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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225990, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929559

RESUMO

The physiological effects of short-term stress responses typically lead to increased individual survival as it prepares the body for fight or flight through catabolic reactions in the body. These physiological effects trade off against growth, immunocompetence, reproduction, and even long-term survival. Chronic stress may thus reduce individual and population performance, with direct implications for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. Yet, relatively little is known about how chronic stress levels vary across wild populations and factors contributing to increased chronic stress levels. One method to measure long-term stress in mammals is to quantify slowly incorporated stress hormone (cortisol) in hair, which most likely reflect a long-term average of the stress responses. In this study, we sampled 237 harvested moose Alces alces across Sweden to determine the relative effect of landscape variables and disturbances on moose hair cortisol levels. We used linear model combinations and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample sizes), and included variables related to human disturbance, ungulate competition, large carnivore density, and ambient temperature to estimate the covariates that best explained the variance in stress levels in moose. The most important variables explaining the variation in hair cortisol levels in moose were the long-term average temperature sum in the area moose lived and the distance to occupied wolf territory; higher hair cortisol levels were detected where temperatures were higher and closer to occupied wolf territories, respectively.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Feminino , Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Suécia , Temperatura , Lobos/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881043

RESUMO

Effective landscape-scale management of source-sink deer populations will be strengthened by understanding whether local variation in habitat quality drives heterogeneity in productivity. We related female roe deer Capreolus capreolus fecundity and body mass to habitat composition and landscape context, separately for adults and yearlings, using multi-model inference (MMI) applied to a large sample of individuals (yearlings: fecundity = 202, body mass = 395; adults: fecundity = 908, body mass = 1669) culled during 2002-2015 from an extensive (195 km2) heterogeneous forest landscape. Adults were heavier (inter-quartile, IQ, effect size = +0.5kg) when culled in buffers comprising more arable lands while contrary to our prediction no effects on body mass of grassland, young forest or access to vegetation on calcareous soil were found. Heavier adults were more fertile (IQ effect size, +12% probability of having two embryos instead of one or zero). Counter-intuitively, adults with greater access to arable lands were less fecund (IQ effect of arable: -7% probability of having two embryos, instead of one or zero), and even accounting for greater body mass of adults with access to arable, their modelled fecundity was similar to or lower than that of adults in the forest interior. In contrast, effects of grassland, young forest and calcareous soil did not receive support. Yearling body mass had an effect on fecundity twice that found in adults (+23% probability of having one additional embryo), but yearling body mass and fecundity were not affected by any candidate habitat or landscape variables. Effect of arable lands on body mass and fecundity were small, with little variance explained (Coefficient of Variation of predicted fecundity across forest sub-regions = 0.03 for adults). More variance in fecundity was attributed to other differences between forest management sub-regions (modelled as random effects), suggesting other factors might be important. When analysing source-sink population dynamics to support management, an average value of fecundity can be appropriate across a heterogeneous forest landscape.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Inglaterra , Feminino , Fertilidade , Florestas , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
3.
PLoS Biol ; 17(11): e3000493, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689300

RESUMO

Changing environmental conditions cause changes in the distributions of phenotypic traits in natural populations. However, determining the mechanisms responsible for these changes-and, in particular, the relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity versus evolutionary responses-is difficult. To our knowledge, no study has yet reported evidence that evolutionary change underlies the most widely reported phenotypic response to climate change: the advancement of breeding times. In a wild population of red deer, average parturition date has advanced by nearly 2 weeks in 4 decades. Here, we quantify the contribution of plastic, demographic, and genetic components to this change. In particular, we quantify the role of direct phenotypic plasticity in response to increasing temperatures and the role of changes in the population structure. Importantly, we show that adaptive evolution likely played a role in the shift towards earlier parturition dates. The observed rate of evolution was consistent with a response to selection and was less likely to be due to genetic drift. Our study provides a rare example of observed rates of genetic change being consistent with theoretical predictions, although the consistency would not have been detected with a solely phenotypic analysis. It also provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of both evolution and phenotypic plasticity contributing to advances in phenology in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Parto/genética , Parto/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Fenótipo , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Escócia , Estações do Ano , Seleção Genética/fisiologia
4.
Anim Sci J ; 90(11): 1444-1452, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486226

