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1.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1578-1584, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228749

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive strain, 8 H-2T, was isolated from faeces of Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) barking deer in Taiwan. Cells of the strain were short rod-shaped, non-motile, non-haemolytic, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase and oxidase activities. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and dnaA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strain was a member of the genus Weissella. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the type strains of Weissella oryzae (99.2 %), Weissella confusa (97.8 %), Weissella cibaria (97.6 %) and Weissella soli (97.3 %) were the closest neighbours to strain 8 H-2T. The concatenated housekeeping gene sequence (pheS and dnaA) similarities of 8 H-2T to closely related type strains were 72.5-84.9 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values with these type strains were 70.2-75.4% and 25.1-30.1 %, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic test results demonstrated that strain 8 H-2T represents a novel species belonging to the genus Weissella, for which the name Weissella muntiaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 8 H-2T (=BCRC 81133T=NBRC 113537T).


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Weissella/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Genes Bacterianos , Cervo Muntjac , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917824

RESUMO

Footrot is a worldwide economically important, painful, contagious bacterial foot disease of domestic and wild ungulates caused by Dichelobacter nodosus. Benign and virulent strains have been identified in sheep presenting with mild and severe lesions, respectively. However, in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), both strains have been associated with severe lesions. Because the disease is widespread throughout sheep flocks in Switzerland, a nationwide footrot control program for sheep focusing on virulent strains shall soon be implemented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of both strain groups of D. nodosus in four wild indigenous ruminant species and to identify potential susceptible wildlife maintenance hosts that could be a reinfection source for domestic sheep. During two years (2017-2018), interdigital swabs of 1,821 wild indigenous ruminant species (Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus)) were analysed by Real-Time PCR. Furthermore, observed interspecies interactions were documented for each sample. Overall, we report a low prevalence of D. nodosus in all four indigenous wild ruminants, for both benign (1.97%, N = 36, of which 31 red deer) and virulent (0.05%, N = 1 ibex) strains. Footrot lesions were documented in one ibex with virulent strains, and in one ibex with benign strains. Interspecific interactions involving domestic livestock occurred mainly with cattle and sheep. In conclusion, the data suggest that wild ungulates are likely irrelevant for the maintenance and spread of D. nodosus. Furthermore, we add evidence that both D. nodosus strain types can be associated with severe disease in Alpine ibex. These data are crucial for the upcoming nationwide control program and reveal that wild ruminants should not be considered as a threat to footrot control in sheep in this context.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dichelobacter nodosus/patogenicidade , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Cervos/microbiologia , Dichelobacter nodosus/classificação , Dichelobacter nodosus/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/patologia , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/transmissão , Cabras/microbiologia , Prevalência , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Suíça/epidemiologia
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(3): 794-802, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715073

RESUMO

AIMS: To prevent the spread of brucellosis, a simple and rapid vertical flow technology (RVFT) for the detection of antibodies targeting brucellosis was developed. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, Brucella sp. lipopolysaccharide was purified and used to detect brucellosis antibodies. Sheep IgG was used as a negative control. Colloidal gold-labeled recombinant staphylococcus aureus protein A was sprayed on a fibreglass membrane to prepare immunogold pads. Rapid vertical flow technology was used to detect Brucella in 1668 Sheep, 2743 bovine, 674 red deer and 420 human samples. The results indicated that the accuracy of this assay can reach 98%. CONCLUSIONS: The established RVFT uses a single multifunctional buffer that can be used to detect antibodies in serum, plasma, whole blood and other biological samples while preserving the advantages of lateral-flow immunoassays. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This technology would be of great use in primary medical units and veterinary stations, and it is of great significance for the control of epidemic diseases.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/sangue , Bovinos , Cervos/microbiologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos/microbiologia
5.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703865

