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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471796

RESUMO

In the last decades, climate change has caused an increase in mean temperatures and a reduction in average rainfall in southern Europe, which is expected to reduce resource availability for herbivores. Resource availability can influence animals' physical condition and population growth. However, much less is known on its effects on reproductive performance and sexual selection. In this study, we assessed the impact of three environmental factors related to climate change (rainfall, temperature and vegetation index) on Iberian red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus reproductive timing and sexual behaviour, and their effects on the opportunity for sexual selection in the population. We measured rutting phenology as rut peak date, the intensity of male rutting activity as roaring rate, and the opportunity for sexual selection from the distribution of females among harem holding males in Doñana Biological Reserve (Southwest Spain), from data of daily observations collected during the rut over a period of 25 years. For this study period, we found a trend for less raining and hence poorer environmental conditions, which associated with delayed rutting season and decreased rutting intensity, but that appeared to favour a higher degree of polygyny and opportunity for sexual selection, all these relationships being modulated by population density and sex ratio. This study highlights how climate change (mainly rainfall reduction in this area) can alter the conditions for mating and the opportunity for sexual selection in a large terrestrial mammal.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Seleção Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 104999, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this paper we aim to provide baseline data and model the changes of Ca, P and Mg throughout life in the mandibular bone, enamel and dentin of red (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Mediterranean ecosystems. DESIGN: Through a cross-sectional study of cervids from 1.5 to 20 yrs old, hunted between 1990 and 1997, we apply generalized additive models (GAMs) with data from scanning-electron-microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray (FESEM-EDX) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. RESULTS: The mineral content varied in a similar range to that reported for other ruminants. However, we detected lower Ca content values, while more similar results were obtained for P and Mg contents, which led to relatively lower Ca/P ratios and higher Ca/Mg in our deer at that time. A significantly lesser pattern of decreasing mineral content with aging was detected in the fallow deer males, similarities were found between the sexes, and significantly less resistance to demineralization was observed in dentin compared to bone. We discuss how the basic macromineral elements involved in the biomineralization process vary with age throughout life depending on deer species, sex and hard tissues. CONCLUSION: Allowing for possible inferences of differential changes in the mineralization state at the main stages in life history, our methodological approach opens up new possibilities in zooarchaeological, paleontological, and wildlife research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Cervos/fisiologia , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Minerais/análise , Dente/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo
3.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(1): 3, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326046

RESUMO

The origins of the regenerative nature of antlers, being branched and deciduous apophyseal appendages of frontal bones of cervid artiodactyls, have long been associated with permanent evolutionary precursors. In this study, we provide novel insight into growth modes of evolutionary early antlers. We analysed a total of 34 early antlers affiliated to ten species, including the oldest known, dating from the early and middle Miocene (approx. 18 to 12 million years old) of Europe. Our findings provide empirical data from the fossil record to demonstrate that growth patterns and a regular cycle of necrosis, abscission and regeneration are consistent with data from modern antlers. The diverse histological analyses indicate that primary processes and mechanisms of the modern antler cycle were not gradually acquired during evolution, but were fundamental from the earliest record of antler evolution and, hence, explanations why deer shed antlers have to be rooted in basic histogenetic mechanisms. The previous interpretation that proximal circular protuberances, burrs, are the categorical traits for ephemerality is refuted.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Fósseis , Regeneração/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica
4.
Am Nat ; 196(2): E23-E45, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673097

