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1.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 360, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several ungulate species are feeding and propagation hosts for the tick Ixodes ricinus as well as hosts to a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. Here, we focus on Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), two important pathogens for which ungulates are amplifying and dilution hosts, respectively. Ungulate management is one of the main tools to mitigate human health risks associated with these tick-borne pathogens. Across Europe, different species of ungulates are expanding their ranges and increasing in numbers. It is currently unclear if and how the relative contribution to the life-cycle of I. ricinus and the transmission cycles of tick-borne pathogens differ among these species. In this study, we aimed to identify these relative contributions for five European ungulate species. METHODS: We quantified the tick load and collected ticks and spleen samples from hunted fallow deer (Dama dama, n = 131), moose (Alces alces, n = 15), red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 61), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 30) and wild boar (Sus scrofa, n = 87) in south-central Sweden. We investigated the presence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks and spleen samples using real-time PCR. We determined if ungulate species differed in tick load (prevalence and intensity) and in infection prevalence in their tissue as well as in the ticks feeding on them. RESULTS: Wild boar hosted fewer adult female ticks than any of the deer species, indicating that deer are more important as propagation hosts. Among the deer species, moose had the lowest number of female ticks, while there was no difference among the other deer species. Given the low number of infected nymphs, the relative contribution of all ungulate species to the transmission of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was low. Fallow deer, red deer and roe deer contributed more to the transmission of A. phagocytophilum than wild boar. CONCLUSIONS: The ungulate species clearly differed in their role as a propagation host and in the transmission of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum. This study provides crucial information for ungulate management as a tool to mitigate zoonotic disease risk and argues for adapting management approaches to the local ungulate species composition and the pathogen(s) of concern.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/transmissão , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Feminino , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Zoonoses/transmissão
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109525, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274762

RESUMO

The influence of route of administration on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics has been a subject of interest due to its potential to influence the development of anthelmintic resistance. For most parasite species studied so far, oral administration results in the highest concentrations of drug in the parasites and the highest efficacy against resistant genotypes. However, a recent study in cattle measured the highest levels of ivermectin in the abomasal Ostertagia ostertagi following subcutaneous injection, but it was not possible to correlate these elevated levels with efficacy. Therefore, the current study was initiated to determine whether injectable delivery might be optimal for attaining high efficacy against this important group of parasites. Three on-farm trials were conducted to measure the efficacy of moxidectin administered by the oral, injectable, and pour-on routes against Ostertagiinae parasites in farmed red deer. Groups of rising 1-year old stags (red or red-wapiti crossbreds) in the 84-104 kg weight range were randomised on liveweight into treatment groups of 6 (1 farm) or 8 (2 farms). Animals were treated to individual liveweight with moxidectin oral (0.2 mg/kg), injectable (0.2 mg/kg), pour-on (0.5 mg/kg) or remained untreated. Twelve days later all animals were euthanised and abomasa recovered for worm count. Adult worms were counted in a 2% aliquot of abomasal washings, and adult and fourth stage larvae in a 10 % aliquot following mucosal incubation in physiological saline. In addition, blood was collected from the same 5 animals in each of the treatment groups on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 12 after treatment and moxidectin levels in plasma were determined using a mass spectrometer. The number of Ostertagiinae surviving treatment was significantly different for each of the treatment groups with injectable administration being most effective, oral administration being the next most effective and pour-on administration the least effective. This applied to both adult worms and fourth stage larvae. A similar pattern was seen in the levels of moxidectin in plasma with both the peak value and area under the concentration curve being highest following injectable administration and lowest following pour-on treatment. Although undertaken in a different host species, the results support the proposition that injectable administration of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics is likely to be optimal for efficacy against Ostertagiinae parasites and potentially useful in slowing the emergence of resistance in these parasites.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Macrolídeos , Ostertagia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Cervos/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Ostertagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 254, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Europe, the generalist tick, Ixodes ricinus, is the main vector of several tick-borne pathogens causing diseases in humans and livestock. Understanding how different species of hosts limit the tick population is crucial for management. In general, larger ectoparasites are expected to select hosts with larger body size. Consistent with this, larval and nymphal I. ricinus can feed on a wide range of different-sized vertebrates, while the adult female stage is expected to rely on a medium-large-sized host for reproduction. However, we still have a limited understanding of whether medium-sized hosts other than roe deer can serve as hosts to adult ticks, and other factors than size may also affect host selection. METHODS: To increase our understanding of the suitability of the different species of medium-sized hosts for adult ticks, we sampled mainly roadkill mammals from within the questing season of ticks. We counted life stages of ticks on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n = 29), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (n = 6), badger (Meles meles) (n = 14) and red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) (n = 17) from spatially overlapping populations in Norway, and analysed variation between species across different body parts with a mixed-effects negative binomial model (with and without zero-inflation). RESULTS: Red squirrel hosted a high density of larval and nymphal I. ricinus, but only one individual had adult female ticks. Roe deer hosted by far the largest number of adult ticks. Badgers had very few ticks, possibly due to their thick skin. Red foxes had intermediate numbers, but a high proportion of subcutaneous, dead ticks (69.3%), suggesting they are not very suitable hosts. Body mass predicted the presence of adult I. ricinus ticks. However, species was a better predictor than body mass for number of ticks, suggesting there was species variation in host suitability beyond body mass per se. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that roe deer are indeed the main suitable reproduction host to adult I. ricinus ticks, and are likely a key to host limitation of the tick population in this northern ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ixodes/fisiologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Mamíferos/classificação , Ninfa/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10649, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017054

