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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422192

RESUMO

Introduction: globally, almost half of all deaths in children under five years of age occur among neonates. We investigated the predictors of mortality within 28 days among preterm infants at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: we reviewed admission records linked to birth, mortality, and hospital discharge from 1st January 2018 to 30th September 2019. Information was retrieved with a follow-up period of 28 days post-delivery to discharge/mortality. We used the Weibull hazards regression to establish the best predictor model for mortality among the neonates. Results: a total of 3237 case records of women with a median age of 27 years (IQR, 22-33) were included in the study, of which 971 (30%) delivered term infants and 2267 (70%) preterm infants. The overall median survival time of the infants was 98 hours (IQR, 34-360). Preterm birth was not associated with increased hazards of mortality compared to term birth (p=0.078). Being in the Kangaroo Mother Care compared to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and a unit increase in birth weight were independently associated with reduced hazards of mortality. On the other hand, having hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, experiencing difficulty in feeding and vaginal delivery compared to caesarean section independently increased the hazards of mortality. Conclusion: having hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, vaginal delivery, and experiencing difficulty in feeding increases the risk of mortality among neonates. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality should be directed on these factors in this setting.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Mortalidade Infantil , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Canguru/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
2.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 28-36, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422231

RESUMO

Background: Preventing prolongation of the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) for emergency caesarean delivery (CD) remains central to improving perinatal health. This study evaluated the effects of the DDI on perinatal outcome following emergency CD. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 205 consenting women who had emergency CD at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria was conducted. The time-motion documentation of events from decision to delivery was documented; the outcome measures were perinatal morbidity (neonatal resuscitation, 5-minute Apgar score, neonatal intensive admission) and mortality. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The overall mean DDI was 233.99±132.61 minutes (range 44-725 minutes); the mean DDI was shortest for cord prolapse (86.25±86.25 minutes) and was shorter for booked participants compared with unbooked participants (207.19±13.88 minutes vs 249.25±12.05 minutes; P=0.030) and for general anaesthesia compared with spinal anaesthesia (219.48±128.60 minutes vs 236.19±133.42 minutes; P=0.543). All neonatal parameters were significantly worse for unbooked women compared with booked women, including perinatal mortality (10.8% vs 1.3%; P=0.012). Neonatal morbidity increased with DDI for clinical indications, UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Robson classification for CDs; perinatal mortality was 73.2 per 1000 live births, all were category 1 CDs and all except one occurred with DDI greater than 90 minutes. Severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labour and placenta praevia tolerated DDI greater than 90 minutes compared with abruptio placentae and umbilical cord prolapse. However, logistic regression showed no statistical correlation between the DDI and neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Perinatal morbidity and mortality increased with DDI relative to the clinical urgency but perinatal deaths were increased with DDI greater than 90 minutes. For no category of emergency CD should the DDI exceed 90 minutes, while patient and institutional factors should be addressed to reduce the DDI.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Médicos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27063, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449499

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Age above 35 years at the time of birth is generally referred to as advanced maternal age (AMA), and it could be a risk factor for various complications besides genetic changes in the fetus. The primary outcome of this study was to determine if AMA is associated with emergent cesarean delivery (CD) following induction of labor (IOL). The secondary outcomes were a composite of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes following IOL.This retrospective observational study included women with singleton, live-born, cephalic, non-anomalous pregnancies undergoing IOL from 38 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Mode of delivery and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women aged ≥35 (AMA) and <35 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.A total of 307 nulliparous women underwent IOL (≥35 years n = 73, 23.8%; <35 years n = 234, 76.2%) and among them, 252 (82.1%) delivered vaginally. The rate of CD was significantly higher in women of AMA (31.5% vs 13.7%, P = .001). Multivariable analysis showed that AMA was independently associated with CD (odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.96, P = .001). The rate of instrumental deliveries was higher in the AMA group (19.6% vs 8.2%, P = .043) and hemoglobin decrease during delivery was similar between the 2 groups (1.90 ±â€Š1.25 vs 2.02 ±â€Š1.27 mg/dL, all P > .05). Regarding neonatal outcomes, there was no difference between the 2 groups in the neonatal intensive care unit admission rate and Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes (30.3% vs 30.1% and 6.0% vs 8.2%, respectively, all P > .05). Neonatal intubation rate and severe respiratory problems were non-significantly higher in AMA (3.8% vs 2.7% and 3.4% vs 1.4%, respectively, all P > .05).AMA was associated with an approximately three-fold increased likelihood of birth by CD and operative vaginal delivery in uncomplicated nulliparous women following IOL. However, we found no evidence that IOL in primigravid women of AMA increases adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as compared with women aged <35 years except the high prevalence of CD and operative vaginal delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120456, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379123