RESUMO

Environmentally mediated changes in body size often underlie population responses to environmental change, yet this is not a universal phenomenon. Understanding when phenotypic change underlies population responses to environmental change is important for obtaining insights and robust predictions of population dynamics in a changing world. We develop a dynamic integral projection model that mechanistically links environmental conditions to demographic rates and phenotypic traits (body size) via changes in resource availability and individual energetics. We apply the model to the northern Yellowstone elk population and explore population responses to changing patterns of seasonality, incorporating the interdependence of growth, demography, and density-dependent processes operating through population feedback on available resources. We found that small changes in body size distributions can have large impacts on population dynamics but need not cause population responses to environmental change. Environmental changes that altered demographic rates directly, via increasing or decreasing resource availability, led to large population impacts in the absence of substantial changes to body size distributions. In contrast, environmentally driven shifts in body size distributions could occur with little consequence for population dynamics when the effect of environmental change on resource availability was small and seasonally restricted and when strong density-dependent processes counteracted expected population responses. These findings highlight that a robust understanding of how associations between body size and demography influence population responses to environmental change will require knowledge of the shape of the relationship between phenotypic distributions and vital rates, the population status with regard to its carrying capacity, and importantly the nature of the environmentally driven change in body size and carrying capacity.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Cervos/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Feminino , Modelos Biológicos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480402

RESUMO

Climate models agree in predicting scenarios of global warming. In endothermic species heat stress takes place when they are upper their thermal neutral zone. Any physiological or behavioural mechanism to mitigate heat stress is at the cost of diverting energy from other physiological functions, with negative repercussions for individual fitness. Tolerance to heat stress differs between species, age classes and sexes, those with the highest metabolic rates being the most sensitive to stressing thermal environments. This is especially important during the first months of life, when most growth takes place. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is supposedly well adapted to a wide range of thermal environments, based on its worldwide distribution range, but little is known about the direct effect that heat stress may have on calf growth. We assessed the effect that heat stress, measured by heat stress indices and physical environment variables (air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation), have on calf and mother body weights from calf´s birth to weaning. We used 9265 longitudinal weekly body weight records of calf and mother across 19 years in captive Iberian red deer. We hypothesised that (i) heat stress in hot environments has a negative effect on calf growth, especially in males, as they are more energetically demanding to produce than females; and that (ii) the body weight of the mother through lactation should be negatively affected by heat stress. Our results supported hypothesis (i) but not so clearly hypothesis (ii). By weaning (day 143) calves growing under low heat stress environment grew up to 1.2 kg heavier than those growing in high heat stress environment, and males were more affected by heat stress than females. The results have implications in animal welfare, geographical clines in body size and adaptation to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Tamanho Corporal , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Mudança Climática , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Desmame
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396558

RESUMO

Camera traps are a unique survey tool used to monitor a wide variety of mammal species. Camera trap (CT) data can be used to estimate animal distribution, density, and behaviour. Attractants, such as scent lures, are often used in an effort to increase CT detections; however, the degree which the effects of attractants vary across species is not well understood. We investigated the effects of scent lure on mammal detections by comparing detection rates between 404 lured and 440 unlured CT stations sampled in Alberta, Canada over 120 day survey periods between February and August in 2015 and 2016. We used zero-inflated negative binomial generalized linear mixed models to test the effect of lure on detection rates for a) all mammals, b) six functional groups (all predator species, all prey, large carnivores, small carnivores, small mammals, ungulates), and c) four varied species of management interest (fisher, Pekania pennanti; gray wolf, Canis lupus; moose, Alces alces; and Richardson's ground squirrel; Urocitellus richardsonii). Mammals were detected at 800 of the 844 CTs, with nearly equal numbers of total detections at CTs with (7110) and without (7530) lure, and variable effects of lure on groups and individual species. Scent lure significantly increased detections of predators as a group, including large and small carnivore sub-groups and fisher specifically, but not of gray wolf. There was no effect of scent lure on detections of prey species, including the small mammal and ungulate sub-groups and moose and Richardson's ground squirrel specifically. We recommend that researchers explicitly consider the variable effects of scent lure on CT detections across species when designing, interpreting, or comparing multi-species surveys. Additional research is needed to further quantify variation in species responses to scent lures and other attractants, and to elucidate the effect of attractants on community-level inferences from camera trap surveys.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/fisiologia , Odorantes , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Lobos/fisiologia , Alberta , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Humanos , Feromônios/química , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5662-5667, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307161

