Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 759
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13107, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849451

RESUMO

The environmental risk of Lyme disease, defined by the density of Ixodes scapularis ticks and their prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, is increasing across the Ottawa, Ontario region, making this a unique location to explore the factors associated with environmental risk along a residential-woodland gradient. In this study, we collected I. scapularis ticks and trapped Peromyscus spp. mice, tested both for tick-borne pathogens, and monitored the intensity of foraging activity by deer in residential, woodland, and residential-woodland interface zones of four neighbourhoods. We constructed mixed-effect models to test for site-specific characteristics associated with densities of questing nymphal and adult ticks and the infection prevalence of nymphal and adult ticks. Compared to residential zones, we found a strong increasing gradient in tick density from interface to woodland zones, with 4 and 15 times as many nymphal ticks, respectively. Infection prevalence of nymphs and adults together was 15 to 24 times greater in non-residential zone habitats. Ecological site characteristics, including soil moisture, leaf litter depth, and understory density, were associated with variations in nymphal density and their infection prevalence. Our results suggest that high environmental risk bordering residential areas poses a concern for human-tick encounters, highlighting the need for targeted disease prevention.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Florestas , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Ixodes/microbiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Prevalência , Ontário/epidemiologia , Peromyscus/microbiologia , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Camundongos , Cervos/microbiologia
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0382923, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771094

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis causes animal tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife, with an impact on animal health and production, wildlife management, and public health. In this work, we sampled a multi-host tuberculosis community from the official hotspot risk area of Portugal over 16 years, generating the largest available data set in the country. Using phylogenetic and ecological modeling, we aimed to reconstruct the history of circulating lineages across the livestock-wildlife interface to inform intervention and the implementation of genomic surveillance within the official eradication plan. We find evidence for the co-circulation of M. bovis European 1 (Eu1), Eu2, and Eu3 clonal complexes, with Eu3 providing sufficient temporal signal for further phylogenetic investigation. The Eu3 most recent common ancestor (bovine) was dated in the 1990s, subsequently transitioning to wildlife (red deer and wild boar). Isolate clustering based on sample metadata was used to inform phylogenetic inference, unravelng frequent transmission between two clusters that represent an ecological corridor of previously unrecognized importance in Portugal. The latter was associated with transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface toward locations with higher temperature and precipitation, lower agriculture and road density, and lower host densities. This is the first analysis of M. bovis Eu3 complex in Iberia, shedding light on background ecological factors underlying long-term transmission and informing where efforts could be focused within the larger hotspot risk area of Portugal. IMPORTANCE: Efforts to strengthen surveillance and control of animal tuberculosis (TB) are ongoing worlwide. Here, we developed an eco-phylodynamic framework based on discrete phylogenetic approaches informed by M. bovis whole-genome sequence data representing a multi-host transmission system at the livestock-wildlife interface, within a rich ecological landscape in Portugal, to understand transmission processes and translate this knowledge into disease management benefits. We find evidence for the co-circulation of several M. bovis clades, with frequent transmission of the Eu3 lineage among cattle and wildlife populations. Most transition events between different ecological settings took place toward host, climate and land use gradients, underscoring animal TB expansion and a potential corridor of unrecognized importance for M. bovis maintenance. Results stress that animal TB is an established wildlife disease without ecological barriers, showing that control measures in place are insufficient to prevent long-distance transmission and spillover across multi-host communities, demanding new interventions targeting livestock-wildlife interactions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Mycobacterium bovis , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Animais , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária
3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(6): e0010524, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742897