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies on COVID-19 and pregnancy have reported higher rates of cesarean delivery and preterm birth and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional data encompassing a longer time period are needed. Objective: To examine characteristics and outcomes of a large US cohort of women who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study compared characteristics and outcomes of women (age ≥18 years) who underwent childbirth with vs without COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021, at 499 US academic medical centers or community affiliates. Follow-up was limited to in-hospital course and discharge destination. Childbirth was defined by clinical classification software procedural codes of 134-137. A diagnosis of COVID-19 was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of U07.1. Data were analyzed from April 1 to April 30, 2021. Exposures: The presence of a COVID-19 diagnosis using ICD-10. Main Outcomes and Measures: Analyses compared demographic characteristics, gestational age, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and discharge status. Continuous variables were analyzed using t test, and categorical variables were analyzed using χ2. Results: Among 869 079 women, 18 715 (2.2%) had COVID-19, and 850 364 (97.8%) did not. Most women were aged 18 to 30 years (11 550 women with COVID-19 [61.7%]; 447 534 women without COVID-19 [52.6%]) and were White (8060 White women [43.1%] in the COVID-19 cohort; 499 501 White women (58.7%) in the non-COVID-19 cohort). There was no significant increase in cesarean delivery among women with COVID-19 (6088 women [32.5%] vs 273 810 women [32.3%]; P = .57). Women with COVID-19 were more likely to have preterm birth (3072 women [16.4%] vs 97 967 women [11.5%]; P < .001). Women giving birth with COVID-19, compared with women without COVID-19, had significantly higher rates of ICU admission (977 women [5.2%] vs 7943 women [0.9%]; odds ratio [OR], 5.84 [95% CI, 5.46-6.25]; P < .001), respiratory intubation and mechanical ventilation (275 women [1.5%] vs 884 women [0.1%]; OR, 14.33 [95% CI, 12.50-16.42]; P < .001), and in-hospital mortality (24 women [0.1%] vs 71 [<0.01%]; OR, 15.38 [95% CI, 9.68-24.43]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective cohort study found that women with COVID-19 giving birth had higher rates of mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and preterm birth than women without COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013321, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many women experience fear of childbirth (FOC). While fears about childbirth may be normal during pregnancy, some women experience high to severe FOC. At the extreme end of the fear spectrum is tocophobia, which is considered a specific condition that may cause distress, affect well-being during pregnancy and impede the transition to parenthood. Various interventions have been trialled, which support women to reduce and manage high to severe FOC, including tocophobia. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing fear of childbirth (FOC) compared with standard maternity care in pregnant women with high to severe FOC, including tocophobia. SEARCH METHODS: In July 2020, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and reference lists of retrieved studies. We contacted researchers of trials which were registered and appeared to be ongoing. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials which recruited pregnant women with high or severe FOC (as defined by the individual trial), for treatment intended to reduce FOC. Two review authors independently screened and selected titles and abstracts for inclusion. We excluded quasi-randomised and cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological approaches as recommended by Cochrane. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the studies for risk of bias. A third review author checked the data analysis for accuracy. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. The primary outcome was a reduction in FOC. Secondary outcomes were caesarean section, depression, birth preference for caesarean section or spontaneous vaginal delivery, and epidural use. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 1357 participants. The interventions included psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy, group discussion, peer education and art therapy. We judged four studies as high or unclear risk of bias in terms of allocation concealment; we judged three studies as high risk in terms of incomplete outcome data; and in all studies, there was a high risk of bias due to lack of blinding. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence due to concerns about risk of bias, imprecision and inconsistency. None of the studies reported data about women's anxiety. Participating in non-pharmacological interventions may reduce levels of fear of childbirth, as measured by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ), but the reduction may not be clinically meaningful (mean difference (MD) -7.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) -12.19 to -1.97; 7 studies, 828 women; low-certainty evidence). The W-DEQ tool is scored from 0 to 165 (higher score = greater fear). Non-pharmacological interventions probably reduce the number of women having a caesarean section (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89; 5 studies, 557 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference between non-pharmacological interventions and usual care in depression scores measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (MD 0.09, 95% CI -1.23 to 1.40; 2 studies, 399 women; low-certainty evidence). The EPDS tool is scored from 0 to 30 (higher score = greater depression). Non-pharmacological interventions probably lead to fewer women preferring a caesarean section (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.89; 3 studies, 276 women; moderate-certainty evidence).  Non-pharmacological interventions may increase epidural use compared with usual care, but the 95% CI includes the possibility of a slight reduction in epidural use (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.48; 2 studies, 380 women; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of non-pharmacological interventions for women with high to severe fear of childbirth in terms of reducing fear is uncertain. Fear of childbirth, as measured by W-DEQ, may be reduced but it is not certain if this represents a meaningful clinical reduction of fear. There may be little or no difference in depression, but there may be a reduction in caesarean section delivery. Future trials should recruit adequate numbers of women and measure birth satisfaction and anxiety.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Analgesia Epidural/psicologia , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgesia Obstétrica/psicologia , Analgesia Obstétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia pela Arte , Viés , Cesárea/psicologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933831, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219126

