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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 902, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was no study documenting the incidence of surgical site infection after caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section at Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara region, North-west Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 520 pregnant women who had a caesarean section between March 28, 2019 and August 31, 2019. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered using EpiData™ Entry Version 4.1 software and analyzed using R Version 3.6.1 software. A descriptive analysis was conducted using tables, interquartile ranges and median. The time to development of surgical site infection was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model for bivariable and multivariable analyses was done. Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to show the strength of association. RESULT: The mean age of the study cohort was 27.4 ± 4.8 years. The overall cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 25.4% with an incidence of 11.7 (95% CI:9.8,13.9) per 1000 person/days. Not able to read and write (AHR = 1.30,95% CI:1.19,2.11), no antenatal care (AHR = 2.16, 95%CI:1.05,4.53), previous history of CS (AHR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.11,2.31), HIV positive (AHR = 1.39, 95% CI:1.21,2.57), emergency procedure (AHR = 1.13, 95% CI:1.11,2.43), vertical type of incision (AHR = 2.60, 95% CI:1.05,6.44), rupture of membrane (AHR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.31,1.64), multiple vaginal examination (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.20) were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section was relatively high compared to previous studies. Not able to read and write, have no ante natal care, previous history of caesarean section, HIV, emergency surgery, vertical type of incision, rupture of membranes before caesarean section, and multiple vaginal examinations were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on and address the identified factors to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23630, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous cesarean scar defect (PCSD) is a gynecological disease that can cause bleeding after intercourse, prolonging menstrual period, intermenstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and even lead to infertility. Chinese herbal medicine plays an important role in the treatment of gynecological diseases in China and East Asia. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for PCSD. METHODS: We search the following databases: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CB), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and the Wanfang Database. Other sources will also be searched like Google Scholar and gray literature. All databases mentioned above are searched from the start date to the latest version. Randomized controlled trials will be included which recruiting PCSD participants to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines against controls (placebo or other therapeutic agents). Primary outcomes will include the size of PCSD, menstrual cycle, menstrual phase, menstrual volume, duration of disease, security index. Two authors will independently scan the searched articles, extract the data from attached articles, and import them into Endnote X8 and use Microsoft Excel 2013 to manage data and information. We will assess the risk of bias by Cochrane tool of risk of bias. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus or the participation of a third party. All analysis will be performed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The meta-analysis in this review will use RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment that Chinese herbal medicine for PCSD. CONCLUSION: This study of the meta-analysis could provide evidence for clinicians and help patients to make a better choice. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090080.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatriz/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Endometriose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(12): 1728-1735, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355827

RESUMO

Background: The steady rise in laparotomy rates, particularly resulting from gynecologic and obstetric procedures in our environment has given rise to corresponding increase in the proportions of incisional hernias (IH). Over the years, discussion on the appropriate repair technique for IH has continued, nevertheless, with advances in laparo-endoscopy and introduction of prosthetic meshes, the surgical treatment has been revolutionized. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the risk factors and the evolutionary trend in surgical repair in our center. Methodology: This is a descriptive prospective study of adult patients with incisional hernias. The study was carried out in a tertiary health institution from January 2011 to December 2017. Results: A total of 177 patients were recruited, 147 (83.1%) females and 30 (16.9%) males. Nearly two-thirds, 115 patients (65.0%) received prosthetic mesh repair, the rest, 62 patients (35.0%) were fixed using suture-based techniques. Among the 115 mesh repairs, 110 (995.7%) were in females and the remaining five (4.3%) were in males. The most frequent precipitating surgery was caesarean section in 72 patients (40.7%), followed by gynecology operations, 45 patients (25.4%), none-obstetrics and gynecology laparotomies, 50 patients (28.2%) and others, 10 patients (5.7%). Of the 177 patients evaluated, in 99 patients (55.9%) there was history of wound infection in the previous surgery while 24.9%, 5.1%, 4.5% and 1.1% reported that they had prolonged cough, diabetes, jaundice, and urinary obstruction in the peri-operative period of the initiating operations. The rate of recurrence was 17.7% in the non-mesh repairs and 0.0% in the group that had mesh repair. Conclusion: In our locality, the trend over time shows a shift from predominantly anatomic suture-based repair to a tensionless mesh implant with far lower recurrent rates. Laparotomy incisions for obstetric and gynecologic procedures are the most common precipitating incisions.