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate in female roe deer: (a) PAG mRNA relative abundance in endometrial uterine tissue for determination of the duration of embryonic diapause, (b) mRNA relative abundance of progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin (P4, E2, and PRL) receptors (PGR, ESR, and PRLR) during diapause and after implantation in the endometrium; (c) concentration of P4, E2, and PRL in the blood, and (d) a noninvasive method of hormone detection by measurement of P4 and E2 concentrations in feces. A total of fifteen individuals were obtained post mortem during hunting seasons and divided into three experimental groups (November, December, January). The results did not reveal mRNA relative abundance for PAGs in the endometrium or detectable PAG concentrations in the serum of all examined females. Concentration of PRL and mRNA relative abundance for PRLR long isoform in the endometrium was the highest in January (p < .01). mRNA relative abundance for PGR, P4 concentration in the endometrium, serum, and feces was the highest in January (p < .01). Endometrial origin PRL and P4 may be responsible for the termination of this process and pregnancy development after implantation.


Assuntos
Cervos/metabolismo , Cervos/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estradiol/genética , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Gravidez , Progesterona/genética , Progesterona/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo
5.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(5): 662-666, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish and compare the effectiveness of two medetomidine-based immobilization protocols in Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 31 captive Persian fallow deer. METHODS: Deer scheduled for translocation were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine (76 ± 11 µg kg-1) and ketamine (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1) (MK; n = 15) or medetomidine (77 ± 11 µg kg-1) and midazolam (0.10 ± 0.01 mg kg-1) (MM; n = 16) administered intramuscularly. An observer unaware of group assignments recorded times to immobilization and recovery, monitored physiologic variables and scored the quality of induction, immobilization and recovery (scale 1-5: 1, poor; 5, excellent). Atipamezole was administered for reversal. Data analysis was performed using the t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. Significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (range). Time to induce immobilization was 9 ± 4 and 10 ± 4 minutes in the MK and MM groups, respectively. Immobilization quality score was 5 (1-5) following both combinations. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) was significantly lower in the MK (80 ± 8%) than in the MM group (87 ± 8%) although respiratory frequency did not differ between MK and MM (11 ± 5 and 10 ± 2 breaths minute-1, respectively). Recovery times were 13 ± 6 (MK) and 14 ± 7 minutes (MM) and did not differ between groups. No morbidities or mortalities were recorded during 1 month after immobilization. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The MK and MM combinations produced sufficient immobilization in captive Persian fallow deer for short nonpainful procedures. Based on the SpO2 values, the MM combination may be associated with less respiratory depression; nevertheless, both combinations may result in a decrease in SpO2.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Ketamina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Feminino , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285745

RESUMO

Background: Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can be completely regenerated every year. Its periodic regeneration is regulated by multiple factors, including transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). This widely distributed multi-functional growth factor can control the proliferation and differentiation of many types of cell, and it may play a crucial regulatory role in antler regeneration. This study explored the role of TGF-ß1 during the rapid growth of sika deer antler. Methods: Three CRISPR-Cas9 knockout vectors targeting the TGF-ß1 gene of sika deer were constructed and packaged with a lentiviral system. The expression level of TGF-ß1 protein in the knockout cell line was determined using western blot, the proliferation and migration of cartilage cells in vitro were respectively determined using EdU and the cell scratch test, and the expression levels of TGF-ß pathway-related genes were determined using a PCR array. Results: Of the three gRNAs designed, pBOBI-gRNA2 had the best knockout effect. Knockout of TGF-ß1 gene inhibits the proliferation of cartilage cells and enhances their migration in vitro. TGF-ß signaling pathway-related genes undergo significant changes, so we speculate that when the TGF-ß pathway is blocked, the BMP signaling pathway mediated by BMP4 may play a key role. Conclusions: TGF-ß1 is a newly identified regulatory factor of rapid growth in sika deer antler.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Cervos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Chifres de Veado , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cartilagem/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Cervos/genética , Cervos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia
7.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 149-157, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147267