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia (E.) coli (STEC) pathogens are responsible for the outbreaks of serious diseases in humans, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), bloody diarrhoea (BD) and diarrhoea (D), and they pose a significant public health concern. Wild ruminants are an important environmental reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and contaminate fresh products. There is a general scarcity of published data about wildlife as a reservoir of foodborne pathogens in Poland, which is why the potential epidemiological risk associated with red deer, roe deer and fallow deer as reservoirs of STEC/AE-STEC strains was evaluated in this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of STEC strains in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) populations in north-eastern Poland, and to evaluate the potential health risk associated with wild ruminants carrying STEC/AE-STEC strains. We examined 252 rectal swabs obtained from 134 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 97 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 21 fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-eastern Poland. The samples were enriched in modified buffered peptone water. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to determine the virulence profile of stx1, stx2 and eae or aggR genes, to identify the subtypes of stx1 and stx2 genes, and to perform O and H serotyping. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were detected in the rectal swabs collected from 1/134 roe deer (0.75%) and 4/97 red deer (4.1%), and they were not detected in fallow deer (Dama dama). The remaining E. coli serogroups, namely O26, O103, O111 and O145 that belong to the "top five" non-O157 serogroups, were detected in 15/134 roe deer (11.19%), 18/97 red deer (18.56%) and 2/21 fallow deer (9.52%). STEC/AE-STEC strains were detected in 33 roe deer isolates (24.63%), 21 red deer isolates (21.65%) and 2 fallow deer isolates (9.52%). According to the most recent FAO/WHO report, stx2a and eae genes are the primary virulence traits associated with HUS, and these genes were identified in one roe deer isolate and one red deer isolate. Stx2 was the predominant stx gene, and it was detected in 78.79% of roe deer and in 71.43% of red deer isolates. The results of this study confirmed that red deer and roe deer in north-eastern Poland are carriers of STEC/AE-STEC strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report documenting the virulence of STEC/AE-STEC strains from wild ruminants in Poland.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Cervos/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/classificação , Polônia , Toxina Shiga/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783486

RESUMO

The way in which European genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum circulate in their natural foci and which variants cause disease in humans or livestock remains thus far unclear. Red deer and roe deer are suggested to be reservoirs for some European A. phagocytophilum strains, and Ixodes ricinus is their principal vector. Based on groEL gene sequences, five A. phagocytophilum ecotypes have been identified. Ecotype I is associated with the broadest host range, including strains that cause disease in domestic animals and humans. Ecotype II is associated with roe deer and does not include zoonotic strains. In the present study, questing I. ricinus were collected in urban, pasture, and natural habitats in the Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia. A fragment of the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum was amplified by real-time PCR in DNA isolated from ticks. Positive samples were further analyzed by nested PCRs targeting fragments of the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, followed by sequencing. Samples were stratified according to the presence/absence of roe deer at the sampling sites. Geographic origin, habitat, and tick stage were also considered. The probability that A. phagocytophilum is a particular ecotype was estimated by a generalized linear model. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was identified by genetic typing in 274 I. ricinus ticks. The majority belonged to ecotype I (63.9%), 28.5% were ecotype II, and both ecotypes were identified in 7.7% of ticks. Ecotype II was more frequently identified in ticks originating from a site with presence of roe deer, whereas ecotype I was more frequent in adult ticks than in nymphs. Models taking into account the country-specific, site-specific, and habitat-specific aspects did not improve the goodness of the fit. Thus, roe deer presence in a certain site and the tick developmental stage are suggested to be the two factors consistently influencing the occurrence of a particular A. phagocytophilum ecotype in a positive I. ricinus tick.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Cervos/microbiologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Ixodes/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4448-4453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872631

RESUMO

Musk,with unique and intense perfume,was a kind of deep brown precious medicinal material in traditional Chinese medicine. However,the immature musk in musk pot was white and stench. Given the fact that bacterial diversity generated odorous metabolites in animal hosts,in this study,musk samples at three different mature stages,including MJ( the end of June),MA( the end of August) and MO( the end of October) were harvested from three male forest musk deer,and then next-generation sequencing was used to intensively survey the bacterial communities in musk harvested at different mature stages. RESULTS: indicated that the average OTUs per sample at the end of June,August and October were 47 116. 00 ± 1 567. 24( SE),52 009. 00 ± 8 958. 75( SE) and50 004. 67±4 135. 57( SE),respectively. Feature of the musk 16 S rRNA gene showed a total of 418 genera belonging to 52 phyla were observed in all samples. The main microbiota was bacteria,which accounted for 98. 82%,99. 95% and 99. 58% in MJ,MA and MO,respectively. At phylum level,Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial of MA( 32. 75%) and MO( 39. 19%). While,the major bacterial in MJ was Proteobacteria( 49. 14%). PICRUSt analysis revealed the functions of bacterial in MJ were mainly involved in secretion,while bacterial functions of MA and MO were mainly involved in amino acid or other substance metabolism,which was in accord with the musk secretion physiological process of forest musk deer. This is the first study involved in the bacterial diversity in musk of forest musk deer across the maturation process,while may provide a new insight into the musk generation mechanism.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Animais , Florestas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9291216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886268