RESUMO

Pododermatitis, also known as treponeme-associated hoof disease (TAHD), presents a significant challenge to elk (Cervus canadensis) populations in the northwestern USA, with Treponema spp. consistently implicated in the lesion development. However, identifying species-specific Treponema strains from these lesions is hindered by its culture recalcitrance and limited genomic information. This study utilized shotgun sequencing, in silico genome reconstruction, and comparative genomics as a culture-independent approach to identify metagenome-assembled Treponema genomes (MATGs) from skin scraping samples collected from captive elk experimentally challenged with TAHD. The genomic analysis revealed 10 new MATGs, with 6 representing novel genomospecies associated with pododermatitis in elk and 4 corresponding to previously identified species-Treponema pedis and Treponema phagedenis. Importantly, genomic signatures of novel genomospecies identified in this study were consistently detected in biopsy samples of free-ranging elk diagnosed with TAHD, indicating a potential etiologic association. Comparative metabolic profiling of the MATGs against other Treponema genomes showed a distinct metabolic profile, suggesting potential host adaptation or geographic uniqueness of these newly identified genomospecies. The discovery of novel Treponema genomospecies enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of pododermatitis and lays the foundation for the development of improved molecular surveillance tools to monitor and manage the disease in free-ranging elk.IMPORTANCETreponema spp. play an important role in the development of pododermatitis in free-ranging elk; however, the species-specific detection of Treponema from pododermatitis lesions is challenging due to culture recalcitrance and limited genomic information. The study utilized shotgun sequencing and in silico genome reconstruction to identify novel Treponema genomospecies from elk with pododermatitis. The discovery of the novel Treponema species opens new avenues to develop molecular diagnostic and epidemiologic tools for the surveillance of pododermatitis in elk. These findings significantly enhance our understanding of the genomic landscape of the Treponemataceae consortium while offering valuable insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of emerging pododermatitis in elk populations.


Assuntos
Cervos , Genoma Bacteriano , Treponema , Infecções por Treponema , Treponema/genética , Treponema/classificação , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/microbiologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Filogenia , Dermatite/microbiologia , Dermatite/veterinária
4.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(3): 605-614, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725305

RESUMO

Surveillance data collected in the period 2017-20 for Brucella spp. in wildlife of the Lombardy Region in northern Italy were used to describe the exposure of the wildlife species to Brucella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa), European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among the tested species, wild boar (n=6,440) showed the highest percentage of seropositive samples (5.9%). Notably, wild boars of perifluvial area of the Po River showed higher percentages of positivity than those of the pre-Alpine district. In addition, during the hunting season in 2018, 95 organs (uterus or testes, spleen, and submandibular lymph nodes) from wild boar of the perifluvial area of the Po River were collected for bacteriological examination. Brucella suis was isolated in culture from 18.9% of tested lymph nodes. These serological and microbiological results highlight the presence of B. suis in wild boar and suggest the importance of wild boar as a reservoir for B. suis. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Brucella-seropositive wild boars with the location of backyard swine farms revealed a higher chance of contact between the two populations only in the areas where the lower percentage of seropositive samples was observed. Conversely, the high percentage of seropositive samples observed in the Po River area coupled with positive microbiological cultures suggest a greater risk of infection for the humans directly or indirectly involved in wild boar hunting activity. These results may serve as a basis to establish sound wildlife management and to adopt education campaigns aimed at reducing the risk of human infection in people involved in wild boar hunting related activities.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Brucella , Brucelose , Cervos , Lebres , Sus scrofa , Animais , Itália/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Lebres/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Suínos , Brucella suis/isolamento & purificação
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0412023, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785439

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in deer from Qilian County, Qinghai Province, China. Blood samples were collected from 69 red deer, 40 white-lipped deer, and 27 sika deer. The detection of Bartonella spp. has been conducted. The overall prevalence of Bartonella was 33.6% (46/135). Species-specific prevalence was 50.72% in red deer (35/69), 20.00% in white-lipped deer (8/40), and 11.11% in sika deer (3/27). There were significant differences in the prevalence rates among the different species of deer. The amplicon sequence comparison revealed a high homology of the ruminant-associated Bartonella spp. Nanopore sequencing further confirmed the results. Bartonella reads were presented in each of the qPCR-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Bartonella sequences detected in deer blood were closely related to ruminant-borne Bartonella spp. In summary, we reported the Bartonella prevalence of different deer species in Qinghai, and there were at least one species of ruminant-associated Bartonella, B. schoenbuchensis. IMPORTANCE: This is the first report about Bartonella infections in the deer population from China. We found that there were two species of Bartonella and an unidentified species of Bartonella among the unculturing strains carried by these deer populations. We first used Nanopore sequencing to detect Bartonella from deer blood samples and indicated that Nanopore sequencing is beneficial to detect pathogens due to its advantage of real-time and high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Cervos , Filogenia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/classificação , Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tibet/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano/genética
6.
Acta Trop ; 254: 107202, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565332