RESUMO

We studied changes in chemical composition, somatic cell count, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) content in red deer (Cervus elaphus) colostrum during the transition to milk at different times after parturition (<5 h, 24 h, 48 h, 2 wk, and 4 wk). The production level was higher at 2 and 4 wk of lactation than during the first day after parturition, with intermediate values at 48 h postpartum. Fat content did not vary during the study period. However, total protein and casein contents were particularly high in the initial 5 h after parturition, decreasing to approximately 50% after 24 h postpartum. Conversely, lactose concentration was low in the beginning (<5 h), increasing gradually throughout the study. Similarly, dry matter dropped during the first 24 h and then remained constant throughout the study. Urea content decreased during the study, showing a slight recovery at 4 wk. Somatic cell count was higher during the first hours after parturition and gradually decreased throughout the study period. The IgG content was higher before 5 h postpartum than at 24 h postpartum. After 5 h, the level of IgG decreased progressively until it reached 0.18 mg/mL at 4 wk of lactation. We observed a similar pattern for IgM content, but it decreased more quickly than IgG and was not detected after 2 wk. In the case of deer, milk should be considered transitional from 24 to 48 h after parturition, and samples collected after 2 wk can be considered mature milk.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Cervos/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Caseínas/análise , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/química , Lactose/análise , Gravidez
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 88-95, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212550

RESUMO

A prospective clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of haloperidol premedication prior to xylazine-ketamine anesthesia with a goal of reducing capture stress in adult male captive spotted deer (Axis axis). On the morning of the study, deer were fed a banana either containing haloperidol tablets (1 mg/kg) (haloperidol group, n = 10) or without haloperidol (placebo group, n = 10). Six hours postadministration, xylazine (3 mg/kg) and ketamine (2 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly via a dart. Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and SpO2 (percent hemoglobin saturation) were recorded at 5-min intervals. Blood gas analysis was performed at time 0 (venous blood) and 10 and 20 min (arterial blood) postinduction. Serum cortisol was determined from venous blood (35 min postinduction), following which yohimbine was administered at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg intramuscular and 0.15 mg/kg intravenous. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data was performed with a two-way analysis of variance. Paired data were analyzed with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test (categorical data) or a paired t-test (continuous data). Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05, and results were expressed as mean ± SEM. There was no significant difference in induction time or recovery time between treatment groups. Rectal temperature and heart rate were significantly lower in the haloperidol group. Both groups demonstrated acidosis with venous pH being significantly lower in the placebo group when compared to the haloperidol group. Serum cortisol and arterial plasma lactate were lower in the haloperidol group indicative of reduced stress and physical exertion. Haloperidol premedication proved to be beneficial in reducing capture stress, when administered prior to xylazine-ketamine anesthesia, in spotted deer.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Pré-Medicação/veterinária , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tranquilizantes/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Xilazina/administração & dosagem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126101

RESUMO

Understanding demographic parameters such as survival is important for scientifically sound wildlife management. Survival can vary by region, sex, age-class, habitat, and other factors. White-tailed deer fawn survival is highly variable across the species' range. While recent studies have investigated fawn survival in several Midwestern states, there have been no published estimates from Iowa for 30 years. We radio-collared 48 fawns in central Iowa from 2015-2017 to estimate survival, home range size, and habitat composition and identity causes of mortality. Estimated fawn survival (± SE) was similar to other Midwest studies at 30 (0.78 ± 0.07)) and 60 days (0.69 ± 0.08), but considerably lower at 7 months (0.31 ± 0.02). Survival was positively associated with woodland habitat through 30 and 60 days, but not related to habitat at 7 months. Female fawns avoided agricultural habitat in their home ranges. Fawn 95% kernel density home ranges were smaller than in other studies in the Midwest (21.22 ± 2.74 ha at 30 days, 25.47 ± 2.87 ha at 60 days, and 30.59 ± 2.37 ha at 7 months). The large amount of woodland and grassland (>90%) in our study area meant that fawns did not have to travel far to find suitable cover, which may explain their small home ranges. We recorded 21 mortalities, the leading cause of which was disease (n = 9; 56% epizootic hemorrhagic disease [EHD]) followed by suspected predation (4) and harvest (3). The mortality associated with an outbreak of EHD in 2016, all of which occurred after 60 days post-capture, is the most likely explanation for our low survival estimate at 7 months. While predation, usually early in life, is the leading cause of mortality in most studies, sporadic diseases like EHD can be a major source of mortality in older fawns in some years.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Infecções por Reoviridae/mortalidade , Animais , Causas de Morte , Ecossistema , Feminino , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115639