Assuntos
Hérnia Incisional , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hérnia Incisional/epidemiologia , Hérnia Incisional/cirurgia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Telas Cirúrgicas , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine rupture has a significant public health importance, contributing to 13% of maternal mortality and 74%-92% of perinatal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 36% of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. The prevalence and predictors of uterine rupture were highly variable and inconclusive across studies in the country. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and predictor of uterine rupture in Ethiopia. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 checklist. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online databases were searched. The Newcastle- Ottawa quality assessment tool was used for critical appraisal. I2 statistic and Egger's tests were used to assess the heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included, with a total of 91,784 women in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of uterine rupture was 2% (95% CI: 1.99, 3.01). The highest prevalence was observed in the Amhara regional state (5%) and the lowest was in Tigray region (1%). Previous cesarean delivery (OR = 9.95, 95% CI: 3.09, 32.0), lack of antenatal care visit (OR = 8.40, 95% CI: 4.5, 15.7), rural residence (OR = 4.75, 95% CI: 1.17, 19.3), grand multiparity (OR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.83, 7.11) and obstructed labor (OR = 6.75, 95%CI: 1.92, 23.8) were predictors of uterine rupture. CONCLUSION: Uterine rupture is still high in Ethiopia. Therefore, proper auditing on the appropriateness of cesarean section and proper labor monitoring, improving antenatal care visit, and birth preparedness and complication readiness plan are needed. Moreover, early referral and family planning utilization are the recommended interventions to reduce the burden of uterine rupture among Ethiopia women.


Assuntos
Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003457, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211689

RESUMO

In this Perspective, Gordon Smith discusses the findings of Miller et al, and the balance of risks and benefits associated with different modes of delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 756-763, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116074

RESUMO

Caesarean section (CS) is the most frequently performed major operation in obstetrics. Its frequency is gradually increasing because of extended indications. Now-a-days, caesarean section is also being performed at patient's request in absence of a medical indication. It is necessary to assess the risk and benefits to take a judicious decision to select cases for caesarean section. The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was carried out among purposively selected 100 pregnant women admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Community Based Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during the period of August 2011 to January 2012 to identify elective and emergency indications of caesarean section, to identify the common complications to identify the risk factors associated with complications and to establish a comparison between complications of elective and emergency caesarean section. The median age group of patients being operated was 20 to 25 years and operation were carried out on patients due to various indications. Principal indications were faetal distress (26%), PROM (15%), failed progress of labour and breech presentation were 8% each, other indications were eclampsia (4%), obstructed labour (5%), scar tenderness (4%), history of previous 2 caesarian section 5%. The rate of elective caesarean section was 21% while emergency operations were done in 79% of cases. Among the 100 patients 19% patients developed complications. Among the complications wound infection was most common (37%), then post partum haemorrhage and urinary tract infection 26% and 11% respectively. Other complications were abdominal distension, Puerperal sepsis, anaemic heart failure, wound dehiscence and Wound haematoma 5% each. We should try to keep the rate of caesarean section within optimum ranges (10%) as recommended by World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Apresentação Pélvica , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of Caesarean Section (CS) deliveries has shown an alarming rise in recent years. CS is a surgical procedure used when there is apprehension of risk to the life of mother or baby in case of vaginal delivery, but its rates higher than 10-15 per cent are not justifiable. It is well recognised that a CS delivery could have a large number of adverse impacts on women and infants. Several studies, especially in developing countries, have revealed that delivery in private hospitals is one of the most contributing factors in CS deliveries. The present study conceptualises a causal pathway in which the possible risk factors, socio-economic, maternal and pregnancy-related, as well as institutional, influence the chances of CS delivery. It is hypothesised that certain factors would contribute to CS deliveries largely indirectly through the place of delivery, that is, either a public or private institution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the hypotheses, this study analysed 146,280 most recent live births delivered in hospitals during the five years preceding the fourth round of India's National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), carried out during 2015-2016. The analysis, using generalised structural equation modelling (GSEM), revealed that many exogenous variables considered in the path models influence CS deliveries significantly, directly and/or indirectly through the place of delivery factor. Prominent among these are wealth index and receiving ANC services at only private hospitals; the total effects of these variables are even higher than the direct/total effect of place of delivery. CONCLUSION: From this finding, it could be said that the place of delivery is a proximate determinant of a CS delivery or a mediator of other co-factors. Interventions to curb higher CS deliveries should be focused on improving the quality of public health sectors and on developing protocols for CS deliveries.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Privados , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/tendências , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(10): 691-696, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120481