RESUMO

Cervids are highly exposed to ticks, however, their role in the life cycle of these rickettsiae has not been fully elucidated. Given the expanding distribution and growing population of deer species in Portugal, coupled with their direct and indirect interactions with humans during hunting, it becomes crucial to explore their role as sentinels and potential reservoirs of Rickettsia. The present investigation aimed to detect and evaluate exposure to Rickettsia in free-living deer from Portugal. Blood samples (n = 77) were collected from hunted game animals (red deer and fallow deer) from different areas throughout Portugal (Idanha-a-Nova, Monte Fidalgo, Montalvão and Arraiolos) and sera were tested by immunofluorescence assay, to detect antibodies. Additionally, blood DNA samples were screened for SFGR by nested-polymerase chain reaction targeting a fragment of the outer membrane protein B (ompB) gene, as well as for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Thirty-five per cent (25 deer and two fallow deer) tested positive (sera with a titer ≥1:64) for IgG antibodies against Rickettsia conorii. No rickettsial DNA was detected by PCR for the ompB gene, and all DNA samples tested negative for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. As far as we know, this study is the first screening of cervid species in Portugal for Rickettsia antibodies. The findings suggest that these animals serve as useful sentinel indicators for the circulation of rickettsiae, offering a complementary perspective to studies focused on ticks. The increasing numbers of hunted deer in Portugal and the potential zoonotic features of Rickettsia spp. highlight the importance of continued surveillance directed at tick-borne diseases, especially those involving wild animals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Cervos , Rickettsia , Animais , Portugal , Cervos/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/imunologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Espécies Sentinelas/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/imunologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Rickettsia conorii/genética , Rickettsia conorii/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia conorii/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Masculino
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0281006, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358989

RESUMO

Wildlife can carry pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, which can spread to humans and cause mild to serious illnesses and even death. Spreading through animal feces, these pathogens significantly contributes to the global burden of human diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the prevalence of zoonotic bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), in animal feces. Between September 2015 and August 2017, 699 wildlife fecal samples were collected from various agricultural production regions and mountainous areas in South Korea. Fecal samples were collected from wild mammals (85.26%, 596/699) and birds (14.73%, 103/699). Salmonella spp. and E. coli were present in 3% (21/699) and 45.63% (319/699) of the samples, respectively. Moreover, virulence genes stx1 and both stx1 and stx2 were detected in 13.30% (93/699) and 0.72% (5/699) of the samples, respectively. The 21 Salmonella spp. were detected in badgers (n = 5), leopard cats (n = 7), wild boars (n = 2), and magpies (n = 7); STEC was detected in roe deer, water deer, mice, and wild boars. Through phylogenetic and gene-network analyses, the Salmonella spp. isolates (n = 21 laboratory isolates, at least one isolate from each Salmonella-positive animal fecal sample, and n = 6 widely prevalent reference Salmonella serovars) were grouped into two major lineages: S. enterica subsp. enterica and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae. Similarly, 93 E. coli isolates belonged to stx1, including three major lineages (groups 1-3), and stx1 and stx2 detected groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a wild leopard cat serving as a reservoir for Salmonella spp. in South Korea. The research findings can help manage the potential risk of wildlife contamination and improve precautionary measures to protect public health.


Assuntos
Cervos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Prevalência , Filogenia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Sus scrofa , Salmonella/genética , Fezes/microbiologia
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 78(3): 637-645, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38207126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A unique enzootic focus of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging deer was identified in northern lower Michigan in 1994, with subsequent evidence of transmission to local cattle herds. Between 2002 and 2017, 3 Michigan deer hunters with M. bovis disease were previously reported. We present 4 additional human cases linked to the zoonotic focus in deer, utilizing genomic epidemiology to confirm close molecular associations among human, deer and cattle M. bovis isolates. METHODS: Identification of human tuberculosis (TB) cases with cultures of M. bovis was provided from the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) tuberculosis database. Clinical review and interviews focused on risk factors for contact with wildlife and cattle. Whole genome sequences of human isolates were compared with a veterinary library of M. bovis strains to identify those linked to the enzootic focus. RESULTS: Three confirmed and 1 probable human case with M. bovis disease were identified between 2019 and 2022, including cutaneous disease, 2 severe pulmonary disease cases, and human-to-human transmission. The 3 human isolates had 0-3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with M. bovis strains circulating in wild deer and domestic cattle in Michigan. CONCLUSIONS: Spillover of enzootic M. bovis from deer to humans and cattle continues to occur in Michigan. Future studies should examine the routes of transmission and degree of risk to humans through expanded epidemiological surveys. A One Health approach linking human, veterinary and environmental health should address screening for TB infection, public education, and mitigation of transmission.


