the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the suitable level of Mn supplementation was found to be 80 mg/kg (total Mn content 103.4 mg/kg dry matter), which significantly increased antler daily gain and feed digestibility in 3-year-old sika deer.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Alimentos , Masculino , Manganês/farmacologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(11)2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27792145

RESUMO

As the only known organ that can completely regenerate in mammals, deer antler is of real significance in the field of regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that the regenerative capacity of the antlers comes from the pedicle periosteum and the cells resident in the periosteum possess the attributes of stem cells. Currently, the molecular mechanism of antler regeneration remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the potentiated and dormant antler stem cells using isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling of the peptides, coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to compare the proteome profiles. Proteins were identified by searching against the NCBI nr database and our own Cervine transcriptome database, and bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Based on this searching strategy, we identified 169 differentially expressed proteins in total, consisting of 70 up- and 99 down-regulated in the potentiated vs. dormant antler stem cells. Reliability of the iTRAQ was confirmed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure the expression of selected genes. We identified transduction pathways through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, such as HIF-1 and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways that play important roles in regulating the regeneration of antlers. In summary, the initiation stage of antler regeneration, a process from dormant to potentiated states in antler stem cells, is regulated by multiple proteins and complicated signal networks.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma/biossíntese , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cervos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Medicina Regenerativa , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(13): 3585-90, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26979959

RESUMO

Inbreeding depression is of major concern for the conservation of threatened species, and inbreeding avoidance is thought to be a key driver in the evolution of mating systems. However, the estimation of individual inbreeding coefficients in natural populations has been challenging, and, consequently, the full effect of inbreeding on fitness remains unclear. Genomic inbreeding coefficients may resolve the long-standing paucity of data on inbreeding depression in adult traits and total fitness. Here we investigate inbreeding depression in a range of life history traits and fitness in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Scotland using individual inbreeding coefficients derived from dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data (Fgrm). We find associations between[Formula: see text]and annual breeding success in both sexes, and between maternal inbreeding coefficient and offspring survival. We also confirm previous findings of inbreeding depression in birth weight and juvenile survival. In contrast, inbreeding coefficients calculated from a deep and comparatively complete pedigree detected inbreeding depression in juvenile survival, but not in any adult fitness component. The total effect of inbreeding on lifetime breeding success (LBS) was substantial in both sexes: for Fgrm = 0.125, a value resulting from a half-sib mating, LBS declined by 72% for females and 95% for males. Our results demonstrate that SNP-based estimates of inbreeding provide a powerful tool for evaluating inbreeding depression in natural populations, and suggest that, to date, the prevalence of inbreeding depression in adult traits may have been underestimated.


Assuntos
Cervos/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Endogamia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Escócia
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 291(2): 943-55, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738876

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can effectively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a critical role in tissue growth, development and regeneration. Our previous studies showed that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process and antler stem cells reside in the periosteum of a pedicle, the permanent bony protuberance, from which antler regeneration takes place. Antlers are the only mammalian organ that can fully regenerate and hence provide a unique opportunity to identify miRNAs that are involved in organ regeneration. In the present study, we used next generation sequencing technology sequenced miRNAs of the stem cells derived from either the potentiated or the dormant pedicle periosteum. A population of both conserved and 20 deer-specific miRNAs was identified. These conserved miRNAs were derived from 453 homologous hairpin precursors across 88 animal species, and were further grouped into 167 miRNA families. Among them, the miR-296 is embryonic stem cell-specific. The potentiation process resulted in the significant regulation (>±2 Fold, q value <0.05) of conserved miRNAs; 8 miRNA transcripts were down- and 6 up-regulated. Several GO biology processes and the Wnt, MAPK and TGF-beta signaling pathways were found to be up-regulated as part of antlerogenic stem cell potentiation process. This research has identified miRNAs that are associated either with the dormant or the potentiated antler stem cells and identified some target miRNAs for further research into their role played in mammalian organ regeneration.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Chifres de Veado/citologia , Cervos/genética , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
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