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and early identification of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta. Methods: The clinical data of 12 patients with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta and admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2014 to December 2019 were collected. The age, gestational age, gestational history, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, uterine operation history, rupture location, surgical method, treatment and outcome were analyzed. Results: (1) General condition: the median age of pregnant women was 37 years (range: 30-43 years), and the median gestational week of uterine rupture was 29+6 weeks (range: 18+3-36+3 weeks). (2) Clinical manifestation: among the 12 pregnant women, 9 showed different degrees of abdominal pain; chest distress accompanied by waist soreness, abdominal distension in 2 cases; one asymptomatic pregnant women was found with uterine rupture during elective cesarean section. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasonography indicated that 9 of the 12 pregnant women had peritoneal effusion, and 6 of them underwent diagnostic peritoneal puncture or posterior vault puncture for non-clotting blood extraction. (3) Uterine operation history and rupture location: among the 12 cases of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta pregnant women, 10 had placenta previa after cesarean section, including 4 cases of rupture at the incision of the original cesarean section, 3 cases of rupture at the penetrating placental implantation of the lower segment of the anterior wall of the uterus, and 1 case of placenta percreta occurred at the myomectomy site of the right angle of the uterus. Among the 2 pregnant women with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by penetrating placental implantation without a history of cesarean section, 1 case with history of multiple abortions, and uterine rupture occurred at the bottom of the palace, 1 had rupture of placental penetrating implantation after hysteroscopic electroresection of endometrial polyps, and the uterine rupture occurred at the anterior wall of the lower segment of the uterus. (4) Maternal and fetal outcomes: 11 pregnant women were injected with suspension RBC and 1 pregnant woman was not injected with blood products. Nine cases underwent hysteroplasty and 3 cases underwent subtotal hysterectomy. There were 11 maternal survivors and 1 maternal death; 7 neonates survived and 6 stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta is of great harm to mother and infant, due to its heterogeneity in clinical manifestations, which increases the possibility of misdiagnosis. For pregnant women with risk factors of placenta percreta, early diagnosis should be made during pregnancy. For those who have been diagnosed with placenta percreta, when there is typical or atypical uterine rupture, doctors should be alert to the occurrence of uterine rupture.