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine appropriate methods for estimating fecal output, digestibility, and intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, and fecal output were estimated using the dual-marker (titanium dioxide; TiO2 and indigestible acid detergent fiber) technique, double n-alkane ratio technique (ALK) and the pulse dose (Yttrium; Y) technique to determine a suitable method to estimate DMI, fecal output, and digestibility measurements. Four male and four female deer were stratified by sex and randomly assigned either fresh-cut perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) or fresh-cut plantain (Plantago lanceolata) ad libitum in a cross-over design experiment. Actual DMI (mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.36 kg DM/d), digestibility (0.70 ± 0.06), and fecal output (0.45 ± 0.1 kg DM/d) were measured daily over the collection periods, and the average of each period was used for methods' comparison. The ALK method adequately estimated digestibility and fecal output of plantain; however, overestimated digestibility (P < 0.05) and DMI of ryegrass, so that there was no statistical agreement (P > 0.10) in DMI when diets were pooled. The overestimated DMI of the ryegrass diet led to ALK predicting greater intake when deer consumed ryegrass than plantain, which was the opposite of actual measurements. The pulse dosed Y overestimated (P < 0.05) fecal output and consequently DMI for both plantain and ryegrass, however, indicated similar trends to actual values. The dual-marker technique using TiO2 was able to detect the statistical differences between plantain and ryegrass as the actual measurements, had moderate to strong precision (r = 0.50 to 0.66) and statistical agreement (P < 0.05) with the pooled diet data. Therefore, the dual-marker technique provided the best alternative estimation method to actual measurements of forage DMI of grazing red deer.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cervos/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes , Feminino , Lolium , Masculino , Plantago
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191742

RESUMO

Spatio-temporal variation in resource availability leads to a variety of animal movement strategies. In the case of ungulates, temporally unpredictable landscapes are associated with nomadism, while high predictability in the resource distribution favours migratory or sedentary behaviours depending on the spatial and temporal scale of landscape dynamics. As most of the surveys on moose (Alces alces) movement behaviours in Europe have been conducted on Scandinavian populations, little is known about the movement strategies of moose at the southern edge of the species' range. We expected that decreasing habitat patchiness in central Europe would be associated with the prevalence of migratory behaviours. To verify this hypothesis, we analysed 32 moose fitted with GPS collars from two study areas in eastern Poland which differed in a level of habitat patchiness. We classified moose movements using the net squared displacement method. As presumed, lower patchiness in the Biebrza study site was associated with the predominance of individuals migrating short-distance, while in more patchy landscape of Polesie, resident moose dominated. At the individual level, the propensity of moose to migrate decreased with increasing abundance of forest habitats in their summer ranges. In addition, the parameters (migration distance, timing and duration) for migratory individuals varied substantially between individuals and years. Yet, in spring individual moose expressed a consistent migration timing across years. There was little synchronization of migration timing between individuals from the same population both in spring and autumn, which may have been related to mild weather conditions. We observed that moose postponed their migrations and started movement toward summer ranges at a similar time window in years when spring was delayed due to harsh weather. Hence, in light of global warming, we presume further changes in animal movements will arise.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Florestas , Geografia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150545