Assuntos
Cervos , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Michigan/epidemiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais Selvagens
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 15(2): 102293, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086248

RESUMO

Ticks are primary vectors for many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and pose a serious threat to veterinary and public health. Information on the presence of TBPs in Chinese Milu deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is limited. In this study, a total of 102 Chinese Milu deer blood samples were examined for Anaplasma spp., Theileria spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia spp., and three TBPs were identified: Anaplasma phagocytophilum (48; 47.1 %), Candidatus Anaplasma boleense (47; 46.1%), and Theileria capreoli (8; 7.8 %). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA confirmed their identity with corresponding TBPs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on Candidatus A. boleense and T. capreoli detection in Chinese Milu deer. A high prevalence of A. phagocytophilum with veterinary and medical significance was identified in endangered Chinese Milu deer, which could act as potential zoonotic reservoirs. The identification of the TBPs in Chinese Milu deer provides useful information for the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Cervos , Rickettsia , Theileria , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/genética , Anaplasma/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Theileria/genética , China/epidemiologia
10.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 32(3): 281-286, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis are chronic, age-related diseases which adversely impact millions of people worldwide. Because these diseases pose a major global public health challenge, there is an urgent need to better understand how these diseases are interrelated. Our objective was to document the age and sex-specific prevalence of each disease and assess interrelationships among the three diseases in a wild mammal (moose, Alces alces) population. METHODS: We examined the bones of moose dying from natural causes and recorded the severity of osteoarthritis (typically observed on the hip and lowest vertebrae), osteoporosis (osteoporotic lesions observed on the skull) and periodontitis (observed on maxilla and mandibles). RESULTS: Periodontitis was associated with a greater prevalence of both severe osteoarthritis and osteoporotic lesions in moose. We found no evidence to suggest that moose with osteoporotic lesions were more or less likely to exhibit signs of osteoarthritis or severe osteoarthritis. The prevalence of osteoarthritis, periodontitis and osteoporotic lesions was greater among males than for females. CONCLUSIONS: Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that bacterial pathogens causing periodontitis are a risk factor for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. They are also consistent with the hypothesis that the inverse association between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis sometimes observed in humans may be influenced by shared risk factors, such as obesity, smoking or alcohol consumption, which are absent in moose. Together these results provide insights about three diseases which are expected to become more prevalent in the future and that cause substantial socio-economic burdens.


Assuntos
Cervos , Osteoartrite , Osteoporose , Periodontite , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Cervos/microbiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(1): 179-183, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921658

RESUMO

Outbreaks of anthrax, caused by the soilborne bacterium Bacillus anthracis, are a continuous threat to free-ranging livestock and wildlife in enzootic regions of the United States, sometimes causing mass mortalities. Injectable anthrax vaccines are commercially available for use in livestock, and although hand injection is not a cost- or time-effective long-term management plan for prevention in wildlife, it may provide a tool for managers to target selectively animals of high conservation or economic value. Vaccine-induced anthrax-specific antibody responses have been reported previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but the protective nature was not determined. In this study, five white-tailed deer were subcutaneously vaccinated with one dose (1 mL) of the Anthrax Spore Vaccine. Eight blood collections by jugular venipuncture were conducted over 146 d to measure the anthrax-specific antibody response in each deer's serum over time. Antibodies were first detected by ELISA and later with toxin neutralization assays to estimate in vitro protection. Average peak absorbance by ELISA occurred at 14 d postvaccination, whereas average peak in vitro protection occurred at 28 d postvaccination. Observed in vitro protection on average for white-tailed deer after this single-dose vaccination protocol lasted 42-56 d postvaccination, although three individuals still maintained lethal toxin-neutralizing serum antibody titers out to 112 d postvaccination. Vaccination responses were variable but effective to some degree in all white-tailed deer.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Antraz , Antraz , Bacillus anthracis , Cervos , Humanos , Animais , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Antraz/veterinária , Antraz/epidemiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias
12.
J Comp Pathol ; 208: 15-19, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042037