Assuntos
Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Ruptura Espontânea/epidemiologia , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Histerectomia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Placenta Acreta/cirurgia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/cirurgia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 767, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum is an intra-cellular bacterium frequently found colonizing the genital tract. Known complications include localized infections, which can result in premature deliveries. Septic arthritis due to U. urealyticum in healthy patients is exceptionally rare, although opportunistic septic arthritis in agammaglobulinemic patients have been reported. However, there are no reports of septic arthritis due to U. urealyticum following caesarean section or in the post-partum period. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with severe right shoulder pain, 1 month following emergency caesarean section at 26 weeks of gestation for pre-eclampsia and spontaneous placental disruption with an uncomplicated post-operative recovery. Our suspicion of septic arthritis was confirmed with abundant pus following arthrotomy by a delto-pectoral approach. Awaiting culture results, empirical antibiotic treatment with intravenous amoxicilline and clavulanic acid was initiated. In spite of sterile cultures, clinical evolution was unfavorable with persistent pain, inflammation and purulent drainage, requiring two additional surgical débridement and lavage procedures. The 16S ribosomal RNA PCR of the purulent liquid was positive for U. urealyticum at 2.95 × 106 copies/ml, specific cultures inoculated a posteriori were positive for U. urealyticum. Levofloxacin and azithromycine antibiotherapy was initiated. Susceptibility testing showed an intermediate sensibility to ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline. Following cessation of breastfeeding, we started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline for 4 weeks. The subsequent course was favorable with an excellent functional and biological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of septic arthritis due to U. urealyticum after caesarean section. We hypothesize that the breach of the genital mucosal barrier during the caesarean section led to hematogenous spread resulting in purulent septic arthritis. The initial beta-lactam based antibiotic treatment, initiated for a purulent arthritis, did not provide coverage for cell wall deficient organisms. Detection of 16S rRNA allowed for a correct microbiological diagnosis in a patient with an unexpected clinical course.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ombro/microbiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/diagnóstico , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por Ureaplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ureaplasma/microbiologia , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22442, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019428

RESUMO

Delivery methods during childbirth and their related gut microbiota profiles have important impacts on health later in life, they can contribute to the development of diseases such as obesity, whose highest prevalence rate is found among the Mexican child population. Coincidentally, Mexico has one of the highest global average annual rate increase in cesarean births (C-section). Since Mexico leads the world in childhood obesity, studying the relationship between childbirth delivery methods and gut microbiota profiles in this vulnerable population may be used to identify early risk factors for obesity in other developed and developing countries. The objective of this study is to determine the association between child delivery method and gut microbiota profiles in healthy Mexican newborns.Fecal samples of 57 term infants who participated in a randomized clinical trial in 2013 to study the safety of Agave fructans in newborns, were used in this study. DNA samples were extracted and used to characterize the microbiota composition using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The samples were further divided based on childbirth delivery method, as well as early diet. Gut microbiota profiles were determined and analyzed using cluster analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis.An unusual high abundance of Proteobacteria was found in the gut microbiota of all Mexican infants studied, regardless of delivery method. Feces from infants born by C-section had low levels of Bacteroidetes, high levels of Firmicutes, especially Clostridium and Enterococcus, and a strikingly high ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F:B). Profiles enriched in Bacteroidetes and low F:B ratios, were strongly associated with vaginal delivery.The profile of gut microbiota associated with feces from Mexican infants born by C-section, may be added to the list of boosting factors for the worrying obesity epidemic in Mexico.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22845, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120815

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) and analyze the clinical factors associated with successful selection for hysteroscopic or laparoscopic treatment of CSP.We retrospectively studied 112 cases of CSP that were treated by laparoscopy and/or hysteroscopy in our hospital from December 2014 to December 2017. In total, 72 of these patients underwent ultrasound-guided curettage and hysteroscopic resection without uterine scar defect repair. Fourty of these patients underwent laparoscopic resection and repair of the uterine scar defect. We analyzed the different clinical variables between the 2 groups and identified the clinical factors which could predict the need for the laparoscopic repair of uterine scar defect. Results showed that laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were safe ways to treat CSP, and no patient underwent hysterectomy. The ß-hCG level in both of the 2 groups decreased to normal 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. There were significant differences between the hysteroscopy group and laparoscopy uterine scar repair group in terms of days of amenorrhea, gestational sac diameter, myometrial thickness, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospitalization duration (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the days of amenorrhea, gestational sac diameter and myometrial thickness were independent risk factors for CSP treated by minimally invasive surgery, which were also shown by ROC curve analysis to be predictors of the need for the repair of the uterine scar defect, with optimal cutoffs of 52.50 days, 3.25 cm, and 2.05 mm, respectively; and the areas under their corresponding ROC were 0.721, 0.851, and 0.927, respectively.We conclude that laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are safe and efficient minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of CSP. The days of amenorrhea, gestational sac diameter and myometrial thickness may be key factors associated with successful selection for hysteroscopic or laparoscopic treatment of CSP.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/complicações , Histeroscopia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Adulto , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17603, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077758