RESUMO

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is the most common deer species in Europe. The species can be a reservoir of some tick-borne diseases but it is primarily recognized for its contribution as an amplifier host. In Central Europe, two roe deer ecotypes are living in adjacent areas: field and forest. We investigated differences in tick load and species composition on these two ecotypes. We collected ticks from 160 (80 the forest ecotype and 80 the field ecotype) roe deer culled in Wielkopolska Region (West-Central Poland). The most common was Ixodes ricinus (n = 1610; 99%) followed by Ixodes hexagonus (n = 22; 1%). The dominant life stage of the ticks was female. Prevalence was higher for forest roe deer. Mean number of ticks found on the forest ecotype was almost fivefold higher than on the field ecotype (3.75 ± 0.83 vs. 0.77 ± 0.20 ticks). The mean probability of tick occurrence was threefold higher in the forest (0.915 ± 0.050) than the field ecotype (0.279 ± 0.125). The most infested body parts of roe deer from both ecotypes were the neck and the head.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ecótipo , Florestas , Ixodes/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Cervos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Geografia , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ninfa , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2243-2250, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945010

RESUMO

Canids and scavenger birds were shown to act as definitive hosts of numerous Sarcocystis species using members of the Cervidae family as an intermediate host, whereas definitive hosts spreading closely related S. elongata, S. entzerothi, S. japonica, S. matsuoae, S. rangiferi, S. truncata, S. silva and S. tarandi remain unknown. In the current study, the intestine samples of 40 American minks (Neovison vison) were molecularly tested for the presence of the above-mentioned Sarcocystis spp. Species-specific PCR of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) fragments and subsequent sequencing revealed the presence of sporocysts/oocysts of five species, S. elongata (n=2), S. entzerothi (n=10), S. japonica (n=4), S. silva (n=13) and S. truncata (n=21) in the analysed samples. Sarcocystis infection was confirmed in 32/40 (80%) examined samples. In addition, half of the infected animals (50%) were infected with multiple Sarcocystis species suggesting that American minks had access to meat of different deer species, such as roe deer, red deer and sika deer. This causes concern about compliance of hunters and game processing companies with game waste management rules. Further research on the involvement of mustelids in the transmission of various Sarcocystis spp. from different geographical locations is needed.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Vison/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 231, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, are vectors of microbes causing bovine babesiosis and pose a threat to the economic viability of the US livestock industry. Efforts by the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) along the US-Mexico border in south Texas are complicated by the involvement of alternate hosts, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus). METHODS: In the present study, we use a spatially explicit, individual-based model to explore the potential effects of host species composition and host habitat use patterns on southern cattle fever ticks (SCFT, R. (B.) microplus) infestation dynamics and efficacy of eradication schemes. RESULTS: In simulations without eradication efforts, mean off-host larval densities were much higher when cattle were present than when only white-tailed deer and nilgai were present. Densities in mesquite and meadows were slightly higher, and densities in mixed brush were much lower, than landscape-level densities in each of these scenarios. In eradication simulations, reductions in mean off-host larval densities at the landscape level were much smaller when acaricide was applied to cattle only, or to cattle and white-tailed deer, than when applied to cattle and nilgai. Relative density reductions in mesquite, mixed brush, and meadows depended on host habitat use preferences. Shifting nilgai habitat use preferences increasingly toward mixed brush and away from mesquite did not change mean off-host larval tick densities noticeably at the landscape level. However, mean densities were increased markedly in mesquite and decreased markedly in mixed brush, while no noticeable change in density was observed in meadows. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that continued integration of field data into spatially explicit, individual-based models will facilitate the development of novel eradication strategies and will allow near-real-time infestation forecasts as an aid in anticipating and preventing wildlife-mediated impacts on SCFT eradication efforts.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasmose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Vetores Artrópodes , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Cervos/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Gado/parasitologia , México , Texas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos
8.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 309-319, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886960