RESUMO

Mycobacterium orygis has been isolated from several cases of tuberculosis in various species of animal in India but documentation of the histopathological lesions caused by this organism is scant. Lung and liver tissues with caseous nodules from cattle (n = 8), lung samples from spotted deer (Axis axis) (n = 5) and lung and mediastinal lymph node samples from buffalo (n = 9) were subjected to histopathology and isolation of Mycobacterium spp. Isolation was carried out using the BACTEC MGIT 960 Automated Mycobacterial Detection System and acid-fast positive cultures were identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing published primer pairs. Three M. orygis isolates (two from cattle, one from deer) were obtained, whole genome sequenced and the sequences submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information Sequence Read Archive. Eight samples (four cattle, one deer and three buffalo) were confirmed as M. orygis positive by PCR. Histopathological examination of the M. orygis-PCR-positive cattle samples revealed acid-fast organisms in lung sections along with macrophages, epithelioid cells, lymphocytes and Langhans giant cells. Granuloma stages I to IV were seen in the cattle and buffalo samples and stage III in the spotted deer sample. This report is the first description of the gross and histopathological lesions of tuberculosis caused by M. orygis in buffalo and documents the gross and histopathological findings of M. orygis tuberculosis in cattle and deer.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Tuberculose Bovina , Tuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Búfalos , Cervos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(1): 52-63, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889938

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus that infects elk (Cervus canadensis) and cattle (Bos taurus). There is the potential for transmission from wildlife to livestock through contact with infected material shed during abortions or live births. To understand the impact of exposure on pregnancy rates we captured 30-100 elk per year from 2011 through 2020, testing their blood for serologic exposure to B. abortus. Predicted pregnancy rates for seropositive animals were 9.6% lower in prime-age (2.5-15.5 yr; 85%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-91%) and 37.7% lower in old (>15.5 yr; 43%, 95% CI: 19-71%) elk as compared with seronegative animals. To understand the risk of seropositive elk shedding B. abortus bacteria and the effects of exposure on elk reproductive performance, we conducted a 5-yr longitudinal study monitoring 30 seropositive elk. We estimated the annual probability of a seropositive elk having an abortion as 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.15). We detected B. abortus at three abortions and two live births, using a combination of culture and PCR testing. The predicted probability of a pregnant seropositive elk shedding B. abortus during an abortion or live birth was 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.19). To understand what proportion of seropositive elk harbored live B. abortus bacteria in their tissues, we euthanized seropositive elk at the end of 5 yr of monitoring and sampled tissues for B. abortus. Assuming perfect detection, the predicted probability of a seropositive elk having B. abortus in at least one tissue was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06-0.43). The transmission risk seropositive elk pose is mitigated by decreased pregnancy rates, low probability of abortion events, low probability of shedding at live birth events, and reasonably low probability of B. abortus in tissues.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucella abortus , Animais Selvagens , Cervos/microbiologia
14.
J Immunol ; 211(8): 1173-1179, 2023 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37782851

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic bacterial disease presenting public health, veterinary, and economic threats around the globe. Although cattle producers rely on regular testing and management practices to minimize domestic herd exposure, wildlife species around the world continue to be the main reservoirs for disease. Wildlife reservoirs for bTB include the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Spain, as well as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Although all reservoir species share the ability to infect cattle, they differ in transmission capability, disease pathogenesis, diagnostic detection, and vaccination strategies. In this review, bTB interactions with these wildlife reservoirs are discussed, illustrating the need to address bTB disease in wildlife hosts to achieve eradication in domestic livestock.