RESUMO

Animal gut microbiota begins to colonize after birth and is functionally indispensable for maintaining the health of the host. It has been reported that gender and age influence the composition of the intestinal microbiome. However, the effects of gender and age on the intestinal microorganism of forest musk deer (FMD) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the structure and composition of fecal microbiota of male and female forest musk deer with age. Here, Illumina Miseq 300PE sequencing platform targeting 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region applied to define the fecal microbiota of male and female FMD with two age groups, juvenile (age 1-2 years) and adult (age 4-10 years). Alpha diversity index did not show significant difference in bacterial diversity between the males and females or among age groups. The intestinal microbiota of FMD was dominated by three phyla, the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes regardless of gender and different ages. Higher proportions of Proteobacteria were found in adult male and juvenile female individuals. The composition of Bacteroidetes was stable with the gender and age of FMD. Interestingly, the relative abundance of genera Clostridiales and Bacteroidales were higher in the juvenile FMD. Conversely, proportions of Pseudomonas and Lachnospiraceae were abundant in the adult FMD. Higher proportions of Ruminococcaceae, Dore, and 5-7N15 were found in the juvenile male groups. They may reflect the different immune resistance of male and female individuals at different stages of development. This study explored the fecal microbiota composition of forest musk deer in relation to gender and age, which may provide an effective strategy for developing intestinal microecological preparations and potential musk deer breeding.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 368, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii causes globally distributed zoonotic Q fever. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs of C. burnetii. Coxiella burnetii are shed in large numbers in the waste of infected animals and are transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in domestic animals and ticks in areas of Slovenia associated with a history of Q fever outbreaks. RESULTS: A total of 701 ticks were collected and identified from vegetation, domestic animals and wild animals. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 17 out of 701 (2.4%) ticks. No C. burnetii DNA was found in male ticks. Ticks that tested positive in the PCR-based assay were most commonly sampled from wild deer (5.09%), followed by ticks collected from domestic animals (1.16%) and ticks collected by flagging vegetation (0.79%). Additionally, 150 animal blood samples were investigated for the presence of C. burnetii-specific antibodies and pathogen DNA. The presence of pathogen DNA was confirmed in 14 out of 150 (9.3%) blood samples, while specific antibodies were detected in sera from 60 out of 150 (40.4%) animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ticks, although not the primary source of the bacteria, are infected with C. burnetii and may represent a potential source of infection for humans and animals. Ticks collected from animals were most likely found to harbor C. burnetii DNA, and the infection was not lost during molting. The persistence and distribution of pathogens in cattle and sheep indicates that C. burnetii is constantly present in Slovenia.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Cervos/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Muda , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2735-2740, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375956