RESUMO

Hunting can be used as a tool for wildlife management, through limitation of population densities and dissuading game from using sensitive areas. The success of these approaches requires in depth knowledge of prey movement. Indeed, movement decisions of game during hunting may affect the killing success of hunters as well as the subsequent location of surviving animals. We thus investigated red deer movement responses to drive hunts and their causal factors. We studied 34 hunting events in the National Estate of Chambord (France) and thereby provided a fine-scale characterization of the immediate and delayed movement responses of red deer to drive hunts. Red deer responded to drive hunts either by immediately fleeing the hunted area, or by initially remaining before ultimately fleeing after the hunters had departed. A few hours after the hunt, all individuals were located in distant areas (> 2 kilometres) from the hunted area. Immediate flight responses were less common when drive hunts occurred in areas with dense understorey. However, neither beater/dog densities nor site familiarity influenced the immediate flight decision. Following a drive hunt, red deer remained outside the hunted areas for periods twice as long compared to periods when no hunting occurred (34 hours vs. 17 hours). Such knowledge of game movement rates in response to drive hunts may help the development of informed management policy for hunted red deer populations.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1904, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024896

RESUMO

Diet quality is an important determinant of animal survival and reproduction, and can be described as the combination of different food items ingested, and their nutritional composition. For large herbivores, human landscape modifications to vegetation can limit such diet-mixing opportunities. Here we use southern Sweden's modified landscapes to assess winter diet mixtures (as an indicator of quality) and food availability as drivers of body mass (BM) variation in wild moose (Alces alces). We identify plant species found in the rumen of 323 moose harvested in Oct-Feb, and link variation in average calf BM among populations to diets and food availability. Our results show that variation in calf BM correlates with variation in diet composition, diversity, and food availability. A varied diet relatively rich in broadleaves was associated with higher calf BM than a less variable diet dominated by conifers. A diet high in shrubs and sugar/starch rich agricultural crops was associated with intermediate BM. The proportion of young production forest (0-15 yrs) in the landscape, an indicator of food availability, significantly accounted for variation in calf BM. Our findings emphasize the importance of not only diet composition and forage quantity, but also variability in the diets of large free-ranging herbivores.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Plantas , Estações do Ano , Suécia
14.
Integr Zool ; 15(4): 262-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912636

RESUMO

Testosterone secretion may regulate the reproductive effort and the development of sexual traits, but it may also involve costs at the immunological and metabolic levels. However, the evidence for this trade-off in wild populations is scarce. Cortisol also plays an important role in mediating the reproductive and immune functions. In this study, we analyzed whether the endoparasite burden relates to hormonal levels (fecal testosterone and cortisol metabolites) and/or morphological sexual traits (size of the dark ventral patch, a trait that indicates reproductive effort in males) in male Iberian red deer. For this purpose, we sampled male red deer harvested during hunting actions in 2 types of populations in south western Spain that differed in structure, affecting the level of male-male competition for mates. We used coprological analyses to estimate the parasite burden mainly of gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes and of protozoa, and assessed testosterone and cortisol metabolite levels from fecal pellets. We found a positive relationship of host parasitation with both testosterone levels and the size of the dark ventral patch, but these relationships depended on the intensity of male-male competition in the population, being only found under the high-competition scenario. These results are discussed under the hypothesis of the testosterone immunocompetence handicap, suggesting a cost at the immunological level, and, therefore, higher susceptibility to parasite infection in males that make a greater reproductive effort. However, this effect seems to be modulated by the social environment (male-male competition) that might lead to different optima in testosterone production and sexual trait development.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106269, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987322