RESUMO

During the global COVID-19 pandemic, data from clinical studies, systematic review, and population registry data have shown that when compared with non-pregnant women, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a small increase in risk to the mother. Large cohort studies and registry data collected from 2020 have included the US Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), COVI-PREG, the UK and Global Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes in COVID-19 (PAN-COVID) study, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (SONPM) National Perinatal COVID-19 Registry, the Swedish Pregnancy Register, and the Canadian Surveillance of COVID-19 in Pregnancy (CANCOVID-Preg) registry. Recently published data have shown that most maternal infections with SARS-CoV-2 occur during the third trimester and result in a small increase in hospital admission, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, preterm birth, and increased cesarean sections in mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, currently approved vaccines given in pregnancy result in an immune response to current SARS-CoV-2 variants. Transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to the fetus can occur, but the immediate and long-term effects on the newborn infant remain unclear. Therefore, women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should be managed according to current clinical guidelines with timely vaccination to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2. This Editorial summarizes what is currently known about maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and pregnancy outcomes from multinational studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199338

RESUMO

The fecal metabolome in early life has seldom been studied. We investigated its evolution in pre-term babies during their first weeks of life. Multiple (n = 152) stool samples were studied from 51 babies, all <32 weeks gestation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Data were interpreted using Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution System (AMDIS) with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference library. Statistical analysis was based on linear mixed modelling, the number of VOCs increased over time; a rise was mainly observed between day 5 and day 10. The shift at day 5 was associated with products of branched-chain fatty acids. Prior to this, the metabolome was dominated by aldehydes and acetic acid. Caesarean delivery showed a modest association with molecules of fungal origin. This study shows how the metabolome changes in early life in pre-term babies. The shift in the metabolome 5 days after delivery coincides with the establishment of enteral feeding and the transition from meconium to feces. Great diversity of metabolites was associated with being fed greater volumes of milk.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Microextração em Fase Sólida
8.
Acta Med Port ; 34(4): 266-271, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placenta accreta spectrum disorders are among the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality and their prevalence is likely to increase in the future. The risk of placenta accreta spectrum disorders is highest in cases of placenta previa overlying a previous cesarean section scar. Few studies have evaluated placenta accreta spectrum disorders in Portugal. The aim of this study was to review the cases of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar managed in a Portuguese tertiary center over the last decade. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, with data collected from hospital databases. Only cases with histopathological confirmation of placenta accreta spectrum were included. RESULTS: During the study period, 15 cases of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar were diagnosed (prevalence 0.6/1000). All cases were diagnosed antenatally. A transverse cesarean section was present in all cases; 13 were managed by a scheduled multidisciplinary approach, while two required emergent management. Total or subtotal hysterectomy was performed in 12 cases. There were no cases of maternal or neonatal death. Histopathological evaluation confirmed nine cases of placenta accreta, three cases of placenta increta and three cases of placenta percreta. DISCUSSION: Early antenatal diagnosis is important for a programmed multidisciplinary management of these cases, which may reduce potential morbidity and mortality and ensure better obstetric outcomes. CONCLUSION: This case series of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar reports the reality of a tertiary-care perinatal center in Portugal, in which no maternal or neonatal mortality due to placenta accreta spectrum was registered over the last decade; this may be attributed to prenatal diagnosis and a coordinated multidisciplinary team approach.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cicatriz , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Recém-Nascido , Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Placenta Acreta/cirurgia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(7): 408-411, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our hospital used to perform cesarean delivery under general anesthesia rather than neuraxial anesthesia, mostly because of patient refusal of members of the conservative Bedouin society. According to recommendations implemented by the Israeli Obstetric Anesthesia Society, which were implemented due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we increased the rate of neuraxial anesthesia among deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the rates of neuraxial anesthesia in our cesarean population before and during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: We included consecutive women undergoing an elective cesarean delivery from two time periods: pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (15 February 2019 to 14 April 2019) and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (15 February 2020 to 15 April 2020). We collected demographic data, details about cesarean delivery, and anesthesia complications. RESULTS: We included 413 parturients undergoing consecutive elective cesarean delivery identified during the study periods: 205 before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and 208 during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We found a statistically significant difference in neuraxial anesthesia rates between the groups: before the pandemic (92/205, 44.8%) and during (165/208, 79.3%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that patient and provider education about neuraxial anesthesia can increase its utilization. The addition of a trained obstetric anesthesiologist to the team may have facilitated this transition.