RESUMO

Knowledge about vector-borne pathogens important for human and veterinary medicine in wild ruminants in Tyrol (Austria) is scarce. Blood samples from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex; n = 44), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra; n = 21), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 18) and red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 6) were collected over a period of 4 years (2015-2018) in four regions in North Tyrol, with a primary focus on the Kaunertal. Blood spots on filter paper were tested for the presence of DNA of vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasmataceae, Piroplasmida, Rickettsia and filarioid helminths). Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia capreoli were detected in two of 89 (2.3%) blood samples. Rickettsia spp., Theileria spp. and filarioid helminths were not documented. One Alpine chamois was positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. capreoli. Moreover, an ibex from the Kaunertal region was positive for A. phagocytophilum. While the ibex was a kid less than 1 year old, the chamois was an adult individual. Further research is recommended to evaluate effects of climate change on infection rates of North Tyrolean wild ruminants by these pathogens and the distribution of their vectors.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/classificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Áustria , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Rupicapra/parasitologia , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 365, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplasma spp. are tick-borne Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Anaplasma capra has emerged as a human pathogen; however, little is known about the occurrence and genetic identity of this agent in wildlife. The present study aimed to determine the infection rate and genetic profile of this pathogen in wild animals in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: A total of 253 blood samples [198 from Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus), 53 from raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and one sample each from a leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) and a roe deer (Capreolus pygargus)] were collected at Chungbuk Wildlife Center during the period 2015-2018. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and screened for presence of Anaplasma species by PCR/sequence analysis of 429 bp of the 16S rRNA gene marker. Anaplasma capra-positive isolates were genetically profiled by amplification of a longer fragment of 16S rRNA (rrs) as well as partial sequences of citrate synthase (gltA), heat-shock protein (groEL), major surface protein 2 (msp2) and major surface protein 4 (msp4). Generated sequences of each gene marker were aligned with homologous sequences in the database and phylogenetically analyzed. RESULTS: Anaplasma capra was detected in blood samples derived from Korean water deer, whereas samples from other animal species were negative. The overall infection rate in tested samples was 13.8% (35/253) and in the water deer the rate was 17.8% (35/198), distributed along the study period from 2015 to 2018. Genetic profiling and a phylogenetic analysis based on analyzed gene markers revealed the occurrence of two distinct strains, clustered in a single clade with counterpart sequences of A. capra in the database. CONCLUSIONS: Anaplasma capra infection were detected in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea, providing insight into the role of wildlife as a potential reservoir for animal and human anaplasmosis. However, further work is needed in order to evaluate the role of Korean water deer as a host/reservoir host of A. capra.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 296, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ruminants are important hosts for various tick species and tick-associated organisms, many of which are zoonotic. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of tick-borne protozoans and bacteria of public health and veterinary significance in goats and wild Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) from Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China. METHODS: The occurrence of piroplasms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. bovis, A. marginale, A. capra, A. ovis, Ehrlichia spp. and spotted fever group rickettsiae was molecularly investigated and analyzed in 134 goats and 9 free ranging C. pygargus living in close proximity. RESULTS: Piroplasm DNA was detected in 16 (11.9%) goats and 5 C. pygargus. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA sequences identified 3 Theileria species (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi). Four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) were identified in goats and C. pygargus. Anaplasma ovis and A. bovis were detected in 11 (8.2%) and 6 (4.5%) goats, respectively; A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra were found in 3, 7 and 3 C. pygargus, respectively. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of 5 different genetic variants of A. bovis in goats and C. pygargus, while the analysis of 16S rRNA and gltA sequence data showed that A. capra isolates identified from C. pygargus were closely related to the genotype identified from sheep and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, but differed with the genotype from humans. Anaplasma/Theileria mixed infection was observed in 2 (1.5%) goats and 5 C. pygargus, and co-existence involving potential zoonotic organisms (A. phagocytophilum and A. capra) was found in 2 C. pygargus. All samples were negative for A. marginale, Ehrlichia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. CONCLUSIONS: These findings report the tick-borne pathogens in goats and C. pygargus, and a greater diversity of these pathogens were observed in wild animals. Three Theileria (T. luwenshuni, T. capreoli and T. cervi) and four Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. capra) with veterinary and medical significance were identified in small domestic and wild ruminants. The contact between wild and domestic animals may increase the potential risk of spread and transmission of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Babesia/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 129, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric methane from the ruminant livestock is a significant source in global greenhouse gas emissions, which is mainly generated by the methanogens inhabiting the rumen and cecum. Sika deer (Cervus nippon) not only produces less methane than bovine, but they also harbor a distinct methanogen community. Whereas, knowledge of methanogens colonization in the rumen and cecum of sika deer is relatively still unknown, which could provide more insights to the manipulation of gut microbiota during early life. RESULTS: Here, we examined the development of bacteria and methanogens in the rumen and cecum of juvenile sika deer from birth to post-weaning (1 day, 42 days and 70 days, respectively) based on next generation sequencing. The results showed that the facultative anaerobic bacteria were decreased and the cellulolytic bacteria were increased. However, methanogens established soon after birth thrived through the whole developmental period, indicating a different succession process than bacteria in the GIT, and the limited role of age and dietary change on GIT methanogens. We also found Methanobrevibacter spp. (Mean relative abundance = 44.2%) and Methanocorpusculum spp. (Mean relative abundance = 57.5%) were dominated in the rumen and cecum, respectively. The methanogens also formed specific correlations with bacteria under different niches, suggesting a role of ecology niche on methanogen community. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our knowledge about the microbial succession in GIT of sika deer, that may facilitate the development of targeted strategies to improve GIT function of sika deer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Anaerobiose , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cervos/microbiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174696