RESUMO

Uterine rupture is a serious public health concern that causes high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Few of the studies conducted in Ethiopia show a high discrepancy in the prevalence of uterine rupture, which ranges between 1.6 and 16.7%. There also lacks a national study on this issue in Ethiopia. This systematic and meta-analysis, therefore, was conducted to assess the prevalence and determinants of uterine rupture in Ethiopia. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis of studies. All observational published studies were retrieved using relevant search terms in Google scholar, African Journals Online, CINHAL, HINARI, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed (Medline) databases. Newcastle-Ottawa assessment checklist for observational studies was used for critical appraisal of the included articles. The meta-analysis was done with STATA version 14 software. The I2 test statistics were used to assess heterogeneity among included studies, and publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. Odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was presented using forest plots. A total of twelve studies were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of uterine rupture was 3.98% (95% CI 3.02, 4.95). The highest (7.82%) and lowest (1.53%) prevalence were identified in Amhara and Southern Nations, Nationality and Peoples Region (SNNPR), respectively. Determinants of uterine rupture were urban residence (OR = 0.15 (95% CI 0.09, 0.23)), primipara (OR = 0.12 (95% CI 0.06, 0.27)), previous cesarean section (OR = 3.23 (95% CI 2.12, 4.92)), obstructed labor(OR = 12.21 (95% CI 6.01, 24.82)), and partograph utilization (OR = 0.12 (95% CI 0.09, 0.17)). Almost one in twenty-five mothers had uterine rupture in Ethiopia. Urban residence, primiparity, previous cesarean section, obstructed labor and partograph utilization were significantly associated with uterine rupture. Therefore, intervention programs should address the identified factors to reduce the prevalence of uterine rupture.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia
14.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to study the characteristics of women undergoing abdominal surgery with suspected abdominal wall endometriosis or abdominal wall tumor, and to assess the association with age, race and previous cesarean delivery. METHOD: retrospective and analytical study carried out from January 2000 to December 2019, at the General Surgery Service of Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (HUAP) at Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF). Medical records of 100 patients with abdominal wall endometriosis and other types of abdominal wall tumors were analyzed. Age, color, previous history of cesarean section or abdominal surgery and histopathological data were verified. The patients were classified as young adults (aged between 18 and 28 years and 11 months) and adults. The SPSS program was used for data analysis, Fisher's test with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: abdominal wall endometriosis with histopathological confirmation was found in 22%, the mean age was 52.28 ± 18.66 which was lower when compared to other diagnoses. There was an association between previous cesarean section and abdominal wall endometriosis (p <0.005). CONCLUSION: the women with a diagnosis of abdominal wall endometriosis had undergone previous cesareans (the majority) and were in an active reproductive age. Although the brown skin women were the most frequent, there was no statistical difference.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/patologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Endometriose/etiologia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874409