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Obstétrica , Cesárea , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Adulto , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/psicologia , Anestesia por Condução/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestesia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/psicologia , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Salas de Parto/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Israel/epidemiologia , Inovação Organizacional , Gravidez , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/etnologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD014484, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol given orally is a commonly used labour induction method. Our Cochrane Review is restricted to studies with low-dose misoprostol (initially ≤ 50 µg), as higher doses pose unacceptably high risks of uterine hyperstimulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral misoprostol for labour induction in women with a viable fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov,  the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (14 February 2021) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing low-dose oral misoprostol (initial dose ≤ 50 µg) versus placebo, vaginal dinoprostone, vaginal misoprostol, oxytocin, or mechanical methods; or comparing oral misoprostol protocols (one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly; 20 µg to 25 µg versus 50 µg; or 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using Covidence, two review authors independently screened reports, extracted trial data, and performed quality assessments. Our primary outcomes were vaginal birth within 24 hours, caesarean section, and hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 trials involving 20,026 women. GRADE assessments ranged from moderate- to very low-certainty evidence, with downgrading decisions based on imprecision, inconsistency, and study limitations. Oral misoprostol versus placebo/no treatment (four trials; 594 women) Oral misoprostol may make little to no difference in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.11; 4 trials; 594 women; moderate-certainty evidence), while its effect on uterine hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 5.15, 95% CI 0.25 to 105.31; 3 trials; 495 women; very low-certainty evidence). Vaginal births within 24 hours was not reported. In all trials, oxytocin could be commenced after 12 to 24 hours and all women had pre-labour ruptured membranes. Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone (13 trials; 9676 women) Oral misoprostol probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.90; 13 trials, 9676 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicated that 10 µg to 25 µg (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87; 9 trials; 8652 women) may differ from 50 µg (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.34; 4 trials; 1024 women) for caesarean section. Oral misoprostol may decrease vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.00; 10 trials; 8983 women; low-certainty evidence) and hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.59; 11 trials; 9084 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus vaginal misoprostol (33 trials; 6110 women) Oral use may result in fewer vaginal births within 24 hours (average RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 16 trials, 3451 women; low-certainty evidence), and less hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92, 25 trials, 4857 women, low-certainty evidence), with subgroup analysis suggesting that 10 µg to 25 µg orally (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57; 6 trials, 957 women) may be superior to 50 µg orally (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11; 19 trials; 3900 women). Oral misoprostol probably does not increase caesarean sections overall (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.16; 32 trials; 5914 women; low-certainty evidence) but likely results in fewer caesareans for foetal distress (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99; 24 trials, 4775 women). Oral misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (6 trials; 737 women, 200 with ruptured membranes) Misoprostol may make little or no difference to vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33; 3 trials; 466 women; low-certainty evidence), but probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.90; 6 trials; 737 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect on hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.19 to 2.26; 3 trials, 331 women; very low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus mechanical methods (6 trials; 2993 women) Six trials compared oral misoprostol to transcervical Foley catheter. Misoprostol may increase vaginal birth within 24 hours (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.79; 4 trials; 1044 women; low-certainty evidence), and probably reduces the risk of caesarean section (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95; 6 trials; 2993 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.21; 4 trials; 2828 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly (1 trial; 64 women) The evidence on hourly titration was very uncertain due to the low numbers reported. Oral misoprostol 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static (2 trials; 296 women) The difference in regimen may have little or no effect on the rate of vaginal births in 24 hours (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.16; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is of very low certainty for all other reported outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose oral misoprostol is probably associated with fewer caesarean sections (and therefore more vaginal births) than vaginal dinoprostone, and lower rates of hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes. However, time to birth may be increased, as seen by a reduced number of vaginal births within 24 hours. Compared to transcervical Foley catheter, low-dose oral misoprostol is associated with fewer caesarean sections, but equivalent rates of hyperstimulation. Low-dose misoprostol given orally rather than vaginally is probably associated with similar rates of vaginal birth, although rates may be lower within the first 24 hours. However, there is likely less hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes, and fewer caesarean sections performed due to foetal distress. The best available evidence suggests that low-dose oral misoprostol probably has many benefits over other methods for labour induction. This review supports the use of low-dose oral misoprostol for induction of labour, and demonstrates the lower risks of hyperstimulation than when misoprostol is given vaginally. More trials are needed to establish the optimum oral misoprostol regimen, but these findings suggest that a starting dose of 25 µg may offer a good balance of efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravaginal , Administração Oral , Índice de Apgar , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinoprostona/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Parto , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104300