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts excreted by infected cats or ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts of T. gondii are the 2 major modes of transmission of T. gondii. Deer are a popular game. Recently, outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis were reported in humans in North America linked to ingestion of undercooked venison. Here, we review prevalence, persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology, and public health risks of T. gondii infections in deer and other cervids for the past decade. Estimates of worldwide serological prevalence are summarized individually for each species of deer, elk, moose, and caribou. Genetic diversity of 112 viable isolates of T. gondii from cervids is discussed, including its public health significance. Prevalence of T. gondii in deer is very high. Any part of a deer, including liver, spleen, and muscles, should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/etiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/normas , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Baço/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 293: 109427, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872935

RESUMO

A survey conducted on fallow deer (n = 79) in northern New South Wales Australia, aimed to ascertain the prevalence and gross pathology of liver fluke. In total, three deer populations were assessed (1 farmed and 2 wild) across 2 sites (site A and B) by conducting total fluke counts in the liver and fluke egg counts in faecal samples. At site A, 16 of 19 farmed deer (84.2 %) and 9 of 20 wild deer (45 %) had active or resolved infections. At site B, 16 of 40 wild deer (40 %) had active or resolved infections. Deer with active infections had low fluke burdens (1-11 fluke) which were in the adult development stage, shedding eggs with faeces (0-121.7 eggs per gram). Liver pathology score did not exceed 3.5 out of 5 with gross pathomorphological lesions predominately confined to the peripheral regions of the left lobe. Farmed deer, confined within a fluky habitat, attained the highest group mean pathology score, with dense fibrosis and concomitant atrophy of the left lobe (site A: farmed - 1.8, wild- 0.6; site B: wild - 0.3). Well-defined fibrotic capsules captured and restricted fluke migration beyond the peripheral region of the left lobe of the liver. The presence of live and dead fluke within the fibrotic capsules confirms the inherent ability of fallow deer to resolve infections. This survey has highlighted the susceptibility of fallow deer to liver fluke within an endemic region. Recurrent exposure, as seen in the farmed deer confined within a fluky habitat, appears to strengthen tissue response in terms of gross pathology and may impede the release of fluke eggs from the liver. Low fluke burdens and limited lesions suggest fallow deer have a strong level of resistance to liver fluke. Nevertheless, within this endemic region, fallow deer are widespread and clearly facilitating the liver fluke life cycle. Further research is warranted to ascertain the impact of fallow deer on disease transmission in livestock production when cohabiting the grazing environment.