RESUMO

Introduction: preventable mortality from complications which arise during pregnancy and childbirth continue to claim more than a quarter of million women´s lives every year, almost all in low- and middle-income countries. However, lifesaving emergency obstetric services, including caesarean section (CS), significantly contribute to prevention of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. Between 2009 and 2013, a task shifting intervention to train caesarean section (CS) teams involving 41 CS surgeons, 35 anesthetic nurses and 36 scrub nurses was implemented in 13 hospitals in southern Ethiopia. We report on the attrition rate of those upskilled to provide CS with a focus on the medium-term outcomes and the challenges encountered. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving surveys of focal persons and a facility staff audit supplemented with a review of secondary data was conducted in thirteen hospitals. Mean differences were computed to appreciate the difference between numbers of CSs conducted for the six months before and after task shifting commenced. Results: from the trained 112 professionals, only 52 (46.4%) were available for carrying out CS in the hospitals. CS surgeons (65.9%) and nurse anesthetists (71.4%) are more likely to have left as compared to scrub nurses (22.2%). Despite the loss of trained staff, there was an increase in the number of CSs performed after the task shifting (mean difference=43.8; 95% CI: 18.3-69.4; p=0.003). Conclusion: our study, one of the first to assess the medium-term effects of task shifting highlights the risk of ongoing attrition of well-trained staff and the need to reassess strategies for staff retention.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/educação , Cesárea/mortalidade , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Auditoria Clínica , Competência Clínica/normas , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/educação , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Parto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/normas , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/normas , Carga de Trabalho/normas
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15297, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943657