RESUMO

Embryonic diapause in the European roe deer includes a period of five months from August to December in which embryonic development is extremely decelerated. Following exit from diapause, the embryo rapidly elongates and subsequently implants. In diapausing carnivores and marsupials, resumption of embryonic growth is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. In the roe deer, the role of steroid hormones is not known to date. In the present study, progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2) and total estrogens (Etot) were determined in blood plasma and endometrium of roe deer shot in the course of regular huntings between September and December. Steroid hormone concentrations were correlated to the corresponding size of the embryo derived from ex vivo uterine flushing and to the date of sampling. The mean plasma concentrations of P4 (5.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml, mean ± SE, N = 87), E2 (24.3 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 86) and Etot (21.7 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 78) remained constant over the sampling period and were not correlated to embryonic size. Likewise, endometrial concentrations of P4 (66.1 ± 6.5 ng/ml), E2 (284.0 ± 24.43 pg/ml) and, Etot (440.9 ± 24.43 pg/ml) showed no changes over time. Therefore, it was concluded that ovarian steroid hormones do not play a determining role in resumption of embryonic growth following the period of diapause in the roe deer.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Diapausa/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Prenhez , Progesterona/sangue , Animais , Endométrio , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia
8.
Zoo Biol ; 38(4): 355-359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056793

RESUMO

The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a species of Cervidae commonly kept in captivity, either in commercial farms or in zoos. The reproductive seasonality of this species is well known in the northern hemisphere, where photoperiod is a decisive factor in androgenic activity and, consequently, in the development of secondary sexual characteristics among male adults. The maintenance of this species in tropical regions has been successful, but there are no studies that demonstrate the maintenance of reproductive seasonality under these climatic conditions, which was the objective of the present study. To do so, the present investigation involved 27 fallow deer (D. dama) specimens, of which 14 were adults and 13 prepubescent (<8 months) individuals, all assessed during and outside (December-February) the reproductive season (June-August). The serum concentrations of testosterone, testicular volume, and neck circumference were analyzed among all animals during both seasons. The reproductive season was marked by expressive hormonal concentrations, increasing neck circumference and testicular volume, differing significantly between adults and prepubescent individuals outside the season. Positive correlations were observed among all analyzed variables: mean testicular volume and neck circumference (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001), testicular volume and testosterone concentrations (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) and between neck circumference and testosterone concentrations (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001). Given the results found, the conclusion is that even under tropical climate conditions the reproductive seasonality of the fallow deer is well defined and may be related to photoperiod.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Pescoço/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Maturidade Sexual , Clima Tropical
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(2): 128-135, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120647

RESUMO

Rapid expansion of sika deer, in both number and distribution, in the Japanese Archipelago has resulted in serious ecological disturbance. In the present study, the population structure and migration patterns of sika deer (Cervus nippon) among Toyama and adjacent Prefectures were investigated using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in both total and individual regional sika deer samples from Toyama Prefecture. Results of pairwise FST results, factorial correspondence analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis indicated that sika deer in Toyama are not genetically distinct from those in adjacent Prefectures. Bayesian STRUCTURE results suggested the existence of two distinct clusters. However, multiple lines of genetic structure and high admixture were detected across the populations located in the central region of Toyama Prefecture. Both contemporary and historical migration analyses showed that dispersal into Toyama Prefecture from neighboring prefectures was high, especially migration from the prefecture on the east into Toyama Prefecture, and bidirectional dispersion between Toyama Prefecture and the prefecture to the south. Knowledge of such genetic structures and population dynamics is required for appropriate management and conservation of sika deer populations in the Japanese Archipelago.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Cervos/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Japão , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1896): 20181968, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963926

RESUMO

In species with sexual size dimorphism, the offspring of the larger sex usually have greater energy requirements and may lead to greater fitness costs for parents. The effects of offspring sex on maternal longevity, however, have only been tested in humans. Human studies produced mixed results and considerable debate mainly owing to the difficulty of distinguishing the effects of sexual dimorphism from sociocultural factors. To advance this debate, we examined how the relative number of sons influenced maternal longevity in four species of free-living ungulates (Soay sheep Ovis aries; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; red deer, Cervus elaphus; mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus), with high male-biased sexual size dimorphism but without complicating sociocultural variables. We found no evidence for a higher cumulative cost of sons than of daughters on maternal longevity. For a given number of offspring, most females with many sons in all four populations lived longer than females with few sons. The higher cost of sons over daughters on maternal lifespan reported by some human studies may be the exception rather than the rule in long-lived iteroparous species.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Reprodução , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Mães , Carneiro da Montanha/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia
11.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 307-310, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957265