RESUMO

The analysis of haptoglobin (Hp) serum concentration is a very sensitive, but non-specific, indicator of inflammation or infection. Methods to accurately diagnose infection in vivo in wildlife are usually constrained by low sensitivity due to the effects of stress on individual immune response and the challenging logistics of performing tests in the wild. Firstly, we sought to determine serum Hp concentration in red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (TB). Secondly, we assessed the complementary diagnostic value of serum Hp levels in conjunction with the cervical comparative skin test (CCT) performed in a subsample (n = 33). Serum Hp concentrations were significantly higher in TB-infected individuals (based on the presence of macroscopic lesions confirmed by culture) compared to those uninfected. In addition, serum Hp significantly changed with the type of animal handling, with captured and handled animals showing higher levels of Hp than hunted animals. Four out of 6 TB positive individuals that tested negative to the CCT (false negatives) showed Hp levels higher than the 95th percentile of healthy animals. These findings indicate that an acute phase response develops in animals with TB. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that an acute phase protein can provide a complementary assessment for specific diagnosis tests in wild species.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Haptoglobinas/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/sangue , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos , Cervos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mycobacterium bovis , Testes Cutâneos/métodos
15.
Anim Sci J ; 90(6): 790-798, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983093

RESUMO

Rumen digesta was obtained from wild Hokkaido sika deer to compare bacterial flora between summer and winter. Bacterial flora was characterized with molecular-based approaches and enrichment cultivation. Bacteroidetes was shown as a major phylum followed by Firmicutes, with similar proportions in both seasons. However, two phylogenetically unique groups in Bacteroidetes were found in each season: unknown group A in winter and unknown group B in summer. The ruminal abundance of unknown group A was the highest followed by Ruminococcus flavefaciens in winter. Moreover, the abundance of these two was higher in winter than in summer. In contrast, the abundance of unknown group B was higher in summer than in winter. In addition, this group showed the highest abundance in summer among the bacteria quantified. Unknown group A was successfully enriched by cultivating with oak bark and sterilized rumen fluid, particularly that from deer. Bacteria of this group were distributed in association with the solid rather than the liquid rumen fraction, and were detected as small cocci. Accordingly, unknown group A is assumed to be involved in degradation of fibrous materials. These results suggest that wild Hokkaido sika deer develop a rumen bacterial flora in response to changes in dietary conditions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Cervos/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Dieta , Japão , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ruminococcus/fisiologia
16.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(9): 1283-1296, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941531

RESUMO

The rumen microbiome contributes greatly to the degradation of plant fibres to volatile fatty acids and microbial products, affecting the health and productivity of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of colonisation by bacterial communities attached to reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of Tarim red deer, a native species distributed in the desert of the Tarim Basin. The reed and cottonseed hull samples incubated in nylon bags for 1, 6, 12, and 48 h were collected and used to examine the bacterial communities by next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Prevotella1 and Rikenellaceae RC9 were the most abundant taxa in both the reed and cottonseed hull groups at various times, indicating a key role of these organisms in rumen fermentation in Tarim red deer. The relative abundances of cellulolytic bacteria, such as members of Fibrobacter, Treponema 2, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 and Succiniclasticum increased, while that of the genus Prevotella 1 decreased, with increasing incubation time in both reeds and cottonseed hulls. Moreover, the temporal changes in bacterial diversity between reeds and cottonseed hulls were different, as demonstrated by the variations in the taxa Ruminococcaceae UCG 010 and Papillibacter in the reed group and Sphaerochaeta and Erysipelotrichaceae UCG 004 in the cottonseed hull group; the abundances of these bacteria first decreased and then increased. In conclusion, our results reveal the dynamics of bacterial colonisation of reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of Tarim red deer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biota , Cervos/microbiologia , Gossypium/microbiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 169-176, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955805