RESUMO

Caesarean sections carry the risk of urinary bladder injury due to formation of adhesions obscuring pelvic planes. Visualizing bladder during retro-fill (cystoinflation) makes it recognizable as it rises into the abdomen taking a tense rounded contour. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to find out whether improved identification of bladder margins by cystoinflation could decrease bladder injury rate and blood loss without causing urological complications. This study included 214 healthy women with previous operative deliveries undergoing elective caesarean section and found to have dense pelvic adhesions. The subjects were randomly allocated into cystoinflation and control groups. Adhesiolysis was performed using bladder retro-fill with 300 cc saline in cystoinflation group, and without retro-fill in control. The bladder injury rate was significantly lower in cystoinflation group compared to control (2.8% vs 20.6%, P < .0001) with lesser blood loss in cystoinflation group (585.33 cc vs 797.10 cc, P < .0001). Mean operative time was similar in both groups. Urinary tract infection and micturition problems occurred more frequently in control group than cystoinflation group (16.8% vs 1.9%, P = .001 and .47 ± 1.63% vs 077 ± .633%, P = .021 respectively) with fistula in one subject compared to none in cystoinflation group. In this study, cystoinflation was effective to significantly reduce bladder injury rate and blood loss. This technique may also prove useful in the fields of surgery, urology and urogynecology.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Abdome/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011216, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after caesarean sections (CS) can affect the well-being of the mother and her ability with her newborn. Conventional pain-relieving strategies are often underused because of concerns about the adverse maternal and neonatal effects. Complementary alternative therapies (CAM) may offer an alternative for post-CS pain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of CAM for post-caesarean pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, LILACS, PEDro, CAMbase, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (6 September 2019), and checked the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs, comparing CAM, alone or associated with other forms of pain relief, versus other treatments or placebo or no treatment, for the treatment of post-CS pain. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 37 studies (3076 women) which investigated eight different CAM therapies for post-CS pain relief. There is substantial heterogeneity among the trials. We downgraded the certainty of evidence due to small numbers of women participating in the trials and to risk of bias related to lack of blinding and inadequate reporting of randomisation processes. None of the trials reported pain at six weeks after discharge. Primary outcomes were pain and adverse effects, reported per intervention below. Secondary outcomes included vital signs, rescue analgesic requirement at six weeks after discharge; all of which were poorly reported, not reported, or we are uncertain as to the effect Acupuncture or acupressure We are very uncertain if acupuncture or acupressure (versus no treatment) or acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) has any effect on pain because the quality of evidence is very low. Acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus analgesia) may reduce pain at 12 hours (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to 0.07; 130 women; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (SMD -0.63, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.26; 2 studies; 130 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether acupuncture or acupressure (versus no treatment) or acupuncture or acupressure plus analgesia (versus analgesia) has any effect on the risk of adverse effects because the quality of evidence is very low. Aromatherapy Aromatherapy plus analgesia may reduce pain when compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (mean difference (MD) -2.63 visual analogue scale (VAS), 95% CI -3.48 to -1.77; 3 studies; 360 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -3.38 VAS, 95% CI -3.85 to -2.91; 1 study; 200 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if aromatherapy plus analgesia has any effect on adverse effects (anxiety) compared with placebo plus analgesia. Electromagnetic therapy Electromagnetic therapy may reduce pain compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (MD -8.00, 95% CI -11.65 to -4.35; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -13.00 VAS, 95% CI -17.13 to -8.87; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence). Massage We identified six studies (651 women), five of which were quasi-RCTs, comparing massage (foot and hand) plus analgesia versus analgesia. All the evidence relating to pain, adverse effects (anxiety), vital signs and rescue analgesic requirement was very low-certainty. Music Music plus analgesia may reduce pain when compared with placebo plus analgesia at one hour (SMD -0.84, 95% CI -1.23 to -0.46; participants = 115; studies = 2; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence), 24 hours (MD -1.79, 95% CI -2.67 to -0.91; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence), and also when compared with analgesia at one hour (MD -2.11, 95% CI -3.11 to -1.10; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence) and at 24 hours (MD -2.69, 95% CI -3.67 to -1.70; 1 study; 38 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether music plus analgesia has any effect on adverse effects (anxiety), when compared with placebo plus analgesia because the quality of evidence is very low. Reiki We are uncertain if Reiki plus analgesia compared with analgesia alone has any effect on pain, adverse effects, vital signs or rescue analgesic requirement because the quality of evidence is very low (one study, 90 women). Relaxation Relaxation may reduce pain compared with standard care at 24 hours (MD -0.53 VAS, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.01; 1 study; 60 women; low-certainty evidence). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS (versus no treatment) may reduce pain at one hour (MD -2.26, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.17; 1 study; 40 women; low-certainty evidence). TENS plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) may reduce pain compared with placebo plus analgesia at one hour (SMD -1.10 VAS, 95% CI -1.37 to -0.82; 3 studies; 238 women; low-certainty evidence) and at 24 hours (MD -0.70 VAS, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.53; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). TENS plus analgesia (versus placebo plus analgesia) may reduce heart rate (MD -7.00 bpm, 95% CI -7.63 to -6.37; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) and respiratory rate (MD -1.10 brpm, 95% CI -1.26 to -0.94; 108 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if TENS plus analgesia (versus analgesia) has any effect on pain at six hours or 24 hours, or vital signs because the quality of evidence is very low (two studies, 92 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Some CAM therapies may help reduce post-CS pain for up to 24 hours. The evidence on adverse events is too uncertain to make any judgements on safety and we have no evidence about the longer-term effects on pain. Since pain control is the most relevant outcome for post-CS women and their clinicians, it is important that future studies of CAM for post-CS pain measure pain as a primary outcome, preferably as the proportion of participants with at least moderate (30%) or substantial (50%) pain relief. Measuring pain as a dichotomous variable would improve the certainty of evidence and it is easy to understand for non-specialists. Future trials also need to be large enough to detect effects on clinical outcomes; measure other important outcomes as listed lin this review, and use validated scales.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Acupressão , Analgesia por Acupuntura , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Aromaterapia , Viés , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Massagem , Musicoterapia , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia de Relaxamento , Toque Terapêutico , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238634, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is one of the post-surgical complications of a Cesarean section. Despite the high rates of Cesarean section worldwide, the incidence of CPSP and the risk factors for this condition remain relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the incidence of CPSP in women submitted to Cesarean section and to analyze the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 621 women undergoing Cesarean section was recruited preoperatively. Potential presurgical (sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle-related characteristics) and post-surgical risk factors (the presence and intensity of pain) risk factors were analyzed. Pain was measured at 24 hours and 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery. Following discharge from hospital, data were collected by telephone. The outcome measure was self-reported pain three months after a Cesarean section. The risk factors for chronic pain were analyzed using the log-binomial regression model (a generalized linear model). RESULTS: A total of 462 women were successfully contacted 90 days following surgery. The incidence of CPSP was 25.5% (95%CI: 21.8-29.7). Risk factors included presurgical anxiety (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.03; 95%CI: 1.01-1.05), smoking (adjusted RR 2.22; 95%CI: 1.27-3.88) and severe pain in the early postoperative period (adjusted RR 2.79; 95%CI: 1.29-6.00). CONCLUSION: One in four women submitted to Cesarean section may develop CPSP; however, the risk factors identified here are modifiable and preventable. Preventive strategies directed towards controlling anxiety, reducing smoking during pregnancy and managing pain soon after hospital discharge are recommended.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA ; 324(12): 1180-1189, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960242