RESUMO

Gender assignment errors are common in some animal species and lead to inaccuracies in downstream analyses. Procedures for detecting gender misassignment are available for array-based SNP data but are still being developed for genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. In this study, we describe a method for using GBS data to predict gender using X and Y chromosomal SNPs. From a set of 1286 X chromosomal and 23 Y chromosomal deer (Cervus sp.) SNPs discovered from GBS sequence reads, a prediction model was built using a training dataset of 422 Red deer and validated using a test dataset of 868 Red deer and Wapiti deer. Prediction was based on the proportion of heterozygous genotypes on the X chromosome and the proportion of non-missing genotypes on the Y chromosome observed in each individual. The concordance between recorded gender and predicted gender was 98.6% in the training dataset and 99.3% in the test dataset. The model identified five individuals across both datasets with incorrect recorded gender and was unable to predict gender for another five individuals. Overall, our method predicted gender with a high degree of accuracy and could be used for quality control in gender assignment datasets or for assigning gender when unrecorded, provided a suitable reference genome is available.


Assuntos
Cervos/genética , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cromossomo X , Cromossomo Y
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947249

RESUMO

Large herbivores facilitate a range of important ecological processes yet globally have experienced high rates of decline and extinction over the past 50,000 years. To some extent this lost function may be replaced through the introduction of ecological surrogate taxa, either by active management or via historic introductions. However, comparing the ecological effects of herbivores that existed in the same location, but at different times, can be a challenging proposition. Here we provide an example from New Zealand that demonstrates an approach for making such comparisons. In New Zealand it has been suggested that post-19th Century mammal introductions (e.g. deer and hare) may have filled ecological niches left vacant after the 15th Century AD extinction of large avian herbivores (moa). We quantified pollen assemblages from fecal samples deposited by these two asynchronous herbivore communities to see whether they were comparable. The fecal samples were collected at the same location, and in a native-dominated vegetation community that has experience little anthropogenic disturbance and their contents reflect both the local habitat and diet preferences of the depositing herbivore. The results reveal that the current forest understory is relatively sparse and species depauperate compared to the prehistoric state, indicating that deer and moa had quite different impacts on the local vegetation community. The study provides an example of how combining coprolite and fecal analyses of prehistoric and modern herbivores may clarify the degree of ecological overlap between asynchronous herbivore communities and provide insights into the extent of ecological surrogacy provided by introduced taxa.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Animais , Herbivoria , Nova Zelândia , Coelhos
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(1): 143-150, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997775

RESUMO

Osteocalcin is a major non-collagenous component of the bone extracellular matrix and is considered to be an indicative factor of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we detected osteocalcin expression in different antler areas and growth phases by immunohisto- chemistry. Osteocalcin was highly expressed in all areas during the mineralization period and in mesenchymal cell and chondrocyte areas during the rapid growth period. The nucleotide sequence of the osteocalcin gene in sika deer antler was determined. The open reading frame was 303 bp encoding a protein of 100 amino acids. The estimated molecular mass of osteocalcin was 10.38 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.37. The osteocalcin gene with a 6× His-tag at the C-terminus was cloned into the pGEX-4T1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli under optimal conditions. The recombinant soluble protein fused with GST was purified with Ni-NTA resin. The purified osteocalcin protein exhibited a significant increase in HA adhesion and promoted antler chondrocyte proliferation. Osteocalcin is an important factor in regulating the rapid growth and differentiation of deer antlers.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Cervos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Masculino , Osteocalcina/genética
14.
Anim Sci J ; 90(6): 790-798, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983093