Assuntos
Cervos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/patologia , Fezes , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Prevalência
10.
J Med Entomol ; 58(4): 1966-1969, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822135

RESUMO

Pesticide resistance in medically significant disease vectors can negatively impact the efficacy of control efforts. Resistance research on ticks has focused primarily on species of veterinary significance that experience relatively high degrees of control pressure. Resistance in tick vectors of medical significance has received little attention, in part because area-wide pesticide applications are not used to control these generalist tick species. One of the few effective methods currently used for area-wide control of medically important ticks, including Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), is deployment of 4-poster devices. Deer self-apply a topical acaricide (permethrin) while feeding on corn from the devices. A 4-poster program using permethrin has been deployed on Shelter Island, NY to control I. scapularis populations since 2008. We collected engorged female ticks from deer in this management area and a location in the Mid-Hudson River Valley, NY without area-wide tick control. Larvae were reared from egg masses and their susceptibility to permethrin was tested. Larvae originating from a long-term laboratory colony were used as a susceptible baseline for comparison. Compared against the laboratory colony, resistance ratios at LC-50 for Shelter Island and Hudson Valley I. scapularis were 1.87 and 1.51, respectively. The susceptibilities of the field populations to permethrin were significantly lower than that of the colony ticks. We provide the first data using the larval packet test to establish baseline susceptibility for I. scapularis to permethrin along with information relevant to understanding resistance emergence in tick populations under sustained control pressure from 4-poster devices.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Permetrina/farmacologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 200-205, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827177

RESUMO

Piroplasms, which include Babesia spp. and Theileria spp., are protozoan parasites carried by ticks and commonly cause disease in animals and humans. Those caused by Babesia spp. manifest as fever, anemia, and hemoglobinuria, while Theileria spp. can lead to high fever, diarrhea, and lymphadenopathy. Recently, Theileria capreoli and an undescribed Babesia sp. were detected for the first time in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from Hokkaido; however, there is limited information available on their epidemiology in Japan. Here, a touchdown polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization were used to perform an epidemiological survey of T. capreoli and Babesia sp. using blood samples from 82 sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. This was followed by partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA and ß-tubulin genes to characterize both piroplasm species. A total of 43 (52.4%) and 3 (3.7%) of the sika deer were positive for T. capreoli and Babesia sp., respectively. The ß-tubulin gene partial sequences for Babesia sp. were distinct from those of Babesia spp. in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the unknown Babesia sp. is more closely related to B. bigemina and B. ovata than other Babesia spp. based on the ß-tubulin gene. Further studies are required to understand the ecology of these tick-borne pathogens in Japan.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/classificação , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1891-1895, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830363

RESUMO

Deer encompass a group of large-sized vertebrates that serve as hosts for a wide variety of ectoparasites, mainly ticks. In Mexico, ticks have relevance as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms, and 20 species of hard ticks are associated with four species of deer, although only a single study has been conducted to detect bacterial agents associated with ticks from deer in the country. In February, 2019 three white-tailed deers (Odocoileus virginianus) were hunted from the locality of Chiná from the municipality of Campeche, Mexico. The sampled deers were parasitized by 26 ticks belonged to three species: Amblyomma mixtum (5♀, 1♂), Amblyomma ovale (2♀, 1♂), and Ixodes sp. cf. Ixodes affinis (15♀, 2♂). Specimens were screened individually for Anaplasma, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia DNA by the amplification of several fragments of 16S rRNA, gltA, 17-kDa, and flaB genes. This study report for the first time the presence of Rickettsia sp. cf. Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes sp. cf. Ixodes affinis in Mexico.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , México , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109433, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930692

RESUMO

This review is intended to provide an overview of the occurrence and diversity of Babesia spp. in European deer. Babesiosis is an emerging vector-borne disease with negative implications on animal and public health. Cervidae are important hosts for Ixodidae ticks, playing a critical role in the epidemiology of the parasite. Deer are susceptible to different Babesia spp., some of them with zoonotic potential. The infection is usually asymptomatic with high prevalence rates, although some fatal cases due to B. capreoli and B. venatorum have been reported. In Europe, 3 main Babesia spp. have been described in deer: Babesia divergens/B. divergens-like, B. capreoli and B. venatorum. Additionally, close relatives of B. odocoilei, the Babesia species of the American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), have been isolated in several European countries. The occurrence of B. divergens/B. divergens-like generated concerns about the role of cervidae in the life cycle of the parasite, and the potential threat for public health. Few human cases have been attributed to B. venatorum so far, including hunters. Although this species is strictly related to the presence of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), it has been occasionally reported in moose (Alces alces) and captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Over recent years, vector-borne diseases received increased attention from International Organizations. However, technical difficulties persist, affecting surveillance efficiency. Given the veterinary and zoonotic importance of babesiosis, the author advocates the need for an effective monitoring at wildlife-domestic animals-humans interface and the implementation of management plans to reduce the risk of Babesia spp. infection for both humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Babesia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Babesiose/parasitologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Rena/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Risco , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses
14.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 57-61, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797525