Assuntos
Cervos , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Bovinos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cervos/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(17): 5517-5529, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37421471

RESUMO

Maintaining a healthy status is crucial for the successful captive breeding of endangered alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster, AMD), and captive breeding programs are beneficial to the ex-situ conservation and wild population recovery of this species. Meanwhile, the gut microbiota is essential for host health, survival, and environmental adaptation. However, changes in feeding environment and food can affect the composition and function of gut microbiota in musk deer, ultimately impacting their health and adaptation. Therefore, regulating the health status of wild and captive AMD through a non-invasive method that targets gut microbiota is a promising approach. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was employed to reveal the composition and functional variations between wild (N = 23) and captive (N = 25) AMD populations. The results indicated that the gut microbiota of wild AMD exhibited significantly higher alpha diversity (P < 0.001) and greater abundance of the phylum Firmicutes, as well as several dominant genera, including UCG-005, Christensenellaceae R7 group, Monoglobus, Ruminococcus, and Roseburia (P < 0.05), compared to captive AMD. These findings suggest that the wild AMD may possess more effective nutrient absorption and utilization, a more stable intestinal microecology, and better adaption to the complex natural environment. The captive individuals displayed higher metabolic functions with an increased abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and certain dominant genera, including Bacteroides, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, NK4A214 group, and Alistipes (P < 0.05), which contributed to the metabolic activities of various nutrients. Furthermore, captive AMD showed a higher level of 11 potential opportunistic pathogens and a greater enrichment of disease-related functions compared to wild AMD, indicating that wild musk deer have a lower risk of intestinal diseases and more stable intestinal structure in comparison to captive populations. These findings can serve as a valuable theoretical foundation for promoting the healthy breeding of musk deer and as a guide for evaluating the health of wild-released and reintroduced musk deer in the future. KEY POINTS: • Wild and captive AMD exhibit contrasting gut microbial diversity and certain functions. • With higher diversity, certain bacteria aid wild AMD's adaptation to complex habitats. • Higher potential pathogens and functions increase disease risk in captive AMD.


Assuntos
Cervos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes/genética , Clostridiales/genética
16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 14(5): 102201, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37245254

RESUMO

Sika deer (Cervus nippon) are important hosts for all life stages of Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, a suspected Rickettsia vector. Because some Rickettsia are unlikely to be amplified by deer in Japan, the presence of deer may decrease the prevalence of Rickettsia infection in questing H. megaspinosa. As sika deer decrease vegetation cover and height and thereby indirectly cause changes in the abundance of other hosts, including reservoirs of Rickettsia, the prevalence of Rickettsia infection in questing ticks can also change. We investigated these possible effects of deer on the prevalence of infection with Rickettsia in questing ticks in a field experiment in which deer density was manipulated at three fenced sites: a deer enclosure (Deer-enclosed site); a deer enclosure where deer had been present until 2015 and only indirect effects remained (Indirect effect site); and a deer exclosure in place since 2004 (Deer-exclosed site). Density of questing nymphs and the prevalence of infection with Rickettsia sp. 1 in questing nymphs at each site were compared from 2018 to 2020. The nymph density at the Deer-exclosed site did not significantly differ from that at the Indirect effect site, suggesting that the deer herbivory did not affect the nymph density by reducing vegetation and increasing the abundance of other host mammals. However, the prevalence of infection with Rickettsia sp. 1 in questing nymphs was higher at the Deer-exclosed site than at the Deer-enclosed site, possibly because ticks utilized alternative hosts when deer were absent. The difference in Rickettsia sp. 1 prevalence between the Indirect effect and Deer-exclosed sites was comparable to that between the Indirect effect and Deer-enclosed sites, indicating that the indirect effects of deer were as strong as the direct effects. Examining the indirect effects of ecosystem engineers in the study of tick-borne diseases may be more important than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Cervos , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , Animais , Ecossistema , Prevalência , Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Ixodes/microbiologia
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(3): 661-663, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36823735

RESUMO

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium orygis was detected in 2 spotted deer from a wildlife sanctuary in western India and an Indian bison from a national park in central India. Nationwide surveillance is urgently required to clarify the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex at the human-livestock-wildlife interface.