RESUMO

Rumen digesta was obtained from wild Hokkaido sika deer to compare bacterial flora between summer and winter. Bacterial flora was characterized with molecular-based approaches and enrichment cultivation. Bacteroidetes was shown as a major phylum followed by Firmicutes, with similar proportions in both seasons. However, two phylogenetically unique groups in Bacteroidetes were found in each season: unknown group A in winter and unknown group B in summer. The ruminal abundance of unknown group A was the highest followed by Ruminococcus flavefaciens in winter. Moreover, the abundance of these two was higher in winter than in summer. In contrast, the abundance of unknown group B was higher in summer than in winter. In addition, this group showed the highest abundance in summer among the bacteria quantified. Unknown group A was successfully enriched by cultivating with oak bark and sterilized rumen fluid, particularly that from deer. Bacteria of this group were distributed in association with the solid rather than the liquid rumen fraction, and were detected as small cocci. Accordingly, unknown group A is assumed to be involved in degradation of fibrous materials. These results suggest that wild Hokkaido sika deer develop a rumen bacterial flora in response to changes in dietary conditions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Cervos/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Dieta , Japão , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ruminococcus/fisiologia
15.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1019-1032, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903183

RESUMO

The Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii; FMD) is an artiodactyl mammal and is both economically valuable and highly endangered. To investigate the genetic mechanisms of musk secretion and adaptive immunity in FMD, we compared its genome to nine other artiodactyl genomes. Comparative genomics demonstrated that eight positively selected genes (PSGs) in FMD were annotated in three KEGG pathways that were related to metabolic and synthetic activity of musk, similar to previous transcriptome studies. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that many PSGs were involved in the regulation of immune system processes, implying important reorganization of the immune system in FMD. FMD-specific missense mutations were found in two PSGs (MHC class II antigen DRA and ADA) that were classified as deleterious by PolyPhen-2, possibly contributing to immune adaptation to infectious diseases. Functional assessment showed that the FMD-specific mutation enhanced the ADA activity, which was likely to strengthen the immune defense against pathogenic invasion. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based inference showed the recent demographic trajectory for FMD. Our data and findings provide valuable genomic resources not only for studying the genetic mechanisms of musk secretion and adaptive immunity, but also for facilitating more effective management of the captive breeding programs for this endangered species.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Cervos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genes MHC da Classe II , Genoma , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Dinâmica Populacional , Seleção Genética
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759129

RESUMO

The efficacy of animal signals is strongly influenced by the structure of the habitat in which they are propagating. In recent years, the habitat structure of temperate forests has been increasingly subject to modifications from foraging by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Increasing deer numbers and the accompanying browsing have been shown to alter vegetation structure and thus the foraging, roosting, and breeding habitats of many species. However, despite a large body of literature on the effects of vegetation structure on sound propagation, we do not yet know what impact deer browsing may have on acoustic communication. Here we used playback experiments to determine whether sound fidelity and amplitude of white noise, pure tones, and trills differed between deer-browsed and deer-excluded plots. We found that sound fidelity, but not amplitude, differed between habitats, with deer-browsed habitats having greater sound fidelity than deer-excluded habitats. Difference in sound propagation characteristics between the two habitats could alter the efficacy of acoustic communication through plasticity, cultural evolution or local adaptation, in turn influencing vocally-mediated behaviors (e.g. agonistic, parent-offspring, mate selection). Reduced signal degradation suggests vocalizations may retain more information, improving the transfer of information to both intended and unintended receivers. Overall, our results suggest that deer browsing impacts sound propagation in temperate deciduous forest, although much work remains to be done on the potential impacts on communication.


Assuntos
Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Cervos/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , New York , Som
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716128

RESUMO

Changes in land use have resulted in range shifts of many wildlife species, including those entering novel environments, resulting in the critical need to understand their spatial ecology to inform ecosystem effects and management decisions. Dispersing elk (Cervus elaphus) were colonizing areas of suitable habitat in the Northern Great Plains, USA, resulting in crop depredation complaints in these areas. Although state resource managers had little information on these elk herds, limited evidence suggested temporal movements into Canada. We collected and analyzed essential information on home range and habitat selection for 3 elk herds residing in North Dakota. We captured 5 adult female elk in each study area, affixed global positioning system collars, and monitored them for 1 year (2016-2017). We estimated diel period, seasonal, and hunting season home ranges using Brownian Bridge Movement Models for each individual. We analyzed habitat selection using multinomial logit models to test for differences in use of land classes, and for departures from proportionate use based on random sampling; our predictor variables included individual elk, diel period, and season. Home ranges differed between the 3 herds, seasons, and diel period; gun and winter season home ranges were both larger than in summer, as was night when compared with day. Female elk generally restricted themselves to cover during the day and entered open areas at night and during winter months. Our results also suggest that elk in our study areas tended to seek more cover, and in the case of our Turtle Mountain study area, some cross into Canada during gun season. Our study provides a better understanding of the spatial ecology of elk in the Northern Great Plains while highlighting the need for enhanced international cooperative management efforts.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Canadá , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Modelos Biológicos , North Dakota , Estações do Ano
18.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794631