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate viability longevity and quality of liquid-stored epididymal sperm of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus). Sperm samples were recovered from epididymides of 15 mature stags. Samples were diluted to 100 × 106 sperm/mL in modified Salomon's extender and stored at 5 °C for 25 days. Sperm were analyzed to determine total motility (TMOT), progressive motility (PMOT) and motion variables [CASA system], acrosomes with normal apical ridges (NAR), viability and acrosomal status (FITC-PNA/PI), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) on the first day (D1) and every other day of storage (D3-D25). Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Spermatozoa remained motile until D25, whereas TMOT exceeded 60%, NAR and PMI exceeded 80%, FITC-PNA/PI exceeded 75%, and MMP approximated 70% until D11. There was a lesser (P < 0.05) value for these variables on D5 (relative to D1). Furthermore, there was a decrease in values for motility variables as duration of storage increased, excluding amplitude of lateral head displacement, on D3. The results indicate that liquid-stored epididymal sperm of European red deer are characterized as having a long viability (25 days) with a retention of sperm quality for as long as 11 days in the liquid storage state. In vitro or in vivo studies, however, are required to confirm the findings in the present study.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Epididimo/citologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225990, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929559

RESUMO

The physiological effects of short-term stress responses typically lead to increased individual survival as it prepares the body for fight or flight through catabolic reactions in the body. These physiological effects trade off against growth, immunocompetence, reproduction, and even long-term survival. Chronic stress may thus reduce individual and population performance, with direct implications for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. Yet, relatively little is known about how chronic stress levels vary across wild populations and factors contributing to increased chronic stress levels. One method to measure long-term stress in mammals is to quantify slowly incorporated stress hormone (cortisol) in hair, which most likely reflect a long-term average of the stress responses. In this study, we sampled 237 harvested moose Alces alces across Sweden to determine the relative effect of landscape variables and disturbances on moose hair cortisol levels. We used linear model combinations and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample sizes), and included variables related to human disturbance, ungulate competition, large carnivore density, and ambient temperature to estimate the covariates that best explained the variance in stress levels in moose. The most important variables explaining the variation in hair cortisol levels in moose were the long-term average temperature sum in the area moose lived and the distance to occupied wolf territory; higher hair cortisol levels were detected where temperatures were higher and closer to occupied wolf territories, respectively.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Feminino , Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Suécia , Temperatura , Lobos/fisiologia
17.
Mol Ecol ; 29(1): 86-104, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782579

RESUMO

Islands are generally colonized by few individuals which could lead to a founder effect causing loss of genetic diversity and rapid divergence by strong genetic drift. Insular conditions can also induce new selective pressures on populations. Here, we investigated the extent of genetic differentiation within a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population introduced on an island and its differentiation with its source mainland population. In response to their novel environmental conditions, introduced deer changed phenotypically from mainland individuals, therefore we investigated the genetic bases of the morphological differentiation. The study was conducted on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada) where 220 individuals were introduced 120 years ago, resulting in a population size over 160,000 individuals. We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate 8,518 filtered high-quality SNPs and compared patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation between the continental and Anticosti Island populations. Clustering analyses indicated a single panmictic island population and no sign of isolation by distance. Our results revealed a weak, albeit highly significant, genetic differentiation between the Anticosti Island population and its source population (mean FST  = 0.005), which allowed a population assignment success of 93%. Also, the high genetic diversity maintained in the introduced population supports the absence of a strong founder effect due to the large number of founders followed by rapid population growth. We further used a polygenic approach to assess the genetic bases of the divergent phenotypical traits between insular and continental populations. We found loci related to muscular function and lipid metabolism, which suggested that these could be involved in local adaptation on Anticosti Island. We discuss these results in a harvest management context.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Cervos/genética , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Quebeque
18.
Am Nat ; 195(1): 56-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868539