Assuntos
Bison , Cervos , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Animais , Cervos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Animais Selvagens , Índia
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3247, 2023 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36828872

RESUMO

Game meat is becoming increasingly popular but may be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC cause gastrointestinal illnesses including diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis (HC), and the haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of STEC in 92 meat samples from chamois (n = 2), red deer (n = 27), roe deer (n = 38), and wild boar (n = 25), from Switzerland and other European countries. After enrichment, Shiga-toxin encoding genes (stx) were detected by PCR in 78 (84%) of the samples and STEC were isolated from 23 (25%) of the same samples. Nine different serotypes and eight different sequence types (STs) were found, with O146:H28 ST738 (n = 10) and O110:H31 ST812 (n = 5) predominating. None of the STEC belonged to the so-called top-five serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157. Subtyping of stx identified stx1c (n = 9), stx2a (n = 1), stx2b (n = 19), stx2e (n = 2), and stx2g (n = 1). Additional virulence factors (VFs) comprised ehx (n = 12), iha (n = 21), sta1 (n = 1), and subAB (n = 19). None of the isolates contained the eae gene. Twenty-one STEC contained VFs associated with extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Overall, the pathogenic potential of STEC in game meat is moderate, though the isolation of one STEC strain carrying stx2a, and of STEC/ExPEC hybrids suggests a role of game meat as a potential source of STEC infections in humans. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the safe handling and preparation of game meat is needed to prevent foodborne infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Carne , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Cervos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Toxina Shiga/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 38, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deer species play an important role in the enzootic cycles of several Anaplasma species. While in the Northern Hemisphere ticks of genus Ixodes are well recognized vectors of these intracellular bacteria, less is known regarding the biological cycles of Anaplasma spp. in South America. METHODS: Using PCR protocols and Sanger sequencing, we assessed the presence of Anaplasma spp. in blood and ticks collected on a native deer species (Pudu puda) from southern Chile. RESULTS: Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes and calculation of average sequence divergence for groEL, our results bring to light a novel genovariant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (named strain "Patagonia"). The strain represents a novel ecotype within the A. phagocytophilum species complex and was detected in both P. puda and their ticks. Using a larger matrix, denser taxon sampling and outgroup, our maximum-likelihood- and Bayesian-inferred phylogenies for groEL provide an accurate picture of the topology of A. phagocytophilum ecotypes and their evolutionary relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an ecotype of A. phagocytophilum in South America. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic diversity and ecology of this complex of bacterial lineages. Further studies should elucidate the enzootic cycle of A. phagocytophilum strain "Patagonia" and assess its pathogenic potential for pudues, domestic animals and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Cervos , Ixodes , Humanos , Animais , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Cervos/microbiologia , Ecótipo , Chile/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Animais Selvagens , Ixodes/microbiologia , Anaplasma/genética
20.
Aust Vet J ; 101(3): 106-114, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544232

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii causes significant reproduction losses in livestock and the disease Q fever in humans. Transmission of C. burnetii is facilitated by the stability of the bacterium in the environment and the susceptibility of a variety of host species to infection. Consequently, inter-species transmission occurs frequently through either direct or indirect contact. Wildlife may represent reservoirs of C. burnetii and could therefore be a source of infection for domestic animals. Understanding the prevalence of C. burnetii infections at the wildlife-livestock interface is important for disease control. This study aimed to investigate the extent of C. burnetii exposure in wild deer in eastern Australia. Serum samples were obtained from 413 wild deer from seven regions in four eastern Australian states from 2017 to 2020. Antibodies were detected using a commercial Q fever antibody kit validated for ruminants. Seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies in deer was determined and true prevalence estimated, for each region. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies in wild deer was 3.4% (14 seropositive of 413 deer sampled) with true prevalence estimated to be 4.3% (95% credible interval: 0.6%, 10.9%). Seropositive deer were identified only in Queensland (7/108 seropositive) and northern New South Wales (7/120 seropositive). This geospatial distribution is consistent with seropositivity in other animal species and indicative of the level of C. burnetii in the environment. The low seroprevalence suggests that wild deer are unlikely to be a major reservoir species for C. burnetii in eastern Australia but may still be implicated in inter-species transmission cycles.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Cervos , Febre Q , Humanos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Cervos/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Austrália , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Gado
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...