RESUMO

Introduction: vital sign monitoring is a key component of safe facility-based obstetric care. We aimed to assess quality of care around vital sign monitoring during obstetric hospitalizations in a tertiary-care facility in a resource-limited setting. Methods: retrospective review of obstetric records at a tertiary care facility. We assessed documentation of vital signs including fetal and maternal heart rate, and maternal blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation and urine output. The primary outcome was the quality of vital sign monitoring (high- versus low-quality based on frequency of monitoring). We compared quality of monitoring with timing of admission, presence of complication, and delivery mode using chi-squared tests. Results: among 360 records of obstetric admissions (94% of a planned random sample), 96% documented a delivery. Of these, 8% of pregnant women and 11% of postpartum women had high-quality vital sign monitoring documented on initial evaluation at admission. For women delivering during the hospitalization, 0.8% of women delivering had high-quality monitoring in the first four hours postpartum, with higher rates of high-quality monitoring in women delivering vaginally compared to those delivered by cesarean (1.4% versus 0%, p<0.001). There were no differences in rates of quality monitoring by time of admission, or obstetric complication. Conclusion: very few obstetric hospitalizations had high-quality vital sign monitoring. Attention towards improving vital sign monitoring is a critical need.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Hospitalização , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sinais Vitais , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Uganda
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20200319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe characteristics of pregnant women at risk and analyze the relationship with type of delivery and complications during pregnancy and puerperium. METHODS: a retrospective study with secondary data of 1,574 at-risk pregnant women followed up in an educational intervention by telemedicine. RESULTS: pregnant women with an average age of 35 years and high educational level participated. Preference for normal delivery was 43.1%, but only 17.3% had normal delivery. During pregnancy, 43.5% sought emergency care. In the postpartum period, 2.0% needed an ICU. Emergency room search was associated with age and contacts with the intervention. Cesarean delivery was associated with age, physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. ICU admission was associated with age and BMI. CONCLUSION: pregnant women were of high age and education, the younger and who had more contacts with the intervention sought more the emergency room. Older age, physical inactivity and overweight/obesity were factors associated with cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20200397, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between early pregnant hospitalization and the use of obstetric interventions and cesarean delivery route. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 758 women selected at the time of childbirth. It was assumed as early hospitalization when the woman was admitted to the hospital having less than 6 cm of cervical dilation. Logistic regression models were constructed in order to estimate the odds ratio for each obstetric intervention, adjusted by sociodemographic and obstetric variables. RESULTS: 73.22% of women were early hospitalized. On average, they had 1.97 times the chance to undergo Kristeller's maneuver, 2.59 and 1.80 times the chance to receive oxytocin infusion and analgesia, respectively, and 8 times more chances to having their children by cesarean delivery when compared to women that had timely hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Early hospitalized women were submitted to a higher number of obstetric intervention and had increased chances of undergoing cesarean sections.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Enfermagem Obstétrica , Parto , Gravidez
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122699