RESUMO

Environmental conditions impose restrictions and costs on reproduction. Multiple reproductive options exist when increased reproductive costs drive plant populations toward alternative reproductive strategies. Using 4 years of demographic data across a deer impact gradient, where deer alter the abiotic environment, we parameterize a size-dependent integral projection model for a sexually labile and unpalatable forest perennial to investigate the demographic processes driving differentiation in the operational sex ratio (OSR) of local populations. In addition to a relative increase in asexual reproduction, our results illustrate that nontrophic indirect effects by overabundant deer on this perennial result in delayed female sex expression to unsustainably large plant sizes and lead to more pronounced plant shrinkage following female sex expression, effectively increasing the cost of reproduction. Among plants of reproductive age, increased deer impact decreases the size-dependent probability of flowering and reduces reproductive consistency over time. This pattern in sex expression skews populations toward female-biased OSRs at low deer impact sites and male-biased OSRs at intermediate and high deer impact sites. While this shift toward a male-biased OSR may ameliorate pollen limitation, it also decreases the effective population size when coupled with increased asexual reproduction. The divergence of reproductive strategies and reduced lifetime fitness in response to indirect deer impacts illustrate the persistent long-term effects of overabundant herbivores on unpalatable understory perennials.


Assuntos
Arisaema/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Animais , Pennsylvania , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução , Razão de Masculinidade
19.
Mol Ecol ; 29(1): 56-70, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732991

RESUMO

Levels of random genetic drift are influenced by demographic factors, such as mating system, sex ratio and age structure. The effective population size (Ne ) is a useful measure for quantifying genetic drift. Evaluating relative contributions of different demographic factors to Ne is therefore important to identify what makes a population vulnerable to loss of genetic variation. Until recently, models for estimating Ne have required many simplifying assumptions, making them unsuitable for this task. Here, using data from a small, harvested moose population, we demonstrate the use of a stochastic demographic framework allowing for fluctuations in both population size and age distribution to estimate and decompose the total demographic variance and hence the ratio of effective to total population size (Ne /N) into components originating from sex, age, survival and reproduction. We not only show which components contribute most to Ne /N currently, but also which components have the greatest potential for changing Ne /N. In this relatively long-lived polygynous system we show that Ne /N is most sensitive to the demographic variance of older males, and that both reproductive autocorrelations (i.e., a tendency for the same individuals to be successful several years in a row) and covariance between survival and reproduction contribute to decreasing Ne /N (increasing genetic drift). These conditions are common in nature and can be caused by common hunting strategies. Thus, the framework presented here has great potential to increase our understanding of the demographic processes that contribute to genetic drift and viability of populations, and to inform management decisions.


Assuntos
Cervos/genética , Ecologia , Deriva Genética , Reprodução , Animais , Cervos/fisiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Razão de Masculinidade
20.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 123-128, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tear production, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness in healthy white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and assess for seasonal variability. ANIMALS STUDIED: Nineteen healthy fawns (3-10 days old) and 8 healthy adult white-tailed deer (164-280 days old) were studied. PROCEDURES: All fawns were manually restrained for the study, while adult animals were immobilized with an intramuscular injection of combined xylazine (2.2 mg/kg), tiletamine (1 mg/kg), and zolazepam (1 mg/kg). Tear production (STT-1) was evaluated in both eyes of all fawns. Intraocular pressure (applanation and rebound tonometry) and central corneal thickness (ultrasound pachymetry) were determined in both eyes of all fawns and adult deer. RESULTS: Mean ± SD tear production in fawns was 12.32 ± 4.46 mm/min. Mean ± SD IOP values in the fawns were 16.21 ± 4.97 mm Hg (TonoPen® ) and 14.05 ± 5.03 mm Hg (TonoVet® ). In adult deer, mean ± SD IOP values were 15.57 ± 2.88 mm Hg with TonoPen® and 12.87 ± 2.57 with TonoVet® , and TonoPen® significantly overestimated the IOP, compared to TonoVet® (P < 0.005). The IOP was not significantly different between young and adult animals (P = 0.22). A significant difference (P < 0.005) in CCT values was observed between fawns (528.42 ± 27.65 µm) and adult deer (747.55 ± 41.60 µm). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports normal values of tear production in healthy fawns, and intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness in healthy young and adult white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
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