RESUMO

Purulent disease is the main factor that prevents the population increase of forest musk deer in artificial breeding, and especially the intracorporal suppurative lesions in late-stage with complex bacterial communities normally bring more difficulties for veterinary treatment. Although it is well-recognized that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the two main bacterial pathogens which can be frequently co-isolated from the lung pus of forest musk deer, few studies have explored the interspecific relationship and coexistent mechanism of the two species. In this study, we identified a P. aeruginosa strain MYL-2, which harbored a loss-of-function mutation in the central regulator (LasR) of quorum-sensing (QS) system, from the lung pus of a dying forest musk deer with co-infecting E. coli strain MYL-58. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa MYL-2 could coexist with E. coli MYL-58 compared to the dominant role of lasR-intact P. aeruginosa strain MYL-1 in the competitive experiments. The results of in vitro coevolution assay further revealed that the QS-mediated competitive advantage of P. aeruginosa MYL-1 would be decreased along with the enrichment of lasR mutants in the communities, and P. aeruginosa could finally coexist with E. coli by forming a relatively stable equilibrium. Therefore, these findings provide an evolutionary explanation for the coexistence of P. aeruginosa and E. coli in the suppurative lesions of forest musk deer, and may also contribute to further understanding the pathology of animal purulent disease and the development of novel veterinary therapy.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Pulmão/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Pulmão/patologia , Microbiota , Mutação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Percepção de Quorum , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Supuração/microbiologia , Virulência
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 794-803, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009310

RESUMO

Brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, has been eliminated from livestock in the US. Remaining wildlife reservoirs are the bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus canadensis) populations in Yellowstone National Park and the surrounding area, from which there is periodic exposure and transmission to surrounding livestock herds. Elk account for nearly all of the livestock exposure, and the infection appears to be expanding in the elk population. Currently, there are no known effective vaccines for brucellosis in elk. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the efficacy and practicality of delivering a killed B. abortus vaccine compounded with montmorillonite clay as a carrying agent to oral, nasal, and conjunctival mucosa. The first study, conducted in laboratory mice (Mus musculus), demonstrated protection against infection equal to that produced by the currently approved cattle (Bos taurus) vaccine RB51. The second experiment, conducted as a pilot study in a small sample of elk, demonstrated partial protection against B. abortus infection. Results of the third experiment showed that elk consumed the majority of a surrogate vaccine compounded with montmorillonite mixed in hay with oral, nasal, conjunctival, and gastrointestinal exposure to the vaccine. These results suggest that multiple exposures to a mucosally delivered vaccine may provide an effective method of vaccinating wildlife.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Cervos/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Formas de Dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Projetos Piloto
19.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 366(6)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915473

RESUMO

The association between diet and the rumen microbiota for wild animals remains largely unexplored. Here, we explored this association using a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the prokaryote microbiota and 18S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the dietary components for wild roe deer. These analyses revealed a wide diversity of dietary components, with over-representation of Bacteroidetes for the diet-correlating bacteria. Ruminococcus, on the other hand, dominated the stable diet-independent part of the microbiota. Taken together, the combination of 16S and 18S rRNA gene analyses provide novel insight into rumen microbiota ecology.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cervos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Cervos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Filogenia , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Ecohealth ; 16(2): 330-337, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825021

RESUMO

Years when the deer population is robust during the autumn hunting season may point toward an elevated risk of Lyme disease (LD) in the human population two summers later. We applied overdispersed Poisson regression models to county-specific data from New Jersey for each year from 2000 to 2014. The average relative risk of LD for each additional hunter-killed deer per square mile was 1.12 (1.10, 1.14) for 2000-2007 and 1.11 (1.09, 1.13) for 2008-2014. The hunting data already collected for conservation and wildlife management purposes may be a relevant component of LD surveillance activities.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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