RESUMO

Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) at Surabaya zoo, Indonesia, that were found to be naturally infected with Fasciola, showed elevated level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Of a total of 75 deer examined, 12 (25%) of the 47 adult deer and 8 (29%) of the 28 juvenile deer were found to be infected with fascioliasis, as evidenced by the shedding of the parasite eggs. The level of ALT, AST and ALP were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in all the infected deer. Only Fasciolainfected deer showed elevated serum liver enzyme. Deer with elevated enzyme level show a trend that positively correspond with higher Egg per gram of feces (EPG). The average size of the parasite eggs at 169.0±11.1 × 96.0±3.5µm, correspond well with that of Fasciola gigantica. No other trematode eggs were observed besides that of F. gigantica. There was no significant difference in the enzyme profile between the two sexes in both the infected and the uninfected group. This is the first report of the elevation of serum liver enzyme in Timor deer that is associated with not only fascioliasis and also correspond positively with the EPG.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fígado/enzimologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/sangue , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
15.
J Med Entomol ; 58(4): 1962-1965, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764454

RESUMO

In October 2020, three captive male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus [Zimmermann] (artiodactyla: Cervidae), were found dead in central Pennsylvania and a fourth was euthanized due to extreme lethargy. The deer presented with high burdens of Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) (Ixoda: Ixodidae) (winter tick). There were no other clinical symptoms and deer were in otherwise good physical condition with no observed alopecia. Winter tick epizootics have been associated with mortalities of moose, Alces alces [Linnaeus] (artiodactyla: cervidae), and more recently elk, Cervus canadensis [Erxleben] (artiodactyla: cervidae), in Pennsylvania, but have not been reported in white-tailed deer. Mild winters are favorable to winter ticks and deer producers and managers should be aware of possible infestations as a result.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Dermacentor , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dermacentor/patogenicidade , Ixodidae/patogenicidade , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos
16.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1781-1788, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788023

RESUMO

Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are well known external parasites of game animals that cause serious veterinary and medical problems. The occurrence and geographical distribution of different species of ticks in Western Poland have changed over the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to determine the species spectrum and prevalence of ticks parasitizing three species of game animals, the Eurasian wild boar Sus scrofa L., red deer Cervus elaphus L., and roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L.) in two hunting districts in Lubuskie Province. In addition, the distribution of ticks on the host's body and the intensity of infestation were determined. Ticks were collected from dead animals during the hunting seasons in 2013 and 2014, over the periods from May to June and from August to December. In total, 286 specimens were examined: 138 Eurasian wild boars, 8 red deers, and 140 roe deers. Altogether, 1891 ticks were collected. Three species of ticks were determined: Ixodes ricinus (L.), Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), and Haemaphysalis concinna (C.L. Koch, 1844). H. concinna was recorded for the first time in Lubuskie Province.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodidae , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Dermacentor , Feminino , Ixodes , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1851-1860, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682048