RESUMO

Evaluation of harvest data remains one of the most important sources of information in the development of strategies to manage regional populations of white-tailed deer. While descriptive statistics and simple linear models are utilized extensively, the use of artificial neural networks for this type of data analyses is unexplored. Linear model was compared to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models with Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M), Bayesian Regularization (BR) and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) learning algorithms, to evaluate the relative accuracy in predicting antler beam diameter and length using age and dressed body weight in white-tailed deer. Data utilized for this study were obtained from male animals harvested by hunters between 1977-2009 at the Berry College Wildlife Management Area. Metrics for evaluating model performance indicated that linear and ANN models resulted in close match and good agreement between predicted and observed values and thus good performance for all models. However, metrics values of Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error for linear model and the ANN-BR model indicated smaller error and lower deviation relative to the mean values of antler beam diameter and length in comparison to other ANN models, demonstrating better agreement of the predicted and observed values of antler beam diameter and length. ANN-SCG model resulted in the highest error within the models. Overall, metrics for evaluating model performance from the ANN model with BR learning algorithm and linear model indicated better agreement of the predicted and observed values of antler beam diameter and length. Results of this study suggest the use of ANN generated results that are comparable to Linear Models of harvest data to aid in the development of strategies to manage white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cervos , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Chifres de Veado/anatomia & histologia , Chifres de Veado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Masculino
19.
Animal ; 13(4): 888-896, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134996

RESUMO

Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group. Meat traits studied were pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24), colour, chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) composition, amino acid (AA) profile and mineral content. In addition, the effect of Cu supplementation on mineral composition of liver and serum (at 0 and 90 days of treatment) was analysed. No interactions between Cu supplementation and muscle were observed for any trait. Supplementation with Cu increased the protein content of meat (P<0.01). However, Cu content of meat, liver and serum was not modified by supplementation. In fact, Cu content of meat (1.20 and 1.34 mg/kg for Cu supplemented and control deer, respectively) was much lower in both groups than 5 mg/kg of fresh weight allowed legally for food of animal origin. However, bolus of Cu tended to increase the meat content of zinc and significantly increased (P<0.05) the hepatic contents of sodium and lead. Muscles studied had different composition and characteristics. The RA muscle had significantly higher protein content (P<0.001), monounsaturated FA content (P<0.05) and essential/non-essential AA ratio (P<0.01) but lower pH24 (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated FA content (P=0.001) than the ST muscle. In addition, RA muscle had 14.4% less cholesterol (P=0.001) than ST muscle. Also, mineral profile differed between muscles with higher content of iron, significantly higher (P<0.001) content of zinc and lower content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (P<0.05) for ST muscle compared with RA. Therefore, supplementation with Cu modified deer meat characteristics, but it did not increase its concentration to toxic levels, making it a safe practice from this perspective. Despite the lower content of polyunsaturated FA, quality was better for RA than for ST muscle based on its higher content of protein with more essential/non-essential AA ratio and lower pH24 and cholesterol content.


Assuntos
Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cervos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Masculino
20.
Meat Sci ; 147: 37-43, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196199

RESUMO

The present study investigated the possible differences in carcass composition as well as texture, structure and percentage of different muscle types of the most valuable muscles (BF - biceps femoris, SM - semimembranosus, and L - longissimus) from fallow deer (Dama dama L.) bucks shot in the forest farm in north-western Poland at four different ages: 18, 30, 42 and 54 months. It was found that carcasses of young fallow deer (18-30 months), compared to older animals, were characterised by a higher dressing proportion, a higher percentage of the most valuable commercial cuts (the saddle, haunch and shoulder), high meat yield with the lowest percentage of bones and a lower percentage of skin and head. Their muscles, compared with older animals, were characterised by a lower percentage of red fibres, lower muscle fibre area, thinner perimysium and endomysium, lower amount of intramuscular fat and as a consequence lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, as well as a higher pH and lower thermal drip.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Carne , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Polônia
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