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity increases the risk of both cesarean delivery and surgical-site infection. Despite widespread use, it is unclear whether prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy reduces surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery in obese women. Objective: To evaluate whether prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, initiated immediately after cesarean delivery, lowers the risk of surgical-site infections compared with standard wound dressing in obese women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized trial conducted from February 8, 2017, through November 13, 2019, at 4 academic and 2 community hospitals across the United States. Obese women undergoing planned or unplanned cesarean delivery were eligible. The study was terminated after 1624 of 2850 participants were recruited when a planned interim analysis showed increased adverse events in the negative pressure group and futility for the primary outcome. Final follow-up was December 18, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to either undergo prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, with application of the negative pressure device immediately after repair of the surgical incision (n = 816), or receive standard wound dressing (n = 808). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was superficial or deep surgical-site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. Secondary outcomes included other wound complications, composite of surgical-site infections and other wound complications, and adverse skin reactions. Results: Of the 1624 women randomized (mean age, 30.4 years, mean body mass index, 39.5), 1608 (99%) completed the study: 806 in the negative pressure group (median duration of negative pressure, 4 days) and 802 in the standard dressing group. Superficial or deep surgical-site infection was diagnosed in 29 participants (3.6%) in the negative pressure group and 27 (3.4%) in the standard dressing group (difference, 0.36%; 95% CI, -1.46% to 2.19%, P = .70). Of 30 prespecified secondary end points, 25 showed no significant differences, including other wound complications (2.6% vs 3.1%; difference, -0.53%; 95% CI, -1.93% to 0.88%; P = .46) and composite of surgical-site infections and other wound complications (6.5% vs 6.7%; difference, -0.27%; 95% CI, -2.71% to 2.25%; P = .83). Adverse skin reactions were significantly more frequent in the negative pressure group (7.0% vs 0.6%; difference, 6.95%; 95% CI, 1.86% to 12.03%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among obese women undergoing cesarean delivery, prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, compared with standard wound dressing, did not significantly reduce the risk of surgical-site infection. These findings do not support routine use of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy in obese women after cesarean delivery. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03009110.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Obesidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bandagens/efeitos adversos , Vesícula/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21864, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899016

RESUMO

Spinal anesthesia (SpA) for elective caesarean section (CS) is often accompanied by clinically relevant arterial hypotension. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex, causing postspinal hypotension, has been shown to be antagonized by serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) blockade. Our aim was to assess if routine prophylactic administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron (ODS) attenuates postspinal change in maternal blood pressure.Elective CS under SpA were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty parturients having routinely received 8 mg ODS prior to SpA were compared with 80 patients having not (control group).Mean arterial blood pressure significantly decreased from baseline to the postspinal period (P < .0001) without differences in blood pressure decreases between the 2 groups. This also applied to the heart rate. Overall use of cafedrine/theodrenaline was higher in the ODS group (0.8 (0.4-1.6) mL vs 0.8 (0-1.0) mL in the control group, P = .01). APGAR values showed a presumably clinically irrelevant decrease in control group compared with the ODS group.Our results suggest that routine administration of ODS in a dosage of 8 mg does not effectively attenuate postspinal change in maternal blood pressure during CS in our setting. Given the wide variability of anesthetic techniques, only large prospective and randomized multicenter trials will ultimately serve to elucidate this issue.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
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