RESUMO

Introduction: emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is a high-impact priority intervention strongly recommended for improving maternal health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to assess the availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in the Governorate of Sousse (Tunisia). Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among public health facilities which performed deliveries in Sousse in 2017. Data were collected by consulting clinical records and registers and interviewing staff using WHO EmOC tools. Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) indicators were calculated. Results: only the University maternity Unit functioned as full comprehensive EmOC facility. No other public facility provided all the 7 Basic EmOC signal functions 3 months prior to the survey. The unperformed signal functions were: administration of parenteral antibiotics, manual removal of placenta and assisted vaginal delivery. The number of EmOC facilities was 0.72 per 500,000 inhabitants. The met need for EmOC was 89.5%. The proportion of caesarean section was 24.2%. The direct obstetric case fatality rate was 0.159% and intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate was 0.65%. Conclusion: raising maternity facilities to a minimum level of basic EmOC status would be a major contributing step towards maternal mortality reduction.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Mortalidade Materna , Obstetrícia/normas , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Tunísia
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 351, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yoga can reduce the risk of preterm delivery, cesarean section (CS), and fetal death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Yoga on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This was a clinical trial study and using the random sampling without replacement 70 pregnant women entered Hatha Yoga and control groups according to the color of the ball they took from a bag containing two balls (blue or red). The data collection tool was a questionnaire pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes. The intervention in this study included pregnancy Hatha Yoga exercises that first session of pregnancy Yoga started from the 26th week and samples attended the last session in the 37th week. They exercised Yoga twice a week (each session lasting 75 min) in a Yoga specialized sports club. The control group received the routine prenatal care that all pregnant women receive. RESULTS: The results showed that yoga reduced the induction of labor, the episiotomy rupture, duration of labor, also had a significant effect on normal birth weight and delivery at the appropriate gestational age. There were significant differences between the first and second Apgar scores of the infants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study showed that Yoga can improve the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth. They can be used as part of the care protocol along with childbirth preparation classes to reduce the complications of pregnancy and childbirth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20180623040197N2 (2019-02-11).


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ioga , Adolescente , Adulto , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Paridade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25505, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The argument on the efficacy of medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutritional care remains to be resolved. Therefore, we conducted this protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy between medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutritional care for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration to conduct this study. Reviewers will search the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE online databases using the key phrases "gestational diabetes mellitus," "comprehensive nutrition care," and "medical nutritional therapy" for all cohort studies published up to May 20, 2021. There is no restriction in the dates of publication or language in the search for the current review. The studies on cohort study focusing on comparing medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutrition care for GDM patients will be included in our meta-analysis. The outcomes include blood glucose levels, complications, weight change, and incidence of cesarean section. Where disagreement in the collection of data occurrs, this will be resolved through discussion. RESULTS: We hypothesized that these 2 methods would provide similar therapeutic benefits. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/SC8HJ.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Dieta Saudável , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Período Pós-Prandial , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 378, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physiological changes during pregnancy put pregnant women at higher risk for COVID-19 complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes of 24 COVID-19 pregnant patients and their newborns referred to the Al-Zahra tertiary maternity hospital in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: Clinical records of 24 COVID-19 confirmed pregnant patients were retrospectively reviewed from10 March 2020 to 15 April 2020. Vertical transition was assessed through neonatal pharyngeal swab samples. The study has been approved by the Tabriz University Medical Ethics Committee (IR.TBZMED.REC.1399.497). RESULTS: There were 24 hospitalized cases with clinical symptoms and confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The mean age of cases was 26.5 years; most were nulliparous (54.2%), in their third trimester (62.5%) and were in the type A blood group. Clinical symptoms in order of prevalence were cough, fever, dyspnea, myalgia, anosmia, and diarrhea. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) in 70.8% cases was in the normal range (greater than 93%). The risk of premature labor or abortion in cases showed no increase. 12 cases were in ongoing normal status; on follow up, 11 cases had delivered their babies at term and one had ended in IUFD because of pregnancy-induced hypertension. All delivered babies were healthy. Caesarean section in all cases was performed under obstetric indications or maternal demand, and no relation was found between COVID-19 and Caesarean delivery. Neonatal outcomes according to gestational age in 8 cases out of 11 (72.72%) were desirable; neonatal morbidity and mortality resulted from pregnancy complications. Blood pH in 6 neonates was assessed due to immaturity and NICU admission, all of which were in normal ranges except one case related to HELLP syndrome. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that clinical symptoms in pregnancy were similar to non-pregnant women, no rise in risk of premature labor or abortion was seen, and vertical transmission was not observed in none of cases. Lymphopenia was the leading laboratory change. Given asymptomatic cases despite severe forms of infection in pregnancies, we propose screening in all suspected cases. All placentas and newborns should be tested in the field for vertical transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Oxigênio/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(8): 1439-1444, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data from the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry concerning pregnancies in the period 2010-2015 were used to investigate the association between the preconception clinical status and perinatal outcomes of women with cystic fibrosis (CF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessed clinical variables were genotype, age at the time of conception, body mass index (BMI) and the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (ppFEV1 ). The analyzed outcomes were gestational age, birthweight and the frequency of cesarean deliveries. A generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) was used to evaluate the association between type of delivery and age at the time of becoming pregnant, BMI, ppFEV1 and gestational age. Robust multivariable regression was used to evaluate the relation between gestational age and age at the time of becoming pregnant, BMI and ppFEV1 . Multivariable linear regression was performed to verify association between birthweight and BMI, and ppFEV1 . RESULTS: Complete information concerning mother and child was available for 56 completed pregnancies. Median age at the time of conception was 30.8 years (range: 18.7-42.3); median BMI was 21.5 kg/m2 (range: 16.5-26.8); and median ppFEV1 was 73.9 (range: 30-128). In all, 31 women (55.36%) had a genotype consisting of two CF-causing variants. Eight were homozygous for the F508del mutation (14.28% of the total). The median duration of pregnancy was 37 weeks (range: 31-41) and the frequency of prematurity (<37 weeks of gestational age) was 28.30%. Median birthweight was 2910 g (range: 1300-3650). The overall frequency of cesarean sections was 63.64%. A low preconception ppFEV1 was associated with prematurity (p = 0.014), and birthweight was positively related to ppFEV1 (p = 0.04). There was no association between the clinical variables or gestational age and the type of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal preconceptional respiratory function correlates with the duration of pregnancy and the birthweight of newborns. Cesarean deliveries are also frequent among young women with CF with normal respiratory function.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bull Hist Med ; 95(1): 24-52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967103

RESUMO

This article traces the historical processes by which Brazil became a world leader in cesarean sections. It demonstrates that physicians changed their position toward and use of different obstetric surgeries, in particular embryotomies and cesarean sections, over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The authors demonstrate that Catholic obstetricians, building upon both advancements in cesarean section techniques and new civil legislation that gave some personhood to fetuses, began arguing that fetal life was on par with its maternal counterpart in the early twentieth century, a shift that had a lasting impact on obstetric practice for decades to come. In the second half of the twentieth century, cesarean sections proliferated in clinical practice, but abortions remained illegal. Most importantly, women remained patients to be worked on rather than active participants in their reproductive lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/história , Cesárea/história , Obstetrícia/história , Aborto Induzido/tendências , Brasil , Catolicismo , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/tendências , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(6): e128-e144, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011890

RESUMO

Obstetrician-gynecologists are the leading experts in the health care of women, and obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity in women is such a common condition that the implications relative to pregnancy often are unrecognized, overlooked, or ignored because of the lack of specific evidence-based treatment options. The management of obesity requires long-term approaches ranging from population-based public health and economic initiatives to individual nutritional, behavioral, or surgical interventions. Therefore, an understanding of the management of obesity during pregnancy is essential, and management should begin before pregnancy and continue through the postpartum period. Although the care of the obese woman during pregnancy requires the involvement of the obstetrician or other obstetric care professional, additional health care professionals, such as nutritionists, can offer specific expertise related to management depending on the comfort level of the obstetric care professional. The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to offer an integrated approach to the management of obesity in women of reproductive age who are planning a pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/normas , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Anestesia Obstétrica/normas , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade Materna/complicações , Obesidade Materna/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Natimorto , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Ganho de Peso
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