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to determine the Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity rates in farmed red deer hinds from Argentina and their relationship with reproductive losses. Over a 2-year period, 449 hinds from 4 commercial farms were serologically tested at late gestation for N. caninum and T. gondii by IFAT. During the first year, a sequential serological analysis was carried out at 3 different time points to analyze antibody dynamics from mating until the end of the gestation period. Fetal and postnatal mortality rates were estimated by 3 successive ultrasound scannings (us) annually and a breeding control carried out after the calving period. Ultrasound fetal measurements were used to estimate conception date and gestational age of abortions. The seropositivity rate for N. caninum was 25.5% (37/145) for the yearlings and 34.2% (104/304) for the adults, while for T. gondii was 64.3% (93/145) and 78.3% (238/304), respectively. Abortions detected at us1 and us2 were 13/21 (61.9%) with a range of gestational age of 30-87 days, while abortions detected at us3 were 8/21 (38.1%) with a range of gestational age of 49-209 days. The fetal mortality rate was 4% and 5.8%, while the postnatal mortality rate was 18.8% and 4.1% of 101 yearlings and 294 adult pregnant hinds, respectively. Most seropositive hinds to both protozoans showed a stable antibody titer pattern from mating to the end of gestation, and a lower proportion developed an increase in titers suggesting infection recrudescence. Seroconversion during the gestational period was demonstrated in 6 and 50 hinds for N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. Hinds with fetal mortality were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum (OR = 3.1) or have N. caninum titers ≥400 (OR = 27.4) than hinds that weaned a fawn. No statistical associations were detected for T. gondii seropositivity and reproductive losses. The pregnancy rate was not affected by N. caninum or T. gondii infection, while the serological evidence of N. caninum causing postnatal mortality was marginal. Based on serological evidence, N. caninum would be a potential abortigenic agent in red deer hinds.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/fisiopatologia , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Argentina , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/veterinária , Reprodução , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Desmame
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 23: 100504, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678361

RESUMO

Flies of the genus Cochliomyia frequently cause myiasis in the Americas during the hot and humid climate, which favors the development of the parasite's life cycle. A three-year-old female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), originated from a conservation farm in the municipality of Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was presented for a necropsy. Grossly, a nodular wound in the right lacrimal gland was observed, with many intralesional larvae. The histopathological evaluation of the injured lacrimal gland revealed maggots surrounded by areas of necrosis and inflammation. Specimens were collected for parasitological examination. Morphologically, larvae were identified as Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). It is suggested that adult C. macellaria was attracted to the site of infestation by glandular secretion. The present study shows the first report of secondary myiasis by Cochliomyia macellaria in deer.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Dacriocistite , Cervos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dacriocistite/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Feminino
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 71-81, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635975

RESUMO

Dictyocaulus spp. infections are common in North American cervids, with Dictyocaulus viviparus described as most common. A Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) was found dead in Wyoming, US with significant bronchitis and pneumonia. In the bronchi and trachea, numerous large nematodes were found and grossly identified as Dictyocaulus spp. lungworms. Macroscopic alterations, such as distended interlobular septa and edema with foam and mucus observed on cut surface and in trachea and bronchi, were consistent with those commonly described in D. viviparus infections. Female lungworms were identified to Dictyocaulus spp. level via morphologic examination and molecular analyses based on mitochondrial cyclooxygenase 1 and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted employing the maximum likelihood method. Based on both morphologic and genetic assays, the isolated lungworms were most likely a strain of Dictyocaulus cervi. Within the female adult worms, free first stage larvae were observed besides worm eggs, which had not been described for Dictyocaulus spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that our parasites clustered closely with D. cervi, forming a subclade with that species within a larger clade that includes Dictyocaulus eckerti. While the elk tested positive for chronic wasting disease, it is assumed that significant pathology in the present case was caused directly by infection with the D. cervi-like lungworm, not previously described in North America.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Dictyocaulus/genética , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Wyoming/epidemiologia
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 116-124, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635991

RESUMO

Herbivores can be accidental hosts for the zoonotic nematode parasites Trichinella spp., which are endemic at high prevalence in wildlife in northeastern Europe. Using direct and indirect detection methods for Trichinella spp., we investigated samples from 463 wild moose (Alces alces) harvested by hunters in Estonia in 2015. A total of 460 moose were tested directly by artificial digestion of diaphragm muscle, 463 moose were tested indirectly by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 34 moose also by western blot. Positive-control reference sera were from other host species. Nematode larvae were found in six muscle samples; five of which were pooled samples. None of the larvae were identified as Trichinella spp., based on their morphology and molecular analyses. Twelve moose (2.6%) were positive by ELISA, but none were positive by the western blot test. Trichinella spp. infection was not detected, but ELISA results may suggest Trichinella spp. exposure in a small proportion of moose in